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THE 

CAMBRIDGE 
MODERN HISTORY 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

iLonrion: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 



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THE 

CAMBRIDGE 
MODERN HISTORY 



PLANNED BY 

THE LATE LORD ACTON LL.D. 

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY 



EDITED BY 

A. W. WARD LiTT.D. 

G. W. PROTHERO LiTT.D. 

STANLEY LEATHES M.A ( ^ ' 



^1 V *6 



VOLUME XIII 

GENEALOGICAL TABLES AND LISTS 

AND 

GENERAL INDEX 



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flt\xs gorfe 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

1911 



Cambrtogc : 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 


AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 


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V 15 



First puhlithtd 191 J 



PREFACE. 

THIS Volume contains a series of Genealogical Tables and ListSy the 
purpose and character of which are described in some preliminary 
remarks prefixed to this section, and a General Index to the twelve 
preceding Volumes, arranged on principles stated in a brief explanatory 
note. 

The Genealogical Tables and Lists have been mainly prepared by 
Miss Alice D. Greenwood, Somerville College, Oxford ; valuable help 
has also been given by Mr H. G. Aldis, M.A., Peterhouse, Secretary 
of the University Library. The General Index has been compiled by 
Miss Alice M. Cooke, M.A., formerly of the Acton Department of 
the University Library, Cambridge, now Lecturer in History at the 
University of Leeds, with the assistance of Miss Greenwood and 
Mrs Quiggin. We desire to acknowledge with cordial thanks the aid 
thus received in bringing our work to its completion. 

It has been thought desirable to insert in this Volume four pages of 
which the proper place is at the close of the second paragraph on 
page 342 of Vol. vi of this work, where they will be inserted in future 
editions. We have to thank Mr E. A. Benians, M.A., of St John's 
College, for supplying at our request a gap inadvertently left in the 
Volume in question, 

A. W. W. 
G. W. P. 
S. L. 

July, 1911. 



vu 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 
Prefacb •••.•• V 

Addendum to Page 342 of Vol. VI ..... . ix 

Genealogical Tables and Lists .,....- 1 

General Index . « , . 207 



(Addendum to p. 342 of Vol. VI.) 

NAVAL OPERATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF THE 
SEVEN YEARS' WAR. 

The failure of Washington (1754) and of Braddock (1755) to check 
the advance of the French on the Ohio obliged the British Government 
to despatch reinforcements to America. With the counter-preparations 
of the French for the defence of Canada the naval war really began. 
Boscawen >vas sent to intercept the French reinforcements off Louisburg 
(April, 1755); and, sighting the enemy in the mouth of the St Lawrence 
(June 10), he captured two vessels. The remainder eluded him in 
a fog and reached Quebec. In July, Hawke was ordered to cruise in 
the Bay of Biscay to prevent the union of the French Atlantic and 
Mediterranean fleets and the return of the American squadron to 
Brest. His instructions were extended to include the seizure of French 
merchantmen, and, in the course of three months, 300 vessels with 
6000 sailors were brought into British ports. All this preceded the 
formal declaration of war. The French had good reason for delaying 
it : they were making secret preparations, which were not complete, for 
delivering a blow in the Mediterranean. The British Government failed 
to divine their object, and suspected that a descent on England or an 
expedition to America was intended. At last. Sir John Byng was 
despatched with ten sail of the line to prevent the Toulon squadron 
passing the Straits and to defend Minorca (April 6, 1756). At Gibraltar 
he learned that Port Mahon had already been surprised and invested. 
Arriving oiF Minorca, he found a French fleet equal to his own in 
numbers, and superior in weight and men. After an indecisive engage- 
ment, in which several of his vessels suffered considerable damage, he 
decided to leave Minorca to its fate and to withdraw for the protection 
of Gibraltar. There he was superseded by Hawke, and on his return 
home was court-martialled and sentenced to death for neglect of duty 
(January, 1757). In the existing temper of the country, discouraged by 
reports of disasters from America, the Government dared not pardon his 
excessive caution ; although, had it shown more foresight and energy, 
he would never have been placed in difficulties which he had not the 
qualities of character to overcome. The surrender of Port Mahon, 
which followed (June 28), did not much change the situation. It was 
not for Minorca, but for America and India, that the War was being 
waged; and, while Great Britain possessed Gibraltar, the loss of 
Minorca did little to weaken her at the seats of war. 

The ministerial changes in England, which gave Pitt a controlling 
voice in British policy, led to a concentration on a vigorous offensive 
against the French colonies, combined with the support of Frederick in 
the continental war by means of money subsidies, military operations, 
and naval diversions on the French coast. In America the British object 
was the conquest of Canada. The gateway to Canada was Louisburg, 

c. M, H. VI. pp. 342 a, b, c, d. 



84:2J Attacks on Louisburg, — Canada, [1757-8 

a powerful fortress on Cape Breton Isle, at once the first line of Canada's 
defence and a perpetual menace to New England. From Louisburg, 
the French carried on the cod-fishery, reinforced themselves in America, 
and harboured the privateers which, in time of war, preyed on British 
trade. In 1757, Quebec was to be assailed both by way of Lake 
Champlain and of the St Lawrence — from the latter direction by 
a force under the command of the Earl of Loudoun, whose first work 
was to be the capture of Louisburg. Vice-Admiral Holbume, with 
seventeen sail of the line, escorted the expedition from Halifax (July). 
But the French concentrated their squadrons for the defence of the 
island and had a superiority of one ship. In the circumstances, Holbume 
hesitated to attack, and the attempt was abandoned. The autumn of 
the same year saw another discouraging failure. In order to distract 
the French from their operations in America and Germany, an expedi- 
tion against Rochefort was planned. Sir John Mordaunt commanded 
the troops, Hawke the accompanying fleet. But, ignorant of the locality, 
the generals failed to form a plan which promised success, and the force 
returned without having struck a blow. 

In 1758, the attack on Louisburg was renewed. To ensure success, it 
was necessary to prevent the French from again concentrating a fleet for 
its defence. La Clue was waiting in Cartagena for reinforcements from 
Toulon, with which he hoped to pass the Straits and make for America. 
Osborne skilfully intercepted and dispersed the Toulon squadron 
(February), while Hawke attacked the French off" the lie d'Aix (March) 
and prevented the formation of a fleet in the Biscay ports. At the same 
time, Boscawen with a large squadron covered the operations of Amherst 
and Wolfe ; and in July the great fortress surrendered. Meanwhile, 
Frederick was urging the British Government to create a diversion in 
his favour by a descent on the enemy's coast. The temporary dispersal 
of the French fleets rendered this possible, and in May a force was 
collected in the Isle of Wight. Pitt's intention was to take and hold 
St Malo, and thus compel the French to withdraw troops from the 
Rhine to their northern coast. But, though St Malo was pillaged and 
Cherbourg attacked, no substantial result was achieved. On a second 
attempt in August, Cherbourg, " that most galling thorn in the side of 
British commerce," was taken, and the forts destroyed; but a third 
attempt on St Malo in September was repulsed with heavy loss. The 
incapacity or unwisdom of the commanders and the preparations of the 
French prevented these operations from succeeding, though as a diversion 
they contributed to the victories in America, where not only Louisburg, 
but also Forts Frontenac and Duquesne, fell to the British. 

To the French it was now evident that, in the struggle for the 
mastery of the sea, Great Britain was gaining the upper hand, and that 
the loss of Louisburg — the first great blow dealt to them during the 
War — had exposed Canada to imminent danger. Only a vigorous 



ii58-9]ProJectedinvasion of England -Boscawen,Hawhe, 342c 

counter-stroke at the heart of the enemy, which would affect his financial 
stability and prestige and distract him from distant enterprises, could 
change the aspect of affairs. In the latter part of 1758, they boldly 
designed the invasion of England. A force of 50,000 was to be landed 
in Essex, another of 12,000 in Scotland, and a raid was to be made on 
the Irish coast. Transports were prepared in the Biscay and Channel 
ports, while at Toulon and Brest fleets were equipped, which were to 
unite and clear the way for the expedition. Pitt, while preparing to 
resist the attack at home, did not stay his hand in the colonies ; and 
his plans for the year included an attack on the French West Indies as 
well as the operations in Canada and India. Thus, in 1759, both sides 
assumed the offensive. 

The first act in the great disaster which overwhelmed the grand 
design of the French was begun in the Mediterranean. Boscawen, who 
was watching Toulon, was compelled to withdraw to Gibraltar for 
repairs. La Clue, seizing his opportunity, came out with twelve sail of 
the line. On August 17 he was detected in the Straits by a British 
frigate. Boscawen immediately gave chase. During the night. La duel's 
fleet divided, and five vessels took refuge in Cadiz. In the afternoon of 
the following day, the rear vessel of the remaining seven was overtaken 
and, after a desperate struggle, captured. Of the others, two escaped 
to the west, and four ran ashore between Lagos and Cape St Vincent, 
where the British, disregarding the neutrality of Portugal, destroyed 
two and captured two. This defeat deprived the French of any prospect 
of invading England, though they did not abandon the remainder of 
their plan. The second act was more prolonged, but in its issue more 
dramatic and decisive. In blockading the large fleet which was waiting 
in Brest, Hawke had a task which only his pertinacity could have carried 
through. His chief difficulties were to maintain his crews and ships in 
fighting condition and to hold his ground under all conditions of weather. 
He met the former by sending his ships, two or three at a time, to 
be cleaned and revictualled at Plymouth. But, with a westerly wind 
blowing, the blockading fleet was in danger of being driven on shore 
and was compelled to withdraw. Fortunately, the same conditions of 
weather made it impossible for the French to get out of port. Early 
in November, a tremendous gale drove the British fleet into Torbay, 
where it was detained for several days. Meanwhile, Bompart, returning 
from the West Indies, got into Brest, bringing battered ships but 
experienced sailors who were drafted into the waiting fleet. From him 
Conflans learnt of Hawke's absence, and accordingly determined to sail at 
once for Quiberon Bay, to overpower the frigates under Dufi^, which were 
cruising along the coast of southern Britanny, and to take up the troops 
at Morbihan. On the day of his departure from Brest (November 14), 
Hawke returned with twenty-three sail of the line and promptly started 
in pursuit. On the morning of the 20th, the French ships were sighted 



Si2d QuiberonBay-Grreat Britain supreme onthesea, [1759-62 

near Belle Isle. Conflans, surprised to find himself overtaken by a larger 
force, endeavoured to retreat into the Bay, trusting that the British would 
not venture on a stormy November afternoon to follow him into its 
treacherous waters. But Hawke bore down in pursuit, following the 
course of the French, and, within the contracted area of the Bay, among 
shoals and reefs, in the midst of a great storm, the Trafalgar of this War 
was fought. Seven of the French ships escaped into the Vilaine, nine 
to the Loire or to Rochefort, five were taken or destroyed. During the 
night two British ships struck on the rocks. It was the price of a 
crushing victory, which dispersed all fear of invasion and gave the 
command of the sea to Great Britain for the remainder of the War. 
Various fates befell the remnants of the great armament which had 
been prepared. Thurot, who escaped from Dunkirk with three ships, 
after visiting Sweden descended on the Irish coast early in 1760. 
He gained a small success at Carrickfergus, but was overtaken by 
Captain Eliot off the Isle of Man, and defeated and killed. Rodney 
destroyed the flat-bottomed boats at Havre; but the ships blockaded 
in the Vilaine slipped out one dark night and got safely into Brest ; 
and, with similar good fortune, the division of La Clue's fleet in Cadiz 
escaped to Toulon (January, 1761). 

During the remainder of the VV^ar, the British fleets maintained 
a grand blockade of the French coast from Dunkirk to Marseilles. 
They prevented the reunion of the scattered remnants of the French 
navy, covered the operations in Canada, paralysed French trade, and 
kept the coast towns in a constant state of alarm. At the same time, 
Great Britain achieved unparalleled success in the main undertakings 
which the containing naval operations covered. In 1759, Quebec fell to 
the brilliant genius of Wolfe ; in the West Indies Guadeloupe was taken, 
in Africa Goree ; in the East Indies much indecisive fighting ended in 
the withdrawal of the French fleet from Indian waters (October). In 
the following year the conquest of Canada was completed. Their com- 
mand of the sea gave the colony into the hands of the British. The 
slender British garrison at Quebec, outnumbered, defeated, and besieged, 
depended on reinforcements. These arrived (May 18), while those of the 
French were intercepted off the coast of New Brunswick (June 14). Thus, 
Quebec was held and Montreal taken. Further successes followed. In 
June, 1761, Belle Isle was captured ; in February, 1762, Rodney reduced 
the French sugar islands, first Martinique and afterwards St Lucia, 
Grenada, Tobago and St Vincent. When Spain joined in the War, her 
colonies became objects of attack ; and she lost Havana (August) and 
Manila (October) with the whole Philippine group. Supreme on the 
sea, Great Britain concentrated on colonial conquest; and, though in 
the last years of the war she lost many merchant vessels to the French 
privateers, she gained her great object— empire in east and west, resulting 
from and resting upon maritime power. 



I 

GENEALOGICAL TABLES AND LISTS 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 

The series of Tables and Lists here supplied consists, in the first 
instance, of Genealogical Tables of the sovereign families of European 
and certain other countries, together with Lists of elected potentates, 
within the period treated in The Cambridge Modern History. To these 
are added Genealogical Tables of certain noble houses, with Lists of 
chief ministers of great States, and of governors of important depend- 
encies and colonies, within the same period. Finally, Lists are given of 
English (and British) Parliaments and of Imperial Diets, together with 
one or two lists of a special kind adverted to below. 

These Tables and Lists are primarily intended as aids in the use 
of The Cambridge Modern History \ and no pretence is made that 
every one of them is complete in itself. It is, however, hoped that 
they will be found to supply the information likely to be required by 
a large proportion of students of modern history, and that no personage 
of any historical importance has been passed by in the table or list 
where his or her name ought to find a place. The Tables and Lists 
should throughout be used in conjunction with the General Index, 

Among the Genealogical Tables are included those of various families 
which were prominent in European Succession questions, or took a lead- 
ing part in the civil and religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Room has been found for Tables of certain other families of 
which various members are not easily identifiable in the usual books of 
reference. Thus, several notable Irish clans are given. On the other hand, 
it has not been thought necessary to include Tables of wellknown houses 
in the English and the Scottish nobility, which may be traced without 
difficulty in peerages or other handbooks. The Howard, Douglas, and 
Campbell families have, however, been exceptionally introduced, in order 
to draw attention to their political alliances; and, on much the same 
grounds, certain of the great ministerial families of the sixteenth and 
eighteenth centuries have been included. The Reding Table, which has 
been placed by the side of that of the De Retz family for the sake of 
convenience only, is intended to show a connexion not usually noticed. 



4 Genealegical Tables and Lists, 

As to order of sequence, the Tables and Lists have, so far as possible, 
been arranged under the heads of the countries to which they severally 
relate, beginning in each division with the British Empire. Here, the 
governors of the more important colonies only are given, the lists 
beginning ordinarily from the date when representative or responsible 
ministerial government was first set on foot in the several colonies. 

In the case of the German Genealogical Tables selection has not 
been easy, owing to the large number of sovereign families ; so far as 
possible, preference has been given to those of which prominent members 
are mentioned in the History. The Spanish Tables likewise required 
much compression, owing to exigencies of space. The identification of 
individuals is peculiarly difficult here, occasionally in consequence of a 
form of Spanish pride, which showed itself in the systematic suppression, 
in family genealogies, of members of the family who had " disgraced " it. 
Spanish titles usually descended to daughters as well as to sons; and 
records often only date from the creation of the Grandees of Spain onwards. 

An enumeration of the works used in the compilation of the Genea- 
logical Tables and for certain of the Lists would be in some respects 
misleading, but it may be of service to the student to direct his 
attention, among more recent publications, to A. Cohn's revised edition 
of T. G. VoigtePs Stammtafeln der Geschichte der europdischen Staaten, 
of which unfortunately only Vol. i (Germany and the Netherlands) has 
appeared (Brunswick, 1871); to Fernandez de Bethen court's Historia 
geneahgica y heraldica de la Monarquia Espanola (Vols, i-viii, Madrid, 
1897-1910, in progress) ; to Burgos' Blazon de Espana (Madrid, 1853- 
60) ; and to P. Litta's Famiglie Celebri Italiane (Milan, 1819 sqq., in 
progress). J. Hiibner's venerable Genealogische Tabellen, 4 vols. (1733- 
QQ) with Supplements (Copenhagen, 1822-4), have been put largely 
under contribution, together with Koch's Tables Genealogiques des 
Maisons souveraines de VEnrope (Strassburg, 1780), especially useful 
for Italy and France, and L. Moreri's Grand Dictionnaire historique^ 
particularly in the Spanish edition, 8 vols., Paris, 1753. 

The list of English Parliaments has been compiled from the data in 
the Journals of the two Houses (which often supplement each other), the 
Statutes of the Realm, and the Calendars of State Papers, compared with 
C. H. Parry's The Parliaments and Councils of England (1839) and other 
authorities. 

The List of Congresses and Conferences has been confined mainly to 
formal gatherings of plenipotentiaries of the chief European States, or of 
particular States negotiating with one another as to terms of peace and 
other objects of common interest ; but a few meetings between sovereigns 



Preliminary Remarks, 



mentioned in the earlier portions of this History, and a few meetings of 
representatives of particular opinions or interests in recent times, have 
been exceptionally included. 

The List of Leagues and Alliances is essentially a selected list. It 
might, of course, have been extended almost indefinitely in many periods 
of Modern History between the fifteenth and the twentieth century; 
the guiding consideration has in each case been the relative historical 
importance of the league or alliance mentioned, and its consequent 
mention in this work. Confederations of States formed on the basis 
of a written constitution have been consistently omitted. 

No List of General Councils has been inserted, the number of 
Councils acknowledged as such by the Western Church at large from the 
fifteenth century onwards being so small that an enumeration of them 
seemed unnecessary. On the other hand, a List of Secularised Bishoprics 
seemed desirable, in view of the difficulty in following the main territorial 
changes involved. It has not however proved possible to include the 
large list of Abbots and Abbesses of princely rank; the dates of 
the secularisation of their dominions may easily be ascertained from 
C. WolfTs Die unmittelharen Theile des ehemaligen romisch-deutschen 
Kaiserreiches, etc. (Berlin, 1873), or from other sources. 

The Lists of Congresses and Conferences and of Leagues and 
Alliances are expressly intended to be selections only ; from the former. 
Religious Colloquies have been excluded. 

Finally, the List of Universities has been restricted to Universities 
proper ; single Faculties as well as University Colleges, Academies, and 
similar institutions providing higher instruction being, for want of space, 
excluded. The list does not include Universities founded before 1450. 
Among the Universities of the United States of America, those are 
enumerated which report to the United States Bureau of Education 
and are included in its lists. Some of the more important Academies 
and Societies founded for the advance of learning and research are 
mentioned in Chapter xxiii of Vol. v of this History, 

Titles borne and offices held by persons mentioned in the Tables 
or Lists have been inserted only in so far as they seemed necessary 
for the purpose of identification. Fuller descriptions will often be 
found in the General Index, or in the Indexes of particular volumes. 

The spelling of names conforms so far as possible to the rules adopted 
in the compilation of the General Index, in view of the precedents set 
by the History itself. Christian names are Anglicised or left in their 
foreign form as in the hidex and the History, and foreign surnames are 
spelt as they are spelt there. Titles are given in English where English 

C. M. H. « 



6 Genealogical Tables and Lists, 

equivalents exist ; in the case of French titles, they are given in French 
(7>MC, etc.) from the French Revolution onwards, when they ceased to be 
territorial and became honorific only. 

In the Genealogical Tables^ 

Black type is used for crowned heads, Emperors and Kings — but 
not for those incidentally mentioned {e.g. as married) in Tables of other 
Houses. 

Small CAPrrALs are used for succession of minor territorial potentates, 
as Electors, Archdukes, etc., and for titles of a branch line in the table, 
in brackets, e.g. [Weimar]. 

Explanatory indications (of various kinds) are given in italics. 

Dates of accession are given only when necessary to avoid confusion — 
date of death alone is given when succession went from father to son, or 
from brother to brother, or is obvious without a date of accession. 

A reference to another table {see e.g. Table 100) signifies that a line 
not shown in the Table containing the reference continues in the Table 
referred to ; or that there is some other special reason for the reference. 



Preliminary Remarks. 



In the Tables and Lists use has been made of the following 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS. 



abd. 


for abdicated 


s. 


for 


son 


Abp. 


,j Archbishop 


Sec. 


3) 


Secretary 


Adm. 


„ Administrator 


s.p. 


f> 


sine prole {i.e. legitima), 


Archd. 


„ Archduke 






only inserted when some 


Archdss. 


i, Archduchess 






importance attaches to 


b. 


„ born 






the fact 


Bp. 


ji Bishop 


Visct. 


fi 


Viscount 


C. Ctss. 


y. County Countess 


wid. wdr. 


3} 


widow, widower 


Capt. 


„ Captain 


(1)(2)(3) 


if 


placed next to the name 


Card. 


„ Cardinal 






of a person, signifies the 


Col. 


,f Colonel 






ordinal among his or her 


Cons. 


„ Consort 






marriages of that noted 


cr. 


f, created 






in the table (e.g. Henry 


D. Dss. 


„ Duke, Duchess 






VIII(6)=(3)Cath.Parr). 


dau. 


,, daughter 






If placed above a name. 


dep. 


ff deposed 






(1) (2) indicates child of 


div. 


yy divorced 






first or second marriage 


Dow. 


yy Dowager 


l,^(ital.] 


1 


above name indicates order 


E. Ctss. 


,, Earl, Countess 






of birth (used where this 


El. 


yy Elector 






is altered in the order of 


Emp. 


„ Emperor 






printing, for the sake of 


Empss. 


„ Empress 






convenience) 


ex. 


„ executed 


= 


for married 


G. D. 


fy Grand Duke 


t 


» 


died 


Gen. 


yy General 


HZ 


» 


4 generations (and so with 


Gov. 


yy Governor 


= 




other numbers) 


K. 


» King 




99 


lapse of several genera- 


Lgr. 


,y Landgrave 






tions, not specified 


Lieut. 


„ Lieutenant 


^ 


»f 


descendants not here shown 


Lt.-Gen. 


„ Lieutenant-General 


...-,.„ 


i) 


illegitimate 


Lt.-Gov. 


„ Lieutenant-Governor 


( ) 




enclosing title, signifies, in 


M. 


y, Marquis or Margrave 






the Tables, that this was 


morg. 


y, morganatic 






acquired after marriage ; 


Mss. 


„ Marchioness 






enclosing a lower title, it 


murd. 


y, murdered 






means that this is the 


P. Pss. 


„ Prince, Princess 






title generally used; in 


Pal. 


„ Palatine 






the Lists, that the date 


Pres. 


yy President 






of its acquisition was 


Q. 


„ Queen 






after that of appoint- 


ren. 


„ renounced claim 






ment to the office in 


rest. 


y, restored 






question 



GENEALOGICAL TABLES AND LISTS. 



Part I. Genealogical Tables of Ruling and Noble Houses. 



A. The British Empire. 



Table 


1 


ff 


2 


33 


3 


S3 


4 


33 


5 


33 


6 


33 


7 


33 


8 


33 


9 


33 


10 


S3 


11 


33 


12 


33 


13 


33 


14 


33 


15 


93 


16 


33 


17 


33 


18 


33 


19 


33 


20 


33 


21 


B. France. 


Table 22 


33 


23 


33 


24 


93 


25 


93 


26 


93 


27 


93 


28 


93 


29 


93 


30 



Houses of Tudor in England and of Stewart in Scotland. (The 

Tudor and the Stewart Succession.) 
House of Stewart. 
The English Succession, 1714. 
Hanover line. 

Saxe-Coburg and -Gotha line. 
Grey, Seymour and Dudley. 
Howard and Dacre. 
Devereux (Essex) and Sidney. 
Cecil and Bacon. 
Cromwell. 

Churchill, Spencer, Cavendish, Walpole, Townsbend, and Pelham. 
Stanhope, Pitt, and Grenville. 
Granville and Russell. 
Fox and Lennox. 
Douglas and Hamilton. (Principal branches in the sixteentb 

century.) 
Campbell (Argyll and Breadalbane). (To the latter part of the 

eighteenth century.) 
Earls of Desmond and Kildare (Fitzgerald). 
Butler (Ormond, Ossory, and Mountgarret). 
O'Neill (Tyrone). 
O'Donnell (Tyrconnel). 
O'Brien (Thomond and Inchiquin). 



House of Valois (1) to Charles VIII. 
„ (2) from Louis XII. 

House of Bourbon and Bourbon-Orleans. 
Bourbon and Montpensier. 
Bourbon (Conde and Vendome) 
Montmorency and Coligny. 
Bouillon. 

Guise and Longueville. 
De Retz. 

30 A Reding. 

31 House of Bonaparte. 



10 Genealogical Tables and Lists, 

C. The Empire and Austria. 

Table 32 House of Habsburg to Charles VI. 

33 Habsburg-Lorraine line. (The Austrian Succession.) 

34 Lorraine. 

35 Electors of Brandenburg. 

36 Prussia. 

37 Brandenburg-Baireuth (Culmbach) and Brandenburg-Ansbach. 

38 The Succession to Jiilich, Cleves and Berg. 

39 The House of Wittelsbach in the Palatinate and Bavaria. 

40 Bavaria (1). House of Wittelsbach from 1460. 

41 „ (2). 

42 The Palatinate (1) old line. 

43 „ (2) Simmern line. 

44 „ (3) Zweibriicken line. 

45 „ (4) Neuburg line. 

46 „ (6) Sulzbach line. 

47 ,, (6) Birkenfeld line and Kings of Bavaria. 

48 Saxony. House of Wettin: earlier Ernestine line m Gotha, 
Weimar, and Altenburg. 

49 Electors and Kings of Saxony. House of Wettin, Albertine line. 

50 Saxony. Later Ernestine lines in Gotha, Coburg, and Altenburg 
(Hildburghauseu). 

51 Saxony. Later Ernestine lines in Weimar-Eisenach and Meiningen. 

52 Brunswick and Brunswick-Liineburg (to George II). 

53 Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. 

54 Kings of Hanover (from George III). 

55 Landgraves, Electors and Grand Dukes of Hesse and Princes of 
Battenberg. 

56 Margraves and Grand Dukes of Baden. House of Zahringen. 

57 Dukes and Kings of Wiirtemberg and Dukes of Teck. 

58 Anhalt. 

59 The Schleswig-Holstein Succession. 

60 Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp and Grand Dukes of Oldenburg. 

61 Mecklenburg. 

62 Dukes of Pomerania (from 1478). 
62 A Later Counts of Mansfeld (of Eisleben). 

D. The Netherlands. 

Table 63 Burgundy and Brabant. 

,, 64 Orange- Nassau ; Stadholders of Holland and Zeeland etc. 

„ 65 Nassau-Dillenburg, Nassau-Siegen ; Kings of Holland ; Stadholders 

of (West) Friesland ; Grand Dukes of Luxemburg 

,, 66 Belgium. House of Coburg. 

E. Italy. 

Table 67 Savoy. 

„ 68 Visconti and Sforza in Milan (showing the French claim to Milan). 

„ 69 Florence and Tuscany: House of Medici. 

„ 70 Dukes of Parma: Farnese line. 

,y 71 Naples : lines of Aragon and Anjou and the French claim. 

„ 72 Naples (two Sicilies) and Parma: Bourbon lines. 

„ 73 Grand Dukes of Tuscany and Modena. 

74 Ferrara and Modena: House of Este. 



I 



Genealogical Tables and Lists, 



11 



E. 



G. 



H. 



J. 



K. 



L. 



Italy (contd.). 

Table 75 Dukes of Mantua: House of Gonzaga from 1478. 

Cibo and Chigi. 

Borgia. 

Dukes of Urbino: Montefeltro and della Rovere. 

Aldobrandini, Borghese, and Pamfili. 

Houses of Castile and Aragon to Philip III. 

The family of Charles V. 

The Spanish Succession. 

House of Bourbon. 

Kings of Navarre. 

Toledo (Alva), Figueroa, and Henriquez. 

Zuniga (Ayamonte, Miranda, Monterey) and Sandoval. 

Velasco, Mendoza, and Guzman (Medina Sidonia and Olivares). 

Portugal and Brazil. 

Table 88 Kings of Portugal from John I to John IV. 
,, 89 House of Braganza 

Sweden and Norway. 

Table 90 Houses of Vasa and Holstein-Gottorp. 

House of Bernadotte. 

King of Norway. 



ft 


76 


a 


77 


33 


78 


33 


79 


Spain 


. 


Table 80 


33 


81 


33 


82 


33 


83 


33 


84 


33 


85 


33 


86 


33 


87 



91 
92 



Denmark. 

Table 93 

„ 94 



Kings of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. (House of Oldenburg I.) 
Kings of Denmark and Norway. (House of Oldenburg II.) 

Poland, Hungary and Transylvania. 

Table 95 Houses of Jagello and Zapdlya. 

„ 96 Bathory. 

„ 97 Bethlen and Apaffy. (o) Bethlen of Iktar, (6) Apaffy. 

„ 98 Rakdczy and Zrinyi. 

„ 99 Czartoryski. 



Russia. 
Table 100 
„ 101 



Tsars in Russia from 1462. 
House of Romanoff. 



Turkey and the Balkan States. 

Table 102 The Ottoman Sultans from 1461. 

„ 103 Greece. 

„ 104 Montenegro. 

„ 105 Servia. (a) House of Karageorgevich, (6) House of Obrenovich. 

„ 106 Roumania. 

„ 107 Bulgaria. 



M. The East. 
Table 108 

33 109 

„ no 
„ 111 

« 112 



Egypt, {a) Grand Vezirs of the femily of Kiuprili, (6) Khedives 

of the family of Mohammad ^^AH (Mehemet Ali). 
Persia. Shahs of the Kajar Dynasty. 
Moghul Emperors of India. 

{a) Manchu-Tartar Emperors of China, Ta Ch'ing Dynasty, 
{h) Recent Emperors of Japan. 
Japan. Shoguus of the Tokugawa Dynasty from 1603. 



12 Genealogical Tables and Lists. 



Part II. Lists of Spiritual Princes, Elected Sovereigns, etc. 

The Popes from 1447. 
Electors of Cologne from 1463. 
„ Mainz from 1434. 

„ Trier from 1439. 

Archbishops of Canterbury from 1464. 
Archbishops of York from 1480. 
Bishops and Archbishops of Paris from 1473. 
Generals of the Order of Jesus. 
Elected Kings of Poland. 
Doges of Venice from 1414. 
Presidents of the United States of America. 

,, French Republic. 

Presidents of Mexico. 

yy Brazil. 

Lords Lieutenant, Lords Deputy, and Lords Justices of Ireland 

from 1485. 
Governors-General of India and other Indian Governors. 
Governors and Acting Governors (1656-1904) of Jamaica. 
,j of North American Colonies before 1776. 

„ and Governors-General of the Dominion of Canada. 

„ ,, ,, of Australia and New Zealand. 

„ and Commissioners of South Africa. 

Consuls-General, etc., of Egypt and the Sudan. 
Governors of the Spanish Netherlands and Governors of the 

Austrian Netherlands. 
Palatines of Hungary and Princes of Transylvania. 
Spanish Governors of Milan. 
Viceroys of Naples and Sicily. 

Chief Ministers in Great Britain (England) from 1485. 
,f France from Henry IV. 

,, the Empire and Austria from Charles V to 

1871. 
„ Prussia to 1871. 

Chancellors of the German Empire. 
Chief Ministers in the Kingdom of Italy. 

„ Spain from Philip III to 1873. 



Part III. Lists of Parliaments, General Councils, etc. 

Table 146 List of Secularised Bishoprics (with dates of secularisation and 
new sovereigns). 
147 ,, English Parliaments (1486 to the Septennial Act). 

Imperial Diets (selection only). 
Congresses and Conferences (selection only). 
Leagues and Alliances (selection only). 
Universities founded from 1450. 



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TABLE 113 

THE POPES FROM 1447 

1447 Mar.— 1456 Mar. Nicholas V (Thomas of Sarzana). 

1456 Ap.— 1468 Aug. Oalixtus III (Alfonso Borgia). 

1458 Aug. — 1464 Aug. Pius II (Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini). 

1464 Aug.— 1471 July Paid II (Pietro Barbo). 

1471 Aug.— 1484 Aug. Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere). 

1484 Aug.— 1492 July Innocent VIII (Giambattista Cibo). 

1492 Aug.— 1603 Aug. Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). 

1603 Sept.— Oct. Pius III (Francesco Todeschini (Piccolomini)). 

1503 Nov.— 1613 Feb. Julius II (Giulio della Rovere). 

1513 Mar.— 1621 Dec. Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici). 

1522 Jan.— 1523 Sept. Adrian VI (Adrian Boyers (of Utrecht)). 

1523 Nov.— 1534 Sept. Clement VII (Giulio de' Medici). 
1534 Oct.— 1549 Nov. Paul III (Alessandro Farnese). 

1550 Feb.— 1555 Mar. Julius III (Giovanni Maria del Monte). 

1555 Ap. Marcellus II (Marcello Cervini). 

1555 May— 1559 Aug. Paul IV (Giovanni Pietro Caraffa). 

1559 Dec— 1565 Dec. Pius IV (Gian-Angelo de' Medici). 

1566 Jan.— 1572 May Pius V (Michele Ghislieri). 

1572 May— 1585 Ap. Gregory XIII (Ugo Buoncompagno). 

1585 Ap.— 1590 Aug. Sixtus V (Felix Peretti (Card. Montalto)). 

1590 Sept. Urban VII (Giambattista Castagna). 

1590 Dec— 1591 Oct. Gregory XIV (Niccolo Sfondrato). 

1591 Oct.— Dec. Innocent IX (Gian- Antonio Facchinetto). 

1592 Jan.— 1605 Mar. Clement VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini). 
1605 Ap. Leo XI (Alessandro Ottavio de' Medici). 
1605 May— 1621 Jan. Paul V (Camillo Borghese). 

1621 Feb.— 1623 July Gregory XV (Alessandro Ludovisi). 

1623 Aug.— 1644 July Urban VIII (Maifeo Barberini). 

1644 Sept.— 1655 Jan. Innocent X (Giambattista Pamfili). 

1655 Ap.— 1667 May Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi). 

1667 June— 1669 Dec. Clement IX (Giulio Rospigliosi). 

1670 Ap.— 1676 July Clement X (Giambattista Altieri). 

1676 Sept.— 1689 Aug. Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi). 

1689 Oct.— 1691 Feb. Alexander VIII (Pietro Ottobuoni). 

1691 July— 1700 Sept. Innocent XII (Antonio Pignatelli). 

1700 Nov.— 1721 Mar. Clement XI (Gianfrancesco Albano). 

1721 May— 1724 Mar. Innocent XIII (Michelangelo Conti). 

1724 May— 1780 Feb. Benedict XIII (Pietro Francesco Orsini). 

1780 July— 1740 Feb. Clement XII (Lorenzo Corsini). 

1740 Aug.— 1758 May Benedict XIV (Prosper Lambertini). 

1758 July— 1769 Feb. Clement XIII (Carlo Rezzonico). 

1769 May— 1774 Sept. Clement XIV (Giovanni V. Antonio Ganganelli). 

1775 Feb.— 1799 Aug. Pius VI (Giovan-Angelo Braschi). 

1800 Mar.— 1823 Aug. Pius VII (Gregorio Bernabo Chiaramonte). 

1823 Sept.— 1829 Feb. Leo XII (Annibale della Genga). 

1829 Mar.— 1830 Nov. Pius VIII (Francesco Xavier Castiglione). 

1831 Feb.— 1846 June Gregory XVI (Mauro Capellari). 

1846 June— 1878 Feb. Pius IX (Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti). 

1878 Feb.— 1903 July Leo XIII (Joachim Pecci). 

1903 Aug. Pius X (Giuseppe Sarto). 



TABLE 114 



ELECTORS OF COLOGNE FROM 1463 

Bate of 
election 

1463 Rupert C. Palatine (48th Abp.). 

1480 Hermann IV, son of Lewis I Lgr. of Hesse. 

1608 Philip II C. von Daun-Oberstein. 

1616 Hermann V C. von Wied, dep. by Paul III 1646, ahd. 1547. 

1646 Adolphus III C. von Schauenburg. 

1566 Antony C, von Schauenburg. 
1568 Gebhard I C. von Mansfeld. 

1562 Frederick IV C. von Wied, ahd. 1567. 

1567 Salentin C. von Isenburg, ahd. 1677. 

1577 Gebhard II Truchsess von Waldburg, married 1583, dep. hy Gregory XIII. 

1583 Ernest, sm of Albert V D. of Bavaria. 

1612 Ferdinand, son of William V D. of Bavaria (Coadjutor from 1596). 

1660 Maximilian Henry, son o/" Albert VI D. of Bavaria. 

1688 Joseph Clement, son of Ferdinand Maria El, of Bavaria. 

1723 Clement Augustus, son of Maximilian II El. of Bavaria. 

1761 Maximilian Frederick C. von Konigseck-Rothenfels. 

1784 Maximilian, son of Emp. Francis I (Coadjutor from 1780). 

1801 Antony Victor, son qf Emp. Leopold II. Renounced election. 



8—2 



TABLE 116 



ELECTORS OF MAINZ FROM 1434 

Date of 

election 

1434 Dietrich C. of Erbach (64th Abp.). 

1459 Diether C. of Iseiiburg, dep. 1461, abd. 1463. 

1461 Adolphus II C. of Nassau. 

1475 Diether rest. 

1482 D. Albert of Saxony {son o/El. Ernest of Saxony; Coadjutor from 1479). 

1484 Berthold C. of Henneberg. 

1504 Jacob Frhr. von Liebenstein. 

1508 Uriel von Gemmingen. 

1514 M. Albert of Brandenburg^ Abp. of Magdeburg. 

1545 Sebastian von Heusenstamm. 

1555 Daniel Brendel von Homburg. 

1582 Wolfgang von Dalberg. 

1601 John Adam von Bicken. 

1604 John Schweikhard von Kronberg. 

1626 George Frederick von GreiiFenklau zu Vollraths. 

1629 Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt. 

1647 John Philip von Schonborn, Bp. of Wiirzburg and Worms. 

1673 Lothar Frederick von Metternich, Bp. of Speier and Worms (Coadjutor from 

1670). 
1675 Damian Hartard von der Leyen, Bp. of Worms. 
1679 Charles Henry C. von Metternich (Coadjutor from 1670). 
1679 Anselm Francis von Ingelheim. 

1695 Lothar Francis von Schonborn, Bp. of Bamberg (Coadjutor from 1694). 
1729 Francis Lewis C. Palatine of Neuburg, Bp. of Breslau and Worms, translated 

from Trier (Coadjutor from 1710). 
1732 Philip Charles Frhr. von Eltz. 

1743 John Frederick Charles C. von Ostein, Bp. of Worms 1756. 
1763 Emmerich Joseph Frhr. von Breitbach-Biiresheim, Bp. of Worms 1768. 
1774 Frederick Charles Joseph Frhr. von Erthal, Bp. of Worms. 
1802-3 Charles Theodore Frhr. von Dalberg (Coadjutor from 1787), Chancellor 
of the Empire 1803-6; Abp. of Ratisbon 1805-17; Primas of the 
Rheinbund 1806-13 ; G. D. of Frankfort 1810-13 ; t 1817. 



TABLE 116 



ELECTORS OF TRIER FROM 1439 

Date of 

election 

1439 James I von Sirk. 

1466 John II of Baden. 

1503 James II M. of Baden. 

1611 Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollraths. 

1531 John III von Metzenhausen. 

1540 John IV von Hagen. 

1547 John V C. von Isenhurg. 

1556 John VI von der Leyen. 

1567 James III von Eltz. 

1581 John VII von Schonenherg. 

1600 Lothar von Metternich. 

1623 Philip Christopher von Sotem. 

1652 Charles Caspar von der Leyen (Coadjutor from 1650). 

1676 John Hugo Frhr. von Orsbeck (Coadjutor from 1672). 

1711 Charles Joseph D. of Lorraine, 

1716 Francis Lewis C. Palatine of Neuburg, translated to 

Mainz 1729. 

1729 Francis George C. von Schonbom. 

1756 John Philip Frhr. von Walderdorf. 

1768 Clement Wenceslaus, son o/* Frederick Augustus II of 

Saxony (Augustus III of Poland), abd. 1802. 



TABLE 117 



ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY FROM 1454 



1464-86 Thomas Bourchier (Bp. of Ely) (65th Abp.). 

1486-1600 John Morton (Bp. of Ely) (Card. 1493). 

1600-3 Henry Dean (Bp. of Salisbury). 

1603-32 William Warham (Bp. of London). 

1633-56 Thomas Cranmer (Archdeacon of Taunton). 

1556-8 Reginald Pole (Card. 1536). 

1559-76 Matthew Parker (Dean of Lincoln). 

1576-83 Edmund Grindal (Abp. of York). 

1583-1604 John Whitgift (Bp. of Worcester). 

1604-10 Richard Bancroft (Bp. of London). 

1611-33 George Abbot (Bp. of London). 

1633-46 William Laud (Bp. of London) {ex. 1645). 

1645-60 See vacant. 

1660-3 William Juxon (Bp. of London). 

1663-77 Gilbert Sheldon (Bp. of London). 

1678-91 William Sancroft (Archdeacon of Canterbury). 

1691-4 John Tillotson (Dean of Canterbury). 

1694-1715 Thomas Tenison (Bp. of Lincoln). 

1716-37 William Wake (Bp. of Lincoln). 

1737-47 John Potter (Bp. of Oxford). 

1747-57 Thomas Herring (Abp. of York). 

1757-8 Matthew Hutton (Abp. of York). 

1758-68 Thomas Seeker (Bp. of Oxford). 

1768-83 Frederick Cornwallis (Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry and Dean of 

St Paul's). 

1783-1806 John Moore (Bp. of Bangor). 

1805-28 Charles Manners-Sutton (Bp. of Norwich and Dean of Windsor). 

1828-48 William Howley (Bp. of London). 

1848-62 John Bird Sumner (Bp. of Chester). 

1862-8 Charles Thomas Longley (Abp. of York). 

1868-82 Archibald Campbell Tait (Bp. of London). 

1882-96 Edward White Benson (Bp. of Truro). 

1896-1903 Frederick Temple (Bp. of London). 

1903 Randall Thomas Davidson (Bp. of Winchester). 



TABLE 118 



ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK FROM 1480 



1480-1500 


ITiomas Rotherham (53rd Abp.). 


1501 


Thomas Savage. 


1508 


Christopher Bainbridge. 


1514 


Thomas Wolsey. 


1531 


Edward Lee. 


1545 


Robert Holgate, deprived 1554. 


1655 


Nicholas Heath, deprived 1559. 


1561 


Thomas Young. 


1570 


Edmund Grindal. 


1576 


Edwin Sandys. 


1589 


John Piers. 


1595 


Matthew Button. 


1606 


Tobias Matthew. 


1628 


George Monteigne. 


1628 


Samuel Harsnett. 


1632 


Richard Neile. 


1641 


John Waiiams, t 1650. 


1650-60 See vacant. 


1660 


Accepted Frewen. 


1664 


Richard Sterne. 


1683 


John Dolben. 


1688 


Thomas Lamplugh. 


1691 


John Sharp. 


1714 


Sir William Dawes Bart. 


1724 


Lancelot Blackburne. 


1743 


Thomas Herring. 


1747 


Matthew Hutton. 


1757 


John Gilbert. 


1761 


Robert Hay Drummond. 


1777 


William Markham. 


1807 


Edward Harcourt. 


1847 


Thomas Musgrave. 


1860 


Charles Thomas Longley. 


1862 


William Thomson. 


1891 


William Connor Magee. 


1891 


William Dairy mple Maclagan, res. 1908. 


1908 


Cosmo Gordon Lang. 



TABLE 119 



BISHOPS AND ARCHBISHOPS OF PARIS FROM 1473 

BISHOPS 

Date of 
succession 

1473 Louis de Beaumont de la Foret. 

1492 Jean-Simon de Champigny. 

1503 I^tienne de Poncher. 

1519 Francois de Poncher. 

1532 Jean du Bellay, Card. 

1551 Eustache du Bellay. 

1564 Guillaume Viole. 

1568 Pierre de Gondi, Card., resigned 1598, t 1616. 

1598 Henri de Gondi, Card, de Retz. 



ARCHBISHOPS 

1622 Jean-Francois de Gondi, Card. 

1654 Jean-Fran9ois-Paul de Gondi, Card, de Retz, resigned 1662, f 1679. 

1662 Pierre de Marca. 

1664 Harduin de Perefixe de Beaumont. 

1671 Francois de Harlai de Champvallon. 

1695 Louis-Antoine de Noailles, Card. 

1729 Charles-Gaspar-Guillaume de Vintimille du Luc. 

1746 Jacques-Bonne-Gigault de Bellefonds. 

1746 Christophe-Beaumont de Re'paire. 

1781 Antoine-L.-L. Leclerc de Juigne. 

1802 Jean-Baptiste du Belloy, Card. 

1817 Alexandre-Angelique de Talleyrand Perigord, Card. 

1821 Hyacinthe-Louis C. de Quelen. 

1840 Denis d'Affre, murd. 1848. 

1848 Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour. 

1857 Francois-N.-M. Morlot, Card. 

1863 Georges Darboy. 

1871 Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, Card. 

1886 Francois-Marie-Benjamin Richard, Card. 

1908 Leo Augustus Amette, Card. 



TABLE 120 



GENERALS OF THE ORDER OF JESUS 

1. St Ignatius Loyola (Inigo Lopez de Recalde), t 1566, canonised 1622, 

founded the Order 1634 (authorised by Paul III 1540). 

2. 1656 Father Jacobus Laynez. 

3. 1565 St Francis Borgia. 

4. 1572 Father Everard Mercurian. 

5. 1581 ,, Claude Aquaviva. 

6. 1615 „ Mutio Vitelleschi. 

7. 1645 „ Vincent Caraifa. 

8. 1649 „ Francis Piccolomini. 

9. 1651 „ Alexander GottifredL 

10. 1662 „ Goswin Nickel. 

11. 1664 „ John Paul Oliva. 

12. 1681 „ Charles de Noyella. 

13. 1687 3) Thyrsis Gonzales de Santalla. 

14. 1706 „ Michael Angelo Tamburini. 

15. 1730 „ Francis Retz. 

16. 1750 „ Ignatius Visconti. 

17. 1765 ,, Louis Centurione. 

18. 1758 „ Lorenzo Ricci (t 1775). 

r Stanislaus Czerniewiczl 
1775-1802 Vacancy. \ Gabriel Lienkiewicz y Vicars-general. 
\ Francis Xavier Kareu J 

19. 1802 Father Gabriel Gruber. 

20. 1805 y. Thaddeus Brzozowski. 

21. 1820 „ Louis Fortis. 

22. 1829 „ Jean Roothaan. 

23. 1863 „ Pierre-Jean Beckx, retired 1884. 

24. 1887 „ Antoine Anderledy. 
26. 1892 „ Luis Martin. 

[The Order was expelled from France 1694, readmitted 1603, expelled 1764 ; 
expelled from Venice 1606, Bohemia 1618, Naples 1622, the Indies 1623, 
Portugal 1759, Spain 1767, readmitted 1818, Russia 1817. It was dissolved 
by Clement XIV 1773, restored by Pius VII 1814.] 



TABLE 121 



ELECTED KINGS OF POLAND 

1574 Henry of Valois (Henry IH K. of France). 

1575 Stephen Bathory, t 1586 s.p. 

1587 Sigismund HI (K. of Sweden), t 1632. 

1632 Ladislaus VII, son o/ Sigismund III, t 1648. 

1648 John Casimir V, son o/* Sigismund III, ahd. 1668. 

1669 Michael Korybut Wisniowiecki, t 1673. 

1674 John III Sobieski, t 1696. 

1697 Augustus II (El. Frederick Augustus I of Saxony), dep. 1704. 

1704 Stanislaus Leszczynski, dep. 1709. 

1709 Augustus II, rest., t 1733. 

1733 Stanislaus Leszczynski, rest. 

1734 Augustus III (El. Frederick Augustus II) son o/ Augustus II, 

t 1763. 
1764 Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, abd. 1795. 

[First Partition of Poland 1772; Second Partition 1793; Third Partition 1795.] 



TABLE 122 



DOGES OF VENICE FROM 1414 



Date of 




Date of 




election 




election 




1414 


Tommaso Mocenigo (64th Doge). 


1618 


Nicolo Donato. 


1423 


Francesco Foscarini. 


1618 


Antonio Priuli. 


1457 


Pasquale Malipiero, 


1623 


Francesco Contarini. 


1462 


Cristofero Moro. 


1624 


Giovanni Cornaro. 


1471 


Nicolo Tron. 


1630 


Nicolo Contarini. 


1472 


Nicolo Marcello. 


1631 


Francesco Erizzo. 


1474 


Pietro Mocenigo. 


1646 


Francesco Molin. 


1476 


Andrea Vendramin. 


1655 


Carlo Contarini. 


1478 


Giovanni Mocenigo. 


1656 


Francesco Cornaro. 


1485 


Marco Barbarigo. 


1656 


Bertucci Valier. 


1486 


Agostino Barbarigo. 


1658 


Giovanni Pesaro. 


1501 


Leonardo Loredano. 


1659 


Domenico Contarini. 


1621 


Antonio Grimani. 


1675 


Nicolo Sagredo. 


1523 


Andrea Gritti. 


1676 


Alvise Contarini. 


1539 


Pietro Lando. 


1684 


Marcantonio Giustinian. 


1545 


Francesco Donate. 


1688 


Francesco Morosini. 


1553 


Antonio Trevisan. 


1694 


Silvestro Valier. 


1554 


Francesco Venier. 


1700 


Alvise Mocenigo IL 


1556 


Lorenzo Priuli. 


1709 


Giovanni Corner. 


1559 


Girolamo Priuli. 


1722 


Alvise Mocenigo III. 


1567 


Pietro Loredano. 


1732 


Carlo Ruzzini. 


1570 


Alvise Mocenigo L 


1735 


Alvise Pisani. 


1577 


Sebastiano Venier. 


1741 


Pietro Grimani. 


1578 


Nicolo da Ponte. 


1752 


Francesco Loredano. 


1585 


Pasquale Cicogna. 


1762 


Marco Foscarini. 


1595 


Marin Grimani. 


1763 


Alvise Mocenigo IV. 


1606 


Leonardo Donato. 


1779 


Paolo Renier. 


1612 


Marcantonio Memmo. 


1789 


Ludovico Manin {dep. 1797) 


1616 


Giovanni Bembo. 





^enice annexed by Austria.) 



TABLE 123 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

{Elected for a term of four years) 





Elected for second 




Elected term of office 


George Washington 


1789 


1793 


John Adams 


1797 




Thomas Jefferson 


1801 


1805 


James Madison 


1809 


1813 


James Monroe 


1817 


1821 


John Quincy Adams 


1825 




Andrew Jackson 


1829 


1833 


Martin Van Buren 


1837 




William Henry Harrison 


1841 (t April 1841) 




John Tyler 


1841 




James Knox Polk 


1845 




Zachary Taylor 


1849 (t 1850) 




Millard Fillmore 


1850 




Franklin Pierce 


1853 




James Buchanan 


1857 




Abraham Lincoln 


1861 


1865 (murd. 1866) 


Andrew Johnson 


1865 




Ulysses Simpson Grant 


1869 


1873 


Rutherford Birchard Hayes 


1877 




James Abram Garfield 


1881 {murd. 1881) 




Chester Alan Arthur 


1881 




Stephen Grover Cleveland 


1886 




Benjamin Harrison 


1889 




Stephen Grover Cleveland 


1893 




William McKinley 


1897 


1901 (murd. 1901) 


Theodore Roosevelt 


1901 


1906 


William Howard Taft 


1909 





TABLE 124 



PRESIDENTS OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC 

{Elected for a term of seven years) 



Date of election 
Augnist 1871 
May 1873 

January 1879 
December 1887 
June 1894 

January 1895 
February 1899 
January 1906 



Marie-Joseph-Louis-Adolpbe Thiers. 
Marie-Edme-Patrice-Maurice de Macmahon, 

D. of Magenta^ Marshal of France. 
Fran9ois-Paul-Jules Grevy, re-elected 1886, 
Marie-Fran9ois-Sadi Carnot, murd. 
Jean-Paul-Pierre Casimir-Pe'rier, resigned, 
Fran9ois-Felix Faure, died. 
Emile Loubet. 
Armand Fallieres. 



TABLE 125 



PRESIDENTS OF MEXICO 

{The dates are those of election) 

[1821 Independence declared ; Augustin Iturbidi Generalissimo ; 
1822 declared himself Emperor and deposed ; 1823 dictatorship 
of Guerrero, Bravo, and Negretti. ] 

Gen. G. Victoria, 1824. 

Gen. Guerrero, 1827, Dictator 1829-30. 

Gen. Anastasio Bustameute, 1830-2. 

Gen. Pedraza, 1832. 

Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, 1835. 

Jose J. Caro, 1836. 

Gen. A. Bustamente, 1837-40. 

Gen. Farias, 1840. 

Gen. de Santa Anna, President 1840 ; Dictator 1841-4. 

Gen. Jose Joaquin Herrera, ad int. 1844 ; President 1845. 

Gen. Paredes, 1845-6. 

Gen. Sales, ad int. 1846-7- 

Gen. de Santa Anna, 1847-8. 

Gen. Herrera, 1848-51. 

Gen. Mariano Arista, 1851. 

M. J. Ceballos, 1852. 

Gen. de Santa Anna, Dictator 1853-5. 

Gen. Ignacio Comonfort, ad int. 1855-8. 

Gen. Felix Zuloago, ad int. 1858. 

Gen. Miguel Miramon, 1859. 

Gen. Benito Juarez, 1861 (with dictatorial powers). 

Maximilian Archd. of Austria, Emp. 1864, ex. 1867. 

Gen. Benito Juarez, 1867. 
Sebastian Lerdo de Tejarda, 1872. 
Porfirio Diaz, 1877-80. 
Manuel Gonzales, 1880-4. 
Porfirio Diaz, 1885. 



TABLE 126 



BRAZIL 

1822 Pedro I, King. Emp. 1825, ahd. 1831. 

1831 Brazilian Declaration of Independence. 

„ Pedro II, dep. 1889. 

1889 Republic proclaimed. 

PRESIDENTS {elected in March, assume office in December). 

1889 Gen. Manoel Deodoro da Fonseca, res. 1891. 

[1891 Gonstitittion adopted.] 

1891 Floriano Peixoto ( Vice-president). 

1894 Dr Prudente de Moraes Barros. 

1898 Dr Campos Salles. 

1902 Rodriguez Alves. 

1906 Dr Affonso Penna (t June, 1909). 

1909 (June) Dr Milo Pe9anha (Vice-president), 

1910 Marshal Hermes da Fonseca. 



TABLE 127 



LORDS LIEUTENANT, LORDS DEPUTY AND 
LORDS JUSTICES OF IRELAND FROM 1485 

(All Lords Lieutenant and Deputy are given, but not dates of renewal of office when 
consecutive. Temporary deputies of Lords Deputy are not given. Some Justice* 
holding office for very brief periods are omitted. ) 



Lords Lieutenant 


Lords Deputy 


Lords Justices 


1485 Jasper (Tudor) 


Gerald (Fitzgerald) 




D. of Bedford 
1492 

1493 


8th E. of Kildare 
Walter FitzSimons 

Abp. of Dublin 
Rob. (Preston) 

Lord Gormanstown 




yj 


William Preston 




1494 P. Henry D. of York 


Sir Edward Poynings 




1495 




Hy. Deane 
Bp. of Bangor 


1496-1513 


E. of Kildare 




1498 P. Henry 






1503 




Abp. FitzSimons 


1513-20 


Gerald 9th E. of Kil- 
dare 




1515 




Wm. (Preston) 

Lord Gormanstown 


1520 Thomas (Howard) E. of 






Surrey 






1522 
1524 


Piers (Butler) E. of 
Ormond (Ossory) 
E. of Kildare 




1527 


Rich. (Nugent) 
Lord Delvin 




1528 




Piers (Butler) 
E. of Ossory 


1529 Henry Fitzroy E. of 






Richmond 






1530 


Sir William Skeffing- 
ton 




1532 


E. of Kildare 




1535 


Lord Leonard Grey 




1540 




William (Brereton) 
Lord Leighlin 



TABLE 127 {continued^ 





Lords Lieutenant 


Lords Deputy 


Lords Justices 


1540-7 






Sir Anthony St Leger 




1647 








Sir Wm. Brabazon 


1548 








Sir Edw. Bellingham 


1649 








Sir Francis Bryant and 
Sir Wm. Brabazon 


1550 






Sir A. St Leger 




1551 






Sir James Croft 




1552 








Sir Thomas Cusacke 
and Sir Gerald Aylmer 


1553-6 






Sir A. St Leger 




1556-60 






Tlios. (Ratcliffe) 
Lord Fitzwalter 
(E. of Sussex) 




1657-9 








Sir Henry Sidney 
acting Deputy during 
Sussex' absence 


1659-71 








Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam 
6 times between 1559 
and 1571 


1560-2 E. 


of Sussex 






1561 






Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam 




1564 








Sir Nicholas Arnold 


1565-7 






Sir Henry Sidney 




1568-71 






}f }> 




1572-5 






Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam 




1575-8 






Sir Henry Sidney 




1678 








Sir Wm. Drury 


1679 








Sir Wm. Pelham 


1580 






Arthur Lord Grey de 
Wilton 


Adam Loftus 

Abp. of Dublin and 
Sir Hy. Wallop 


1584 






Sir John Perrott 




1688 






Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam 




1594 






Sir Wm. Russell 




1697 






Thomas Lord Burgh 


Sir Thomas Norris 

{died) 
jAbp. Loftus 


1697 








h\T Rob. Gardiner and 
(e. of Ormond 


1699 Robert (Devereux) 




Abp. Loftus and 




E 


of Essex 




Sir Geo. Carey 


1600 






Charles (Blount) 








Lord Mountjoy 




1603 Lord 


Mountjoy 


Sir Geo. Carey 






(E. 


of Devonshire) 






1604-16 






Sir Arthur Chichester 




1613 








R. Wingfield 

(Visct. Powerscourt) 
and Thos. Jones 

Abp. of Dublin 


C. M. H 








9 



TABLE 127 {continued)e 

Lord* Lieutenant 
1616 

1616 
1622-9 

1623 

1629 
1633-9 



Lords Deputy 



Sir Oliver St John 
Henry (Carey) Visct. 
Falkland 



1639 



1640 



1641 



1643 



1644 
1647 

1648 

1649 
1660 



E. of Strafford 

Robert (Sidney) 
E. of Leicester 
absentee 



James (Butler) 

M. (D.)of Ormond 
Philip (Sidney) 

Lord Lisle 

for Parliament 
M. of Ormond 

for the King 
Oliver Cromwell 



Thomas Visct. Went- 
wortli (E. of 
Strafford) 



Chr. Wandesford 



1661 

1653 

1655 
1657-60 Henry Cromwell 

1669 
1660 



M. of Clanricarde 

for Ormond 
Henry Ireton 

for Cromwell 
Major-Gen. Lambert 

Commissioners 
for Parliament 



Lords Justices 
Abp. Jones and 
Sir John Denham 



Adam (Loftus) Visct. 

Ely and 
Visct. Powerscourt 
Visct. Ely and 
Rich. (Boyle) E. of Cork 



Visct. Ely and 
Chr. Wandesford 
Robert Lord Dillon and 
Chr. Wandesford 
Lord Dillon and 
Sir Wm. Parsons 



Sir J. Borlace and 
Sir Hy. Tichborne 



Commissioners 
for the Army 



[Major-Gen. Fleetwood 
J Lieut. -Gen. Edmund 
\ Ludlow and others 
Henry Cromwell and 
others 

Edmund Ludlow 
Major Bury 
and others 
R. Boyle 

(E. of Orrery) 
Sir C. Coote 
Major Bury onrf others 





Lords Lieutenant 


Lords Deputy 


1660 


George (Moiick) D. of 


John Lord Robarts 




Albemarle absentee 


absentee 


1662 


James (Butler) 
1st D. of Ormond 




1664 




Thomas E. of Ossory 


1666 


D. of Ormond 




1668 
1669 


John Lord Robarts 
(E. of Radnor) 


E. of Ossory 


1670 


John Lord Berkeley 
of Stratton 





TABLE 127 (continued)^ 

Lords Justices 
E. of Orrery and others 



1671 








Michael Boyle Abp. of 










Dublin and 










Arthur (Forbes) Visct. 










(E. of) Granard 


1672-6 


Arthur (Capel) 








and 1676 


E. of Essex 








1676 








Abp. Boyle and 
E. of Granard 


1677-«5 


D. of Ormond 








1682 




Rich 
E. 


. (Butler) 
of Arran 




1684 








Abp. Boyle and 
E. of Granard 


1686 


Henry (Hyde) 
E. of Clarendon 








1686-9 


Rich. (Talbot) 
E. of Tyrconnel 








\. 1687 








Sir Alex. Fitton and 
Wm. (Burke) E. of 


] 1689 


[K.James II in person} 






Clanricarde 


. 1690 


[K. William III 
in person] 






Henry (Sidney) Visct. 

Sidney 
Sir Chas. Porter and 


I 1692 


Visct. Sidney 






Thos. Coningsby 


1693-^ 






Henry (Capel) Lord 


1 1695 








Capel and others 


I'l 1696 




Lord 


Capol 




A 1697 








Sir C. Porter and others 

IT« /J_ \/l 1 



1701 Lawrence (Hyde) 

E. of Rochester 
1702 

1702 {Access. o/Q. Anne) 



(No more Lords Deputy 
appointed) 



Henry (de Massue de 
Ruvigny, M. de Ru- 
vigny), E. of Gal way 
and others 

/Narcissus Marsh Abp. 

i of Dublin 

(E. ofGalway and others 

Abp. Marsh and others 
Hugh (Montgomery) 
E. of Mountalex- 
ander and others 



9—2 



TABLE 127 {continued^ 



Lords Lieutenant 
1703-7 James (Butler) 2nd D. of Ormond 
1707 Thomas (Herbert) E. of Pembroke 
1709 Thomas (Wharton) E. of Wharton 
1710-13 D. of Ormond 
1711, 1712, 1714 

1713 Charles (Talbot) D. of Shrewsbury 
1714 

(Accession of George I) 

1714 Charles (Spencer) E. of Sunderland 



1715 

1716 Charles (Townshend) Visct. Townshend 
absentee 
1717-9 

1719 Charles (Paulet) D. of Bolton 
1721 D. of Grafton 
1722 

1723-4 

1724-31 John (Granville) Lord Carteret 
(E. Granville) 
172&-9 



1731 Lionel (Sackville) D. of Dorset 
1732-9 



1737 Wm. (Cavendish) 3rd D. of Devonshire 
1740 
1742-6 

1745 Philip (Stanhope) E. of Chesterfield 
1747-64 



1747 William (Stanhope) E. of Harrington 
1761 D. of Dorset 

1756 William (Cavendish) M. of Hartington 

(D. of Devonshire) 

1757 John (Russell) D. of Bedford 
1761 George (Dunk) E. of Halifax 

1763 Hugh (Smithson) E. of Northumber- 
land 



Lords Justices 
Sir Richard Cox and others 
Abp. Marsh of Armagh and Sir R . Cox 
R. Freeman and R. Ingoldsby 

Sir Constantino Phipps and others 

Abp. Lindsay of Armagh, John Vesey 
Abp. of Tuam, and Sir C. Phipps 

Wm. King Abp. of Dublin, Abp. 

Vesey, and E. of Kildare 
Charles (Fitzroy) D. of Grafton and 

E. of Galway 



Abp. King, E. of Middleton, Speaker 
ConoUy and Lord Brodrick (thrice) 



Abp. King, Visct. Shannon, and 

Speaker Conolly 
E. of Middleton, Speaker Conolly, 

and Visct. Shannon 



Hugh Boulter Abp. of Armagh, Lord 
Chancellor West, and Speaker 
Conolly 

Abp. Boulter, Thos. Lord Wyndham 
and others, usually Speaker Boyle 
and Robert Jocelyn (Lord New- 
port) 

Abp. Boulter and others 
John Hoadly Abp. of Armagh and 
others 

George Stone Abp. of Armagh and 
others; usually Lord Chancellor 
Newport and Speaker Boyle or 
Lord Bessborough 



f 



Lards Lieutenant 
1764 Thomas (Thynne) Visct. Weymouth 

absentee 
1766 Francis (Seymour) E. of Hertford 



1766 

1767 
1772 
1777 
1780 
1782 



1783 
1784 
1787 



Wm. Geo. (Hervey) E. of Bristol 

absentee 
George (Townshend) Lord Townshend 
Simon (Harcourt) Earl Harcourt 
John (Hobart) E. of Buckinghamshire 
Fredk. (Howard) E. of Carlisle 
Wm. (Bentinck) D. of Portland 
George (Grenville) Earl Temple 

(M. of Buckingham) 
Robert (Henley) E. of Northington 
Charles (Manners) D. of Rutland 
M. of Buckingham 



1789 

1790 John (Fane) E. of Westmorland 

1795 William (Fitzwilliam) Earl Fitzwilliam 

,, John (Jeffreys) Earl Camden 

1798 Charles (Cornwallis) M. Cornwallis 



TABLE 127 {continued)^ 
Lords Justices 



Lord Chancellor Bowes and Speaker 
Ponsonby 



Richard Robinson Abp. of Armagh, 
Lord Chancellor Lifford and others 

Lord Chancellor Fitzgibbon and 
Speaker John Foster (Lord Oriel) 

Fitzgibbon and Foster 



[After the Union of Great Britain and Ireland Lords Justices are of less 
importance y the Lord Lieutenant being resident."] 

1801 Philip (Yorke) E. of Hardwicke. 

1805 Edward (Clive) E. of Powis absentee. 

1806 John (Russell) D. of Bedford. 

1807 Charles (Lennox) D. of Richmond. 
1813 Charles Visct. (E.) Whitworth. 
1817 Charles (Talbot) E. Talbot. 

1821 [Aug. — Sept. George IV m joer^on.] 

„ Richard (Wellesley) Marquis Wellesley. 

1828 Henry (Paget) (E. of Oxbridge) M. of Anglesey. 

1829 Hugh (Percy) D. of Northumberland. 

1830 M. of Anglesey. 

1833 M. Wellesley. 

1834 Thomas (Baillie) E. of Haddington. 

1836 Henry (Phipps) E. of Mulgrave (M. of Normanby). 

1839 Hugh (Fortescue) Visct. Ebrington (Earl Fortescue). 

1841 Thomas Philip (de Grey) E. de Grey. 

1844 William (Holmes-A'Court) Lord Heytesbury. 

1846 John (Ponsonby) E. of Bessborough. 

1847 George (Villiers) E. of Clarendon. 

1862 Archibald (Montgomerie) E. of Eglinton. 



TABLE 127 {continued)^ 

Lords Lieutenant 

1863 Edward Granville (Eliot) E. of St Germans. 
1855 George (Howard) E. of Carlisle. 

1858 E. of Eglinton. 

1859 E. of Carlisle. 

1864 John Lord Wodehouse (E. of Kimberley). 
1866 James (Hamilton) M. of (D. of) Abercorn. 
1868 John (Spencer) Earl Spencer. 

1874 James (Hamilton) D. of Abercorn. 

1876 John (Churchill) D. of Marlborough. 

1880 Francis (Cowper) Earl Cowper. 

1882 Earl Spencer. 

1885 H. Howard Molyneux (Herbert) E. of Carnarvon. 

1886 John (Campbell Hamilton-Gordon) E. of Aberdeen. 
„ Charles (Vane-Tempest-Stewart) E. of Londonderry. 

1889 Laurence (Dundas) E. of (M. of) Zetland. 

1896 George (Cadogan) Earl Cadogan. 

1902 William (Ward) E. of Dudley. 

1905 E. of Aberdeen. 



I 



TABLE 128 

INDIA 

[Until 1862 t?ie dates given are those of assumption of government and of retirement ; 
after 1862, of appointment. Deputies pro tern, are omitted.} 

GOVERNORS OF BENGAL 

1765 Robert Lord Clive. 
1767 Henry Verelst. 
1769 John Cartier. 

GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF BENGAL AND OF INDIA 1773-1858 

Governors-General of Bengal with supreme authority 

1773-85 Warren Hastings. 

1785-6 (Sir) John Macpherson. 

1786-93 Charles E. (M.) Cornwallis. 

1793-8 Sir John Shore (Lord Teignmouth). 

1798-1805 Richard E. of Mornington (M. of Wellesley). 

1805 Charles M. Cornwallis. 

1805-7 Sir George Hilaro Barlow. 

1807-13 George Lord (E. of) Minto. 

1813-23 Francis E. of Moira (M. of Hastings). 

1823-8 William Lord (E. of) Amherst. 

1828-35 Lord Wm. Cavendish-Bentinck. 

[1833 the Governors-General of Bengal become Governors-General of India.] 

1835-6 Sir Charles Theophilus (Lord) Metcalfe. 

1836-42 George (Eden) Lord (E. of) Auckland. 

1842-4 Edward (Law) Lord (E. of) Ellenborough. 

1844-8 Sir Henry (Visct.) Hardinge. 

1848-56 James (Ramsay) E. (M.) of Dalhousie. 

1856-62 Charles Visct. Canning. 
[1858 the Governors-General become Viceroys and Governors-General.'] 

VICEROYS 

1858 Visct, Canning as abow. 

1862 James (Bruce) E. of Elgin and Kincardine. 

1863 Sir John Lawrence (Lord Lawrence). 
1868 Richard (Bourke) E. of Mayo. 

1872 'fhomas Geo. (Baring) Lord (E. of) Northbrook. 

1876 Edward (Bulwer-Lytton) Lord (E. of) Lytton. 

1880 George (Robinson) M. of Ripon. 

1884 Frederick (Temple Hamilton-Blackwood) E. of DuiFerin 

(M. of Dufferin and Ava). 

1888 Henry (Petty-Fitzmaurice) M. of Lansdowne. 

1893 V. Alexander (Bruce) E. of Elgin and Kincardine. 

1898 George (Curzon) Lord Curzon of Kedleston. 

1905 Gilbert (Elliot) E. of Minto. 

1910 Charles (Hardinge) Lord Hardinge of Penshurst. 



TABLE 129 



JAMAICA 



[In this and the subsequent colonial lists the dates, be/ore the 19th century, are umally 
those of assumption of office; the dates of appointments are often several months 
earlier. The Deputy-Governors, Lieutenant-Governors and Presidents of the 
Council holding office during the intervals between Governorships are not included 
in this list.] 

GOVERNORS AND ACTING GOVERNORS 1656-1904 

1656 Colonel Edward D'Oyley. 

1661-4 Thomas Hickman (Windsor) Lord Windsor absentee. 

1662-4 Sir Charles Littleton or Lyttelton Acting Governor. 

1664 Sir Thomas Modyford. 

1674-8 Sir John Vaughan, styled Lord Vaughan (Earl of Carbery). 

1678-81 Charles (Howard) E. of Carlisle. 

1682 Sir Thomas Lynch. 

1684 Sir Philip Howard. 

1687-8 Christopher (Monck) D. of Albemarle Governor-General. 

1690-2 William (O'Brien) 2nd E. of Inchiquin. 

1701 Major-Gen. William Selwyn. 

1702 Charles (Mordaunt) E. of Peterborough absentee. 

Major-Gen. Thomas Handasyde Acting Governor. 

1711 Lord Archibald Hamilton. 

1714 Peter Heywood. 

1716 Thomas Pitt absentee. 

1718 Sir Nicholas Lawes. 

1722-6 Henry (Bentinck) D. of Portland. 

1727 Major-Gen. Robert Hunter. 

1735 Henry Cunninghame. 

1738-52 Edward Trelawney. 

1752 Vice-Admiral (Sir) Charles Knowles. 

1758 Brigadier-Gen. George Haidane. 

1762 Wm. Henry Lyttelton (Lord Westcote). 

1767 Capt. Sir Wm. Trelawney, R.N. 

1773 Capt. Sir Basil Keith, R.N. 

1777 Lt.-Gen. John Bailing. 

1782 Major-Gen. Archibald Campbell. 

1790 Thomas (Howard) E. of Effingham. 

1794-1801 Alexander (Lindsay) 6th E. of Balcarres. 

1801 Lt.-Gen. Sir George Nugent. 

1806 Sir Eyre Coote. 

1808 William (Montagu) D. of Manchester. 

1809 Lt.-Gen. Edward Morrison. 

1829 Somerset (Lowry-Corry) 2nd E. of Belmore. 

1832 Sir Constantine Henry (Phipps) E. of Mulgrave (M. of Normanby). 

1834 Home Peter (Browne) M. of Sligo. 

1836 Major-Gen. Sir Lionel Smith. 

1839 Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe. 



TABLE 129 {continued^ 

1842 James (Bruce) 8th E. of Elgin (12th E. of Kincardine). 

1847 Sir Charles Edward Grey. 

1853 Sir Henry Barkly. 

1857 (Sir) Charles Henry Darling. 

1864 Edward John Eyre^ superseded Jan. 1866. 

1866 Lt.-Gen. Sir Henry Storks temporary Gov.j Jan. 1866. 

[1866 Constitution abrogated, Jamaica becomes a Crown Colony.] 

1866 Sir John Peter Grant. 

1874 Sir William Grey. 

1877 Sir Anthony Musgrave ; Acting Governor Edward Newton 1878-80. 

1883 Gen. Sir Henry Wylie Norman. 

1889 Sir Henry Arthur Blake. 

1898 Sir Augustus Hemming. 

1904 Sir Sydney Haldaue Olivier Capt.-Gm. and Gov.-in-chief. 



I 



TABLE 130 

NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES BEFORE 1776 

(1) VIRGINIA 

[1606-26 governed under the Virginia Company. Company's Charter 
surrendered 1625.] 

Governors and Lt. -governors under the Crown 

1625 Sir John Harvey sent prisoner to England 1639, but restored. 
1641 Sir William Berkeley /or the King. 
Col. Diggesfor Parliament. 

Mr Bennet and Mr Matthews /or Oliver Cromwell. 
1660 Sir W. Berkeley restored. 
1677 John Lord Culpeper appointed Governor for life 1677; visited 

colony 1680 and 1682 ; deprived 1 683. 
1683 Francis Lord Howard of Effingham. 
1690-4 Sir Francis Nicholson Lt.-gov, 

1692-8 Sir Edmund Andros. 
1698-1704 Sir Francis Nicholson Lt.-gov. 

1704 George (Hamilton) 1st E. of Orkney absentee. 
Edward Notte Lt.-gov. 
Brigadier-Gen. R. Hunter Lt.-gov. 
1710 Alexander Spotswood Lt.-gov, 

1723 Hugh Drysdale Lt.-gov. 

1726 (Sir) Wm. Gooch Lt.-gov. 

1737 William Anne (Keppel) 2nd E. of Albemarle. 
1751-8 Robert Dinwiddie Lt.-gov. 

1756 John (Campbell) 4th E. of Loudoun. 
1759 Jeffrey (Lord) Amherst. 
1768 Norborne (Berkeley) Lord Bottetourt. 
1770 John (Murray) 4th E. of Dunmore. 

(2) GOVERNORS OF NEW ENGLAND 
[Massachusetts Bay also 1641-80 New Hampshire, ] 

[1643 Confederation formed by Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, 
and New Haven."] 

Elected by the colonists annually under the authority of the Massachusetts 

Bay Company. 
1630-5 John Winthrop. 

1636 Sir Harry Vane the younger. 
1637-40 John Winthrop. 

Thomas Dudley Deputy, 

1641 Richard Bellingham. 

1642 John Winthrop. 

1644 John Endicott. 

1645 Thomas Dudley Deputy. 
1646-9 John Winthrop (t 1649). 

(John Winthrop the younger Assist, or Lt.-gov. 1634-5, 1640, 1645-9.) 
1651-3 John Endicott 



TABLE 130 {continued}!, 
GOVERNORS OF NEW ENGLAND (continued) 

1653-65 John Endicott (f 1665). 

(John Winthrop the younger Gov. o/" Connecticut 1660-76.) 
1665-71 Richard Bellingham (+ 1671). 
1672 John Leveret. 
1676 Simon Bradstreet. 

[Charter revoked 1684.] 
1685 Joseph Dudley Gov. of New England, temporarily pres. of provisional 
Council. 

Governors op Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire 1685-1740 

1686-9 Sir Edmund Andros Governor of Massachusetts, 
Plymouth, New Hampshire and Maine. 
Joseph Dudley Lt.-gov. 
1691 Sir William Phipps (t 1691) also Gov. o/ Maine. 
William Stoughton Lt.-gov. 
Richard (Coote) E. of Bellomont, also Gov. of Maine. 
W. Stoughton Lt.-gov. 
1702 Joseph Dudley. 

1715 Col. Elisha Burgess. 
Wm. Taylor Lt.-gov. • 

1716 Col. Samuel Shute. 
Jeremiah Dummer Lt.-gov. 

1728 William Burnett (t 1729). 

1729 Andrew Belcher. 

Governors op Massachusetts Bay 

1741 William Shirley. 

1757 Thomas Pownall. 

1759 (Sir) Francis Barnard. 

1770 Thomas Hutchinson. 

1774 Gen. Thomas Gage. 

Governors op New Hampshire 

1740 Benning Wentworth. 
1776 John Wentworth. 

(3) GOVERNORS OF NEW YORK 

[1664-88 Lieutenant-governors under James D. of York (James IT); 
Governors from 1688.] 

1664 Richard Nicolls. 

1668 Francis Lovelace. 

1674 Edmund Andros, recalled 1680. 

1682 Brockhurst. 

1683 Thomas Dongan. 
1688 Sir Edmund Andros Governor, and of the Jerseys, dep. 1689. 

Francis Nicholson Lt.-gov, 



TABLE 130 {continued)^ 

GOVERNORS OF NEW YORK (continued) 

[1689 Jacob Leisler assumed government.] 

1691 Col. Henry Sloughter (t 1692). 

1692 Benjamin Fletcher. 

1696 Col. W. Sloughter Lt.-gov. 

Col. Joseph Dudley Lt.-gov. 
1698 Richard (Coote) E. of Bellomont (t 1701). 
1701 Edward (Hyde) Visct. Cornbury (E. of Clarendon). 
1708 John Lord Lovelace (t 1709). 

Col. Ingoldsby Lt.-gov. 
1710 Col. Robert Hunter. 
1720 William Burnett. 
1728 John Montgomery. 
1732 William Cosby. 
1736 Major-Gen. Richard Tyrel. 

George Clarke Lt.-gov. 
1741 George Cleriton. 
1753 Sir Danvers Osborne. 
1755 Sir Charles Hardy. 
1761 Robert Monkton Lt.-gov. 

1765 iir Henry Moore. 

1769 John (Murray) 4th E. of Dunmore. 

1770 William Tryon Lt.-gov. 
1779 James Robertson Lt.-gov. 

Governors op New Jersey 

[East and West New Jersey united to form a royal colony, 1702. 

1702-36 ruled by Governors of New York.'\ 

1736 Lewis Morris (t 1746). 

1747 Andrew Belcher. 

1758 (Sir) Francis Bernard. 

1759 Thomas Boon. 

1761 Josiah Hardy. 

1762 William Franklin. 

(4) GOVERNORS OF CAROLINA 

[1663-1728 governed under the Carolina Company. Company's Charter surrendered 
1728 (except by Earl Grenville proprietor of one-eighth share).] 

Governors under the Crown 

1728 Francis Nicholson. 

1729 Robert Johnson. 

Governors of South Carolina 

1730 Robert Johnson. 

1735 Thomas Broughton. 

1736 Charles Craven. 
1739 James Glen. 



TABLE 130 {continued)^ 

Governors op South Carolina (continued) 
1755 Wm. Henry Lyttelton (Lord Westcote). 
1759 Thomas Pownall, 
1761 Thomas Boon. 
1766 Lord Charles Greville Montagu. 
1777 Capt. Lord W. Campbell, R.N. 

Governors op North Carolina 
1730 George Barrington. 

1733 Gabriel Jonson. 
1743 Arthur Dobbs. 
1765 William Tryon. 
1770 Josias Martin. 

(5) GOVERNORS OF GEORGIA 

1734 James Oglethorpe. 
1746 John Reynolds. 
1758 Henry Ellis. 
1761 Sir James Wright. 

(6) GOVERNORS OF MARYLAND 
[Till 1691 under the proprietors, the Lords Baltimore, with the approval of the Croum.] 
1637 Leonard Calvert Lt.-gov. 
1647 Thomas Green Lt.-gov, 
1649 William Stone Lt.-gov. 
1658 Jonah Fendale. 
1660 Philip Calvert. 

1662 Charles Calvert (3rd Lord Baltimore). 
1678 Thomas Notley Lt.-gov. 
1681 Charles Calvert (3rd Lord Baltimore). 
[1691 Maryland declared a royal province.] 

Governors under the Crown 1692-1714 
1692 Lionel Copley. 
1694 Francis Nicolson or Nicholson. 
1699 Nathaniel Blakiston. 

1703 Thomas Finch President. 

1704 John Seymour Governor. 
Edward Lloyd President. 

1714 John Hart Governor. 

Governors under Lord Baltimore as Proprietary 1720-76 

1720 Charles Calvert. 

1727 Benedict Leonard Calvert. 

1733 Charles (Calvert) 5th Lord Baltimore. 

1737 Samuel Ogle Governor. 

1742 Thomas Bladen Governor. 

1747 S. Ogle. 

1751 Benjamin Tasker President. 

1753 Horatio Sharp Governor. 

1769 (Sir) Robert Eden. 



TABLE 130 (continued)^ 

(7) PROPRIETORS, GOVERNORS, ETC. OF PENNSYLVANIA 

1682 William Penn Proprietor. 

1684 Thomas Lloyd President of Council, 

1688 Jolm Blackwell Lt.-gov. 

1690-3 Government by President and Council. 

1693 Ben. Fletcher Governor. 

J, William Markham Lt.-gov. 

1699 William Penn Proprietor and Governor. 

1701 Andrew Hamilton Lt.-gov. 

1703 Government by President and Council, 

1704 John Evans Lt.-gov. 
1709 Charles Godkin Lt.-gov. 
1717 Sir Wm. Keith Lt.-gov. 
1726 Patrick Gordon Lt.-gov. 
1736 Theo. Thomas Lt.-gov. 

1747 Anthony Palmer President. 

1748 James Hamilton Lt.-gov. 
1754 Robert Hunter Morris Lt.-gov, 
1766 William Denny Lt.-gov. 

1769 James Hamilton Lt.-gov. 

1763-70 John Penn Lt.-gov. 

1771 James Hamilton President. 

1771-7 Richard Penn Lt.-gov. 



TABLE 131 



CANADA 



GOVERNORS AND GOVERNORS-GENERAL 

1763-6 Lt.-Gen. James Murray Governor q/* Canada {Governor o/" Quebec 1760). 
1767-70 Major-Gen. Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester), Governor (>/* Quebec {Acting 
Governor). 
1770-5 President Hector C. Cramabe {Acting Governor). 
1776-8 Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester) Governor-general. 
1778-85 Lt.-Gen. Sir Frederick Haldimand Governor, Commander-in-chief. 
1786-96 Guy (Carleton) Lord Dorchester Governor-general. 

[1791-3 Lt.-Gov. Major-Gen. Alured Clarke Governor of 
Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec).] 



GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF UPPER AND LOWER CANADA 

1796-9 Gen. Robert Prescott. 

1799 Sir Robert Shore Milnes. 

1807 Gen. Sir James Henry Craig. 

1811 Gen. Sir George Prevost. 

1814 Major-Gen. Sir Gordon Drummond. 

1816 Gen. Sir John C. Sherbrooke {Governor o/Nova Scotia 1812-6). 

1818 Charles (Lennox) D. of Richmond. 

1819 George (Ramsay) E. of Dalhousie {Governor of Nova Scotia from 1816) 

Captain-general and Governor-in-chief. 
1828 Lt.-Gen. Sir James Kempt Governor-general {Governor of Nova Scotia 
1820-8). 

[Lt.-Gen. Sir John Colborne Lieutenant-Governor of Upper 
Canada 1828-35.] 
1830 Gen. Lord Aylmer. 
1836 Archibald (Acheson) E. of Gosford. 



GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN PROVINCES 

1838 John George (Lambton) E. of Durham High Commissioner and Governor- 

general. 

1839 Charles Edward Poulett Thomson (Visct. Sydenham). 
1841 Sir Charles Bagot. 

1843 Sir Charles Theophilus (Lord) Metcalfe. 

1846 Charles Murray (Cathcart) 2nd E. of Cathcart and Commander-in-chief. 

1847 James E. of Elgin and Kincardine. 
1854 Sir Edmund Walker Head. 

1861 Charles Stanley (Monck) Visct. Monck. 



TABLE 131 {continued^ 

GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF THE DOMINION OF CANADA 

1867 Visct. Monck. 

1869 Sir John Young (Lord Lisgar). 

1872 Frederick (Temple Hamilton-Blackwood) E. of Dufferin 

(M. of Dufferin and Ava). 

1878 John (Campbell) M. of Lome (D. of Argyll). 

1883 Henry Charles Keith (Petty-Fitzmaurice) M. of Lansdowne. 

1888 Frederick Arthur Lord Stanley of Preston. 

1893 John Campbell (Hamilton-Gordon) E. of Aberdeen. 

1898 Gilbert (Elliot) E. of Minto. 

1904 Albert Henry George (Grey) Earl Grey. 

1911 Arthur D. of Connaught. 

Prime Ministers. 

Sir John Macdonald, 1867-73. 

Alexander Mackenzie, 1873-8. 

Sir John Macdonald, 1878-91. 

Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, 1891-2. 

Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, 1892-4. 

Sir Mackenzie Bowell, 1894-6. 

Sir Charles Tupper, 1896. 

Sir Wilfrid Laurier, 1896. 



TABLE 132 



AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

(1) GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF THE COMMONWEALTH {established 1901) 

1901 John Adrian Louis (Hope) E. of Hopetoun (M. of Linlithgow). 

1902 Hallam (Tennyson) Lord Tennyson. 

1904 Henry Stafford (Northcote) Lord Northcote. 
1908 WiUiam H. (Ward) E. of Dudley. 

Prime Ministers. 

Sir Edmund Barton, 1901-3. 
Alfred Deakin, 1903-4. 
George Houstoun Reid, 1904-5. 
Alfred Deakin, 1905-8. 
Andrew Fisher, 1908. 

(2) GOVERNORS OF NEW SOUTH WALES FROM 1856 

[1788-92 Capt. Arthur VhiWv^ first Governor. '\ 

1855 Sir William Thomas Denison. 

1861 Sir John Young (Lord Lisgar). 

1868 Somerset (Lowry-Corry) 4th Earl of Belmore. 

1872 Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson. 

1885 Charles Robert (Wynn-Carrington) Lord (E. of) Carrington. 

1891 Sir Robert Duff. 

1895 Henry (Brand) Yisct. Hampden. 

1899 William (Lygon) Earl Beauchamp. 

1902 Admiral Sir Harry Rawson. 

1909 Frederic John Napier (Thesiger) Lord Chelmsford. 



(3) GOVERNORS OF VICTORIA FROM 1851 

[Victoria created a separate colony in July, 1851; responsible government 
established 1854.] 

1851 Charles Joseph La Trobe Lt.-gov. 

1864 Capt. Sir Charles Hotham Lt.-gov., 1865 Governor. 

1856 Sir Henry Barkly. 

1864 Sir Charles Henry Darling. 

1866 Sir John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton (Visct. Canterbury). 

1873 Sir George Ferguson Bowen. 

1879 George Augustus Constantino (Phipps) 2nd M. of Normanby. 

1884 Sir Henry Brougham Loch. 

1889 John Adrian Louis (Hope) 7th E. of Hopetoun. 

1895 Thomas Lord Brassey. 

1901 Sir George Sydenham Clarke. 

1904 Sir Reginald Talbot. 

1908 Sir Thomas David Gibson Carmichael. 

C. M. H. 10 



TABLE 132 {continued)^ 



(4) GOVERNORS OF QUEENSLAND FROM 1869 

1859 Sir George Ferguson Bowen. 

1868 Col. Samuel Wensley Blackall. 

1871 George A. C. (Phipps) 2nd M. of Normanby. 

1875 William Wellington Cairns. 

1877 Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy. 

1883 Sir Anthony Musgrave. 

1889 Gen. Sir Henry Wylie Norman. 

1896 Charles W. A. N. (Cochrane-Baillie) Lord Lamington. 

1901 Sir Samuel Walker Griffith. 

1902 Major-Gen. Sir Herbert Charles Chermside. 
1905 Frederic J. N. (Thesiger) Lord Chelmsford. 
1909 



(5) GOVERNORS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA FROM 1856 

1855 Sir Richard Graves MacDonnelL 

1862 Sir Dominick Daly. 

1869 Sir James Fergusson. 

1873 Sir Anthony Musgrave. 

1877 Sir William W. Cairns. 

Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois. 

1883 Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson. 

1889 Algernon H. T. (Keith-Falconer) E. of Kintore. 

1895 Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton. 

1899 Hallam (Tennyson) Lord Tennyson. 

1903 Sir George Ruthven Le Hunte. 

1908 Admiral Sir Day Hort Bosanquet. 

[Sir Samuel James Way Administrator 9 times, 1877-1902.] 



(6) GOVERNORS OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA FROM 1869 

[1829-69 governed by Lt. -governors under the Colonial Office.] 
(The dates in this list are those of appointment.) 

1869 Frederick Aloysius Weld. 

1874 W. C. F. Robinson. 

1877 Major-Gen. Sir Harry St George Ord. 

1880 Sir W. C. F. Robinson. 

1883 Sir Frederick Napier Broome. 

1890 Sir W. C. F. Robinson. 

1895 Col. Sir Gerard Smith. 

1901 Sir Arthur Lawley. 

1903 Admiral Sir Frederick George Denham Bedford. 

1909 Sir Gerald Strickland. 



TABLE 132 {continued). 



I 



(7) GOVERNORS OF NEW ZEALAND FROM 1840 

1840 Capt. W. Hobson. 

1843 Capt. Robert Fitzroy. 

1845 Sir George Grey. 

1855 CoL Sir Thomas Gore Browne. 

1861 Sir George Grey. 

1868 Sir George Ferguson Bowen. 

1873 Sir James Fergusson. 

1874 George A. C. (Phipps) 2nd M. of Normanby. 

1879 Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson. 

1880 Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon. 
1883 Lieut. -Gen. Sir W. F. D. Jervois. 

1889 William Hillier (Onslow) 4th E. of Onslow, res. 1891. 

1892 David (Boyle) 7th E. of Glasgow. 

1897 Uchter John Mark (Knox) 5th E. of Ranfurly. 

1904 William Lee (Plunket) 5th Lord Plunket, Gov. and 

Commander-in-chief. 

1910 John Poynder (Dickson-Poynder), Lord Islington. 



(8) GOVERNORS OF TASMANIA FROM 1856 

1855 Sir Henry Edward Fox Young. 

1861 Col. Sir T. Gore Browne. 

1869 Sir Charles Du Cane. 

1875 Frederick A. Weld. 

1881 Maj. Sir George Cumine Strahan. 

1886 Sir Robert George Crookshank Hamilton. 

1893 Jenico W. J. (Preston) 14th Visct. Gormanston. 

1900 Sir Arthur Havelock. 

1904 Sir Gerald Strickland. 

1909 Major-Gen. Sir Harry Barron. 



10—2 



TABLE 133 



SOUTH AFRICA 

{Deputy or Acting Governors omitted.) 

(1) GOVERNORS OF CAPE COLONY 1796—1906 

1796 Gen. James Henry Craig. 

1797 George (Macartney) Earl Macartney. 
1799 Sir George Yonge. 

1803 Jan Willem Jansens {under the Batavian Republic), 

1806 Sir David Baird. 

1807 Du Pre' (Alexander) E. of Caledon. 
1811 Sir John Francis Cradock. 

1814 Lord Charles Henry Somerset. 

1828 Hon. Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole. 

1834 Sir Benjamin D' Urban. 

1838 Sir Geo. Thos. Napier. 

1843 Sir Peregrine Maitland. 

1847 Maj.-Gen. Sir Henry Pottinger. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir Henry George Wakelyn Smith. 

1862 Lieut. -Gen. George Cathcart. 

1864 Sir George Grey, recalled 1869, restored 1860. 

1861 Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse. 

1870 Sir Henry Barkly. 

1877 Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere. 

1881 Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson (Lord Rosmead). 

1889 Sir Henry Brougham Loch. 

1895 Sir Hercules Robinson. 

1897 Sir Alfred Milner (Visct. Milner). 

1901 Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson. 



(2) LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS AND GOVERNORS OF NATAL 

[Natal was erected into a separate colony in 1866.] 

Lieutenant-Governors 

1866 John Scott. 
1864 John Maclean. 

1867 Robert William Keate. 

1872 Anthony Musgrave. 

1873 Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine. 
1876 Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer. 



TABLE 138 {continued^ 

NATAL {continued) 

Governors 

1879 Gen. Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley (Visct. Wolseley). 

1880 Maj.-Gen. Sir George Pomeroy CoUey. 
1882 Sir Henry E. G. Bulwer. 

1886 Sir Arthur Elihank Havelock. 

1889 Lieut. -Col. Sir Charles Mitchell. 

1893 Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson. 

1901 Sir Henry Edward McCallum. 

1907 Sir Matthew Nathan. 

(3) SOUTH AFRICA, HIGH COMMISSIONERS 

1900 Visct. Milner. 
1905-10 Wm. Waldegrave (Palmer) 2nd E. of Selborne. 

(4) SOUTH AFRICAN CONFEDERATION 

Governor-General 

1910 Herbert (Gladstone) Visct. Gladstone. 



TABLE 134 



EGYPT AND THE SUDAN 



L AGENTS AND CONSULS-GENERAL IN EGYPT 

1883 Evelyn (Baring) Visct. (E. of) Cromer. 
1907 Sir Eldon Gorst. 



II. GOVERNORS-GENERAL OF THE SUDAN PROVINCES 
AND SIRDARS OF THE EGYPTIAN ARMY 

1896 Horatio Herbert (Kitchener) Visct. Kitchener. 
1899 Sir Francis Reginald Wingate. 



TABLE 136 

THE NETHERLANDS 

GOVERNORS OF THE NETHERLANDS 

1477 C. Adolphus of Cleves-Ravenstein. 

1485-6 C. Engelbert II of Nassau-Breda. 

1486-94 Albert D. of Saxony. 

1506-7 William of Croy M. of Aerschot. 

1507-30 Margaret of Austria, Dss. of Savoy. 

1531-55 Mary of Austria, Q. of Hungary. 

1556-9 Emmanuel Philibert, D. of Savoy. 

1559-67 Margaret of Austria, Dss. of Parma. 

1567-73 Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, D. of Alva. 

1573-6 Luis de Requesens y Zuniga. 

1576-8 Don John of Amtria. 

1678 Alexander Farnese, D. of Pai-ma. 

GOVERNORS OF THE SOUTHERN (SPANISH) NETHERLANDS 

1581-92 Alexander Farnese, D. of Parma. 

1692-4 C. Peter Ernest of Mansfeld. 

1594-6 Archd. Ernest of Austria. 

1596-6 Pedro Henriquez de Acevedo, C. of Fuentes. 

1696-1633 Archd. Albert of Austria (t 1621) and Clara Isabella Eugenia, 
Infanta {dau. of Philip II, t 1633). 

1633-4 Ferdinand, Card. Infant. 

1641-4 Francisco de Mello, M. of Terceira. 

1644-7 Emmanuel de Moura Cortereal, M. of Castel llodrigo. 

1647-56 Archd. Leopold William of Austria. 

1666-9 Don Juan of Austria. 

1659-64 Louis de Benavides Carillo, M. of Fromiata. 

1664-8 Francisco de Moura Cortereal, M. of Castel Rodrigo. 

1668-70 Inigo Fernandez de Velasco, D. of Feria. 

1670-5 Juan Domingo de Zuniga y Fonseca. 

1675-7 Carlos de Gurrea, D. of Villahermosa. 

1678-82 P. Alexander Farnese. 

1682-5 Otto Henry, M. of Caretto. 

1686-92 Fr. Antonio de Agurto, M. of Castagna. 

1692-1706 Maximilian II, El. of Bavaria (deputy 1701-4, M. of Bedmar). 

[1706-14 the Southern Netherlands under joint rule of England and the Allies.ll 



GOVERNORS OF THE AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS 

1716-24 P. Eugene Francis of Savoy. 
1724-41 Archdss. Maria Elizabeth (dau. of Leopold I). 
1741-4 C. Frederick Augustus von Harrach-Rohran. 
1744-80 Archdss. Maria Anna {dau. of Charles VI, t 1744) and Prince 

Charles Alexander of Lorraine. 
1781-93 Archdss. Maria Christina {dau. of Francis I) and Albert, D. of Saxe- 
Teschen. 
1793-4 Archd. Charles Lewis. 



TABLE 136 



HUNGARY AND TRANSYLVANIA 



PALATINES (FROM MATTHIAS CORVINUS) 



1458-81 Michael Orsagh of Guth. 

1482-4 Vacancy. Urban Doczy, Bp. of Erlau, Commissioner. 

[Palatines elected from 1485 for life by the Diet ; Commissioners appointed 

by the Somreign.] 

1485-7 Emeric Zapdlya. 

1488-91 Vacancy. Bp. Doczy, Commissioner. 

1492-9 Stephen Zapdlya. 

1600-3 Peter Gereb of Wyngarth. 

1604-19 Emeric Perenyi. 

1519-26 Stephen Bathory, dep. 

1525-6 Stephen Verbdczy. 

[Stephen Bathory, 1526 (+ 1531), for Ferdinand I. 

1626-33 Vacancy. Rivals \ Michael Kesserew, 1526-9, and 

I John Banffy, 1530-2, for John Zapdlya. 

1534 Alexius Thurso, Judex Curiae^ Commissioner. 

1635-63 Vacancy. 

1554-62 Thomas Nadasdy. 

1562-1608 Vacancy. Alexius Thurso and several ecclesiastics, Commissioners. 

1608-9 Stephen Illeshazy. 

1609-16 George Thurso. 

1617-21 Sigismund Forgaca. 

1622-5 Stanislaus Thurso. 

1625-45 C. Nicholas Esterhazy. 

1646-8 C. John Drasko\ ich. 

1649-55 Paul Palffy. 

1655-67 Francis Vesselenyi of Hadad. 

1668-80 Vacancy. 

1681-1713 C. Paul Esterhazy. 

1714-32 C. Nicholas Palffy. 

1732-41 Vacancy. Francis D. of Lorraine, Regent. 

1741-51 C. John Palffy. 

1761-61 C. Ludwig Ernest Batthyany. 

1762-89 Vacancy. 

1790-5 Archd. Leopold. 

1796-1847 Archd. Joseph. 

1847-8 Archd. Stephen {son of Archd. Joseph), t 1867. 

[Office of Palatine abolished 1867.] 



TABLE 136 {continued)^, 



PRINCES OF TRANSYLVANIA 



1526-40 


John I Zapdlya (Anti-K. of Hungary). 


1640-71 


John II Sigismund Zapdlya. 


1671-6 


Stephen I Bathory (K. of Poland, 1576). 


1676-81 


Christopher Bathory, Regent. 


1581-98 


Sigismund II Bathory. 


1598-9 


Andrew Bathory. 


1600-4 


Emp. Rudolf II. 




Rival, Sigismund Bathory, 1601-2. 




Claimant, Mozes Sze'khely, 1603. 




Imperial Deputy, George Basta, 1602-4. 


1604-6 


Stephen II Boczrai. 


1607-8 


Sigismund III Rakoczy, abd. 


1608-13 


Gahriel Bathory, murd. 


1613-29 


Gahriel Bethlen (Bethlen Gabor). 


1629 


Catharine of Brandenburg. 




Rival, Stephen Bethlen. 


1630-48 


George I Rakdczy. 


1648-60 


George II Rakoczy. 




1658-61, Claimants, Francis Rhedey, 




Achatius Barczai. 


1661-3 


John Kemenyi. 


1663-90 


Michael I ApaflFy. 


1690-1 


Michael II Apaffy. 




Claimant, Emeric Tokolyi 


1691 


Emp. Leopold I, recognised 1694. 



[Transylvania was united to Hungary until 1526, independent 1526-1691, 
dependent on Austria 1691-1713, created a grand duchy 1764.] 



TABLE 137 



GOVERNORS OF MILAN 



(IMPERIAL, SPANISH AND AUSTRIAN) 

(Some Governors who were in office for quite short periods are omitted.) 



1538-46 Alfonso d'Avalos, M. del Vasto. 

1646-56 Ferraiite Gonzaga, P. of Molfetta. 

1555-6 Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, D. of Alva. 

1566-8 Card. Cristofero Madruzzo. 

1558-60 Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba, D. of Sessa. 

1560-3 Francisco Fernando d'Avalos, M. of Pescara. 

1563-4 Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba, D. of Sessa. 

1564-71 Gabriel de la Cueva, D. of Alburquerque. 

1572-3 Luis de Requesens. 

1573-80 Antonio de Guzman, M. of Ayamonte. 

1580-3 Sancho de Guevara y Padilla. 

1583-92 Carlos de Aragona, P. of Castelvetrano. 

1592-5 Fernando de Velasco. 

1595-1600 Pedro de Padilla. 

1600-10 Pedro Henriquez de Acevedo, C. of Fuentes. 

1610-12 Fernando de Velasco. 

1612-14 Juan de Mendoza, M. de la Hinyosa. 

1614-16 Sancho de Luna. 

1616-18 Pedro Alvarez de Toledo, M. of Francavila. 

1618-25 Gomez Suarez de Figueroa y Cordoba, D. of Feria. 

1626-9 Gonzalez Fernandez de Cordoba. 

1629-30 Ambrogio, M. of Spinola. 

1630-1 Alvaro de Bazan, M. of Santa Cruz. 

1631-3 Gomez Suarez de Figueroa y Cdrdoba, D. of Feria. 

1633-4 Card. Fernando, Infant of Spain. 

1634-5 Card. Gil Albornoz. 

1635-41 Diego Felipe de Guzman, M. of Leganes. 

1641-3 Juan de Velasco, C. of Sirvela. 

1643-6 Antonio Sancho Davila, M. of Velada. 

1646-7 Bernardino Fernando de Velasco, C. of Haro, 

1647-8 Inigo Fernando de Velasco, C. of Haro. 

1648-56 Louis de Benavides, M. of Caracena. 

1666-60 Alonzo Perez de Vivero, C. of Fuensaldagna. 

1660-2 Francesco Gaetani, D. of Sermoneta. 

1662-8 Louis de Guzman Ponce de Leon. 

1668-70 Paolo Spinola, M. of los Balbases. 

1670-4 Gaspar Tellez Giron, D. of Osuna. 

1674-8 Claude Lamoral, P. of Ligne. 

1678-86 Juan T. Henriquez de Cabrera, C. of Melgar. 



TABLE 137 (continued^ 



1686-91 Antonio Lopez de Ayala Velasco y Cardenas^ C. of Fuensalida. 

1691-8 Diego Felipe de Guzman, M. of Leganes. 

1698-1706 P. Charles Henry of Lorraine- Vaudemont. 

1706-17 P. Eugene of Savoy. 

1717-9 P. Maximilian Charles of Loewenstein. 

1719-25 C. Girolamo Colloredo. 

1725-36 C. Wirich Philip von Daun. 

1736-43 C. Otto Ferdinand von Traun. 

1743-5 P. George Christian von Lobkowitz. 

1745-7 Gian Luca Pellavicini. 

1747-50 C. Ferdinand Bonaventura von Harrach. 

1750-4 Gian Luca Pellavicini. 



1754-71 Francesco III, D. of Modena. 



1771-96 Archd. Ferdinand of Austria. 



Plenipotentiaries 
1764-8 C. Beltrame Cristiani. 
1758-82 C. Charles Firmian. 
1782-92 C. Joseph Wilczek. 



TABLE 138 






VICEROYS OF NAPLES AND SICILY 

A. SPANISH VICEROYS OF NAPLES 1604-1734 

[Naples, with Sicily, united to the Crown of Spain from 1503 tUl 1713 (1707); 1714 
transferred to Austria ; from 1735 to 1860, loith Sicily, as kingdom of the Two 

Sicilies, under Spanish (Bourbon) younger line (but from 1806 to 1815 Naple* under 

French rule); 1860 became part of kingdom of Italy.] 

(Temporary Governors for short periods omitted,) 

1504-7 Gonsalvo de Cordoba. 

1507-9 Juan de Aragona, C. of Repacorsa. 

1509-22 Ramdn de Cardona. 

1522-4 Charles de Lanuoy. 

1524-6 Andrea CarafFa, C. of S. Severina. 

1527-9 Hugo de Moncada. 

1529-30 Philibert, P. of Orange. 

1530-2 Pompeo Colonna. 

1532-53 Pedro de Toledo, M. of Villafranca. 

1553-5 Card. Pedro Pacheco de Villena. 

1555 Bernardino de Mendoza. 

1555-8 Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, D. of Alva. 

1558 Juan Manriquez de Lara. 

„ Card. Bartolome de la Cueva d'Alburquerque. 

1558-71 Perefan de la Ribera, D. of Alcala. 

1571-5 Antonio Perrenot, Card, de Granvelle. 

1575-9 Ifiigo Lopez Hurtado de Mendoza, M. of Mondejar. 

1579-82 Juan de Zuniga, P. of Pietrapersa. 

1582-6 Pedro Giron, D. of Osuna. 

1586-95 Juan de Zuniga, C. of Miranda. 

1595-9 Enrique de Guzman. 

1599-1603 Fernando Ruiz de Castro, C. of Lemos. 

160.3-10 Juan Alfonso Pimentel d'Errera, C. of Benevento. 

1610-6 Pedro Fernandez de Castro, C. of Lemos. 

1616-20 Pedro Giron, D. of Osuna. 

1620-2 Card. Antonio Zapata. 

1622-9 Antonio Alvarez de Toledo, D. of Alva. 

1629-31 Fernando de Ribera, D. of Alcala. 

1631-7 Manuel de Guzman, C. of Monterey. 

1637-44 Ramiro de Guzman, D. of Medina de las Torres. 

1644-6 Juan Alfonso Henriquez. 

1646-8 Rodrigo Ponce de Leon, D. of Arcos. 

1648 Don Juan of Austria. 

1648-53 Inigo Velez de Guevara, C. of Onate. 

1653-9 Garcia de Avellaneda y Haro, C. of Castrillo. 

1659-64 Caspar de Bracamonte, C. of Penaranda. 



TABLE 138 (continued^ 

1664-5 Card. Pasquale of Ara^on. 

1665-71 Pedro Antonio de Arag-ona. 

1672-5 Antonio Alvarez, M. of Astorga. 

1675-83 Fernando Joaquin Fajardo, M. of Los Veles. 

1683-7 Gaspar de Haro, M. del Carpio. 

1687-95 Francisco Benavides, C. of Santisteban. 

1695-1702 Luis de la Cerda, D. of Medina Celi. 

1702-7 Juan Manuel Fernandez Pacheco de Acuiia, D. of Escalona and 
M. of Villena. 

Imperial Viceroys 

1707 C. George Adam von Martinitz. 

1707-8 Wirich Philip Lorenz, C. Daun, P. of Thiano. 

1708-10 Card. Vincenzo Grimani. 

1710-3 Carlo Borromeo, C. of Arona. 

1713-9 W. P. L., C. Daun, P. of Thiano. 

1719 C. John Wenzel Gallas. 

1719-21 Wolfgang Hannibal von Schrattenbach, Abp. of Olmiitz. 

1721-2 Marcantonio, P. Borghese. 

1722-8 Card. Michael Frederick von Althann. 

1728-33 C. Aloys Thomas Raymond Harrach. 

1733-4 Giulio de' Visconti, 



B. SPANISH VICEROYS OF SICILY FROM 1507 



[Sicily 1409 united with the Grovm of Aragon (1512 of Spain) ; 1713 transferred, 
as kingdom, to Savoy; 1720 tcr Austria.] 

{Temporary Governors for short periods omitted.) 

1507-9 Ramon de Cardona. 

1509-16 Ugo de Moncada. 

1617-34 Ettore Pignatelli, C. of Monteleon. 

1535-46 Ferdinando de Gonzaga, D. of Guastalla. 

1547-57 Juan de Vega. 

1557-65 Juan de la Cerda, D. of Medina Celi. 

1565-7 Garcia de Toledo. 

1666-7 Carlos de Aragona, D. of Terranova. 

1568-71 Francisco Fernando d'Avalos, M. of Pescara. 

1571-7 Carlos de Aragona, P. of Castelvetrano, Presidente del regno. 

1577-84 Marcantonio Colonna, D. of Tagliacozzo. 

1585-91 Diego Henriquez de Guzman, C. of Alva de Liste. 

1692-6 Henrique de Guzman, C. of Olivares. 

1695-8 Giovanni Ventimiglia, M. of Gerace, Presidente del regno. 

1698-1601 Bernardino de Cardines, D. of Macqueda. 

1602-6 Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa, D. of Feria. 



TABLE 138 (continued)^ 

1607-10 Juan Fernandez Pacheco, M. of Villena and D. of Escalona. 

1611-16 Pedro Gir6n, D. of Osiina. 

1616-22 Francisco de Lemos, C. of Castro. 

1622-4 Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, P. of Oueglia. 

1625-7 Antonio Pimentel, M. of Tavora. 

1627-32 Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva, D. of Alburquerque. 

1632-6 Fernando de Ribera, D. of Alcala, Luogotenente and Cap.-gen. 

1635-9 Luis de Moncada, P. of Paterno and D. of Montalto^ 
Presidente del regno. 

1639-41 Francisco de Mello de Braganza, C. of Assumar. 

1641-4 Alfonso Henriquez de Caprera_, C. of Modica. 

1644-7 Pedro Fajardo de Zuniga y Requesens_, M. of Los Veles. 

1649-51 Don Juan of Austria. 

1651-5 Rodrigo de Mendoza Roxas y Sandoval, D. of Infantado. 

1655-6 Juan Tellez Giron, D. of Osuna. 

1657-60 Pietro Rubeo, Abp. of Palermo, Presidente del regno. 

1660-3 Fernando de Ayala, C. of Ayala. 

1663-7 Francesco Gaetano Romano, D. of Sermoneta. 

1667-70 Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva, D. of Alburquerque. 

1670-4 Claude Lamoral, P. of Ligiie. 

1674-6 Fadrique de Toledo, M. of Villafranca. 

1676 Angelo de Guzman, M. of Castel Rodrigo. 

1677-8 Card. Luis Fernandez de Portocarrero, Abp. of Toledo. 

1678 Vincenzo da Gonzaga, P. of the Empire. 

1679-87 Francisco Bonavides, C. of San Stefano. 

1687-96 Juan Francisco Paclieco, D. of U9eda. 

1696-1701 Pedro Colon, D. of Veragua. 

1701-2 Juan Manuel Fernandez Pacheco de Acuna, D. of 
Escalona and M. of Villena. 

1702-5 Card. Francisco del Giudice. 

1705-7 Isidor de la Cueva y Benavides, M. of Bedmar. 

1707-13 Carlo Spinola, M. of Los Balbases. 

Viceroys of Victor Amadeus II, D. of Savoy, K. of Sicily 

1714-8 C. Annibale Maffei. 

1718 Giovanni Francesco di Bette, M. of Lede. 



Austrian Viceroys 

1720-2 Niccolo Pigiiatella, D. of Monteleon. 
1722-8 Fra Joaquin Fernandez Portocarrero, M. of Almenara. 
1728-34 Cristobal Fernando de Cordoba, C. of Sagasta. 



TABLE 139 



Henry VII 

1485-1509 



Henry VIII 

1609-47 



CHIEF MINISTERS IN ENGLAND (FROM HENRY VII) 

Sovereigns 

Card. Morton (Abp. of Canterbury), Lord Chancellor 
1487-1500. 

Richard Fox, Bp. of Winchester, Sec. of State and Lord 
Privy Seal 1485-1516. 

Thomas E. of Surrey (1514 D. of Norfolk), Lord High 
Treasurer 1501-22. 

Card. Wolsey, Abp. of York, Lord Chancellor 1515-29. 

Sir Thomas More, Lord Chancellor 1529-32. 

Thomas Cromwell, E. of Essex, Sec. of State 1534, Vicar- 
General 1535, Lord Privy Seal 1536-40. 

Sir Thomas Wriothesley (E. of Southampton), Lord Chan- 
cellor 1544-7. 

Edward Seymour, D. of Somerset, Protector 1547-9. 

John Dudley, D. of Northumberland, 1550-3. 

Stephen Gardiner, Bp. of Winchester, Lord Chancellor 
1553-6. 

William Lord Paget, Lord Privy Seal 1556-8. 

Sir William Cecil, Lord Burghley, Sec. of State 1558, Lord 
High Treasurer 1572-98. 

Sir Robert Cecil, Sec. of State 1596-1603. 

Sir Robert Cecil, E. of Salisbury, Secretary 1603-8, Lord 
High Treasurer 1608-12. 

George Villiers, D. of Buckingham, Master of the Horse 
1616, Lord High Admiral 1619. 

D. of Buckingham, 1625-8. 

Sir Thomas Wentworth, E. of Strafford, Pres. of the Council 
of the North 1628-33, Lord Deputy of Ireland 1633-41. 
[Commonwealth 1649] John Bradshaw, Pres. of the Council of State 
[Protectorate 1653-9 1649-53. 



Edward VI 

1547-53 
Mary I 

1553-8 

Elizabeth 
1558-1603 

James I 

1603-25 



Oharles I 

1625-49 



Oliver Cromwell, 
Protector 1653-8. 

Richard Cromwell, 
Protector 1658-9] 

Charles II 
1660-85 



James II 

1685-8 
William III 
1689-1702 
and 
Mary II 
1689-94 



John Thurloe, Sec. of the Council of State 1653-60. 



Edward Hyde, E. of Clarendon, Lord Chancellor 1660-7. 
{''The Cabal") Henry Bennet, E. of Arlington, Sec. of State 

1667-73. 
Sir Thomas Osborne, E. of Danby, Lord High Treasurer 

1673-8. 
Robert Spencer, E. of Sunderland, Sec. of State 1679-81 

and 1683-5. 
E. of Sunderland, Sec. of State and Lord Pres. of the 

Council 1685-8. 
Thomas Osborne, E. of Carmarthen (Danby) (1694 D. of 

Leeds), Lord Pres. of the Council 1690-5. 
(''The Junto") Charles Montagu, E. of Halifax, First Lord 

of the Treasury 1697-1700. 
Sidney Godolphin, Lord Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer 

1700-2. 



TABLE 139 (continued^ 

Sovereigns 

Anne E. of Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer 1702-10. 

1702-14 Robert Harley, E. of Oxford, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1710, 

Lord High Treasurer 1711-4. 
Henry St John, Visct. Bolingbroke, Sec. of State 1710-4. 
George I James Stanhope, E. Stanhope, Sec. of State 1714 and 1718-21, 

1714-27 First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer 

1717-8. 
Charles Townshend, Visct. Townshend, Sec. of State 1714-7, 

1721-30. 
Sir Robert Walpole, First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of 
the Exchequer 1721-7. 
George II The same 1727-42. 

1727-60 John Lord Carteret (E. Granville), Sec. of State 1742-3. 

Henry Pelham, First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of 

the Exchequer 1743-63. 
Thomas Pelham, D. of Newcastle, First Lord of the Treasury 

1764-6. 
William Cavendish, D. of Devonshire, First Lord of the Treasury 
1766-7. 

William Pitt, Sec. of State. 
D. of Newcastle, First Lord of the Treasury 1756-61. 
William Pitt. Sec. of State. 

(Henceforth the Prime Minister is almost invariably First Lord of the Treasury. ) 

George III John Stewart, E. of Bute, First Lord of the Treasury 1762-3. 

1760-1820 George Grenville, First Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer 

1763-6. 
Charles Wentworth- Watson, M. of Rockingham, 1766. 
Augustus Fitzroy, D. of Grafton, 1766-9. 

William Pitt, E. of Chatham, Lord Privy Seal. 
Frederick Lord North (E. of Guildford), 1770-82. 
M. of Rockingham, 1782. 

William Petty, E. of Shelburne (M. of Lansdowne), 1782-3. 
William Bentinck, D. of Portland, 1783. 

{Coalition Ministry) Lord North and Charles James Fox, 

Secretaries of State. 
William Pitt, First Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1783- 

1801. 
Henry Addington (Visct, Sidmouth), First Lord and Chancellor 

of the Exchequer 1801-4. 
William Pitt, First Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer 

1804-6. 
{"All the Talents") William Lord Grenville, 1806-7. 

Charles James Fox, Foreign Secretary 1806. 
D. of Portland, 1807-9. 
Spencer Perceval, First Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer 

1809-12. 
Robert Banks Jenkinson, E. of Liverpool, First Lord and 

Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1812-20. 



TABLE 139 (continued^ 



Sovereigns 

George IV 

1820-30 



William IV 

1830-7 



Victoria 
1837-1901 



Edward VII 

1901-10 



George V 

1910 



E. of Liverpool, 1820-7. 

George Canning, First Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1827. 

Frederick John Robinson, Visct. Goderich (E. of Ripon), 1827. 

Arthur Wellesley, D. of Wellington, 1827-30. 

Charles Grey (Lord Howick), Earl Grey, 1830-4. 

William Lamb, Visct. Melbourne, 1834. 

Sir Robert Peel, First Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer 

1834-6. 
Visct. Melbourne, 1835-7. 
The same, 1837-41. 
Sir Robert Peel, 1841-6. 
Lord John Russell (Earl Russell), 1846-62. 
Edward Stanley, E. of Derby, 1852. 
George Hamilton-Gordon, E. of Aberdeen, 1852-6. 
Henry J. Temple, Visct. Palmerston, 1866-8. 
E. of Derby, 1858-9. 
Visct. Palmerston, 1859-65. 
Earl Russell, 1865-6. 
E. of Derby, 1866-8. 
Benjamin Disraeli, 1868. 
William Ewart Gladstone, 1868-74 (Chancellor of the Exchequer 

1873). 
Benjamin Disraeli (E. of Beaconsfield from 1876), 1874-80. 
W. E. Gladstone, First Lord and Chancellor of the Exchequer 

1880-5. 
Robert A. T. G. Cecil, M. of Salisbury, Foreign Sec. 1886-6. 
W. E. Gladstone, First Lord and Privy Seal 1886. 
M. of Salisbury, First Lord 1886-92. 
W. E. Gladstone, First Lord and Privy Seal 1892-4. 
Archibald Philip Primrose, E. of Rosebery, First Lord and Lord 

Pres. of Council 1894-5. 
M. of Salisbury, Foreign Sec. 1896-1901. 
The same, 1901-2. 
Arthur James Balfour, 1902-6. 

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Prime Minister 1906-8. 
Herbert Henry Asquith, Prime Minister 1908-10, 
The same. 



I: 

i 



C. Bf. H. 



11 



TABLE 140 



CHIEF MINISTERS IN FRANCE (FROM HENRY IV) 



Sovereigns 
Henry IV 

1689-1610 

Louis XIII 

1610-43 



Louis XIV 

1643-1716 



Louis XV 

1715-74 



Louis XVI 

1774-92 dep. 
1793 ej;. 



[First Republic 

1792-1804 
The Consulate 1799-1802 
Bonaparte First Consul 

for Ufe 1802-4] 
Napoleon I 
1799 (Emp. 1804) 
-1814 



Maximilien de Bethune (Rosny), D. of Sully, 1697-1610. 

[Regent, 1610-4, Q. Marie (de' Medici)] Concini, Marshal 

d'Ancre, 1610-7. 
Charles d' Albert, C. (D.) of Luynes, 1617-21. 
Armand-Jean du Plessis, D. of Richelieu, Card., 1624-43. 
[Regent, 1643-62, Q. Anne (of Austria)] Jules Mazarin, 

1643-52. 
Jules Mazarin, Card. (First Minister), 1652-9. 
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (Comptroller-general), 1661-83. 
Fran9. -Michel le Tellier, M. of Louvois (Minister of War 

1666), 1671-91. 
[Regent, 1716-23, Philip, D. of Orleans] Card. Dubois, 

1718-23. 
Louis Henry, D. of Bourbon (First Minister), 1724-6. 
Andre'-Hercule Fleury, Bp. of Frejus, Card., 1726-43. 
Abbe F.-J. de Pierre de Bemis, C. of Lyon (Card.), 1756-8. 
Etienne-Fran9ois, D. of Choiseul, 1758-70. 
{''The Triumvirate") Armand Vignerot-Duplessis-Richelieu, 

D. d'AiguiUon, 1770-4. 
Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, M. de I'Aulne, 1774-6. 
Jacques Necker, 1776-8. 
Charles-Alexandre de Calonne, 1783-6. 
Lome'nie de Brienne, Card., 1787. 
J. Necker, 1788-90. 

C. Honore-Gabriel Riquetti de Mirabeau, 1791. 
The Directory, 1794-9. 



Louis XVIII 

1814-24 



Charles-Maurice Talleyrand C. de Perigord, P. of Benevento 
(Foreign Minister), 1799-1807. 

Fouche, D. of Otranto (Minister of Police), 1804-10. 
Maret, D. of Bassano (Foreign Minister), 1811-14. 
Savary, D. of Rovigo (Minister of Police), 1810-14. 
Talleyrand (First Minister), 1815. 
Armand-E.-S.-S. du Plessis, D. de Richelieu (First Minister), 

1816-21. 
C. Jean-Baptiste-G.-M.-S.-J. de Villele (First Minister), 
1821-4. 



TABLE 140 {continued^ 



Sovereigns 

Charles X 

1824r-30 



Louis-Philippe 

1830-48 



Second Republic 
1848-62 



Napoleon ICE 
Emp. 1862-70 



C. de Villele, 1824-7. 

Jean-Baptiste-S.-Gaye, Vic. de Martigiiac (First Minister), 

1828-9. 
Auguste-J.-A.-M.-B., P. de Polignac, 1829. 
Jacques Laffitte, 1830-1. 
Casimir Perier, 1831-2. 
{"Les Doctrinaires") Marshal Soult, 1832-6. 
M.^.-Louis-Adolphe Thiers, 1836. 
Fran9ois-Pierre-Guillaume Guizot, 1836-7. 
Louis-Matthieu, C. Mole', 1837-9. 
A. Thiers, 1839-40. 
F.-P.-G. Guizot, 1840-8. 
Provisional Government : 

President : Jacques-Charles Dupont (de I'Eure). 

Foreign Minister : Alphonse de Lamartine (February - 
June). 

Minister of War : General L.-C. Cavaignac (May — June). 
National Assembly : 

Head of Executive : General Cavaignac (June — De- 
cember). 
Presidency of Prince Louis-Napoleon ; 

Camille-Hyacinthe-Odilon Barrot, 1848-9. 

Eugene Rouher, 1849-61. 
Charles-Auguste-Louis-Joseph, D. de Momy, President of 

the Legislative Assembly, 1851-65. 
Eugene Rouher (1855-9) (First Minister), 1863-9. 
O.-Emile Ollivier (First Minister), Jan.— Aug. 1870. 



Third Republic 

1870 

Government of 

National Defetux 

1870-1 

A. Thiers, Chief of 

Executive Power j 

Feb.— Aug. 1871 

{For list of Presidents 

see Table 124) 



Gen. Trochu (President); Jules Favre (Foreign Affairs); 
Leon Gambetta (Minister for the Interior). 

J. Favre (Foreign Affairs) Feb.— July 1871. 

C. Charles de Remusat (Foreign Affairs) July 1871— May 1873. 

Jacques- Victor-Albert Due de Broglie, 1873. 

Louis-Joseph Buffet, 1875. 

Jules-Armand-Stanislas Dufaure, 1876. 

Jules Simon, 1876. 

Due de Broglie, 1877. 

(Gen. Rochebouet, 1877.) 

J.-A.-S. Dufaure, 1877. 

William Hugh Waddington, 1879. 

Charles-Louis de S. de Freycmet, 1879. 

Jules Ferry, 1880. 

Leon Gambetta, 1881. 

C.-L. de S. de Freycinet, 1882. 

C.-J.-E. Duderc, 1882. 

11—2 



TABLE 140 {continued)^ 

Third Republic Jules Ferry, 1883. 

{c<mtinued) Eugene-Henri Brisson, 1886. 

C.-L. de S. de Freycinet, 1886. 

Rene' Goblet, 1886. 

Maurice Rouvier, 1887. 

Pierre-Emmanuel Tirard, 1887. 

Charles-Thomas Floquet, 1888. 

P.-E. Tirard, 1889. 

C.-L. de S. de Freycinet, 1890. . 

iJ^mUe Loubet, 1892. 

Alexandre-Felix-Joseph Ribot, 1892. 

Charles-Alexandre Dupuy, 1893. 

Jean-Paul-Pierre Casimir-Perier, 1893. 

C.-A. Dupuy, 1894. 

A.-F.-J. Ribot, 1896. 

Leon-Victor-Auguste Bourgeois, 1895. 

F^lix-Jules Meline, 1896. 

E.-H. Brisson, 1898. 

Pierre-Marie-Rene Waldeck-Rousseau, 1899. 

Justin-Louis-;6mile Combes, 1902. 

Jean-Maire-Ferdinand Sarrien, 1905. 

Georges-Benjamin-Eugene Clemenceau, 1906. 

Aristide Briand, 1909. 



TABLE 141 



CHIEF MINISTERS IN THE EMPIRE AND AUSTRIA 
(FROM CHARLES V TO 1871) 



Emperors 

Charles V 

1619-66 

Matthias 

1612-19 
Ferdinand 11 

1619-37 
Ferdinand III 
1637-57 

Leopold I 

1658-1705 



Joseph I 

1705-11 
Charles VI 

1711-40 
Francis I 
1746-65 

[Maria Theresa 
Q. of Hungary 
1740-80] 
Joseph II 

1765-90 
Leopold II 

1790-2 

E*rancis II 

1792-1804 



Arborio de Gattinara, 1519-30, Chancellor. 

Nicolas Perrenot, Sieur de Granvelle, 1530-50, Sec. of State. 

Card. Antonio Perrenot de Granvelle, 1550-8. 

Card. Melchior Klesl, 1611-18, Director of Privy Council. 



Privy 



P. Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, 1616-34, Oberstbofmeister 

and Director of Privy Council. 
C. Max von Trautmannsdorf, 1634-50, President of 

Council (Oberstbofmeister from 1628). 
P. Johann Weikhard von Auersperg, 1650-7. 
P. Wenzel Eusebius von Lobkowitz, 1669-74, President of 

Privy Council. 
C. Theodor von Strattman, 1683-93, Hofkanzler. 
C. Ferdinand Bonay von Harrach, 1698-1706, Oberstbof- 
meister and President of Conference of State. 
C. Jobann Wenzel Wratislaw, 1705-12, Bobemian Cbancellor 

and Member of Conference of State. 
Frbr. Josepb Christian von Bartenstein, 1727-53, Secretary 

of State. 
P. Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz, 1753-92, Hof- and Staats- 

kanzler. 
The same. 



The same. 



The same. 



C, John Pbilip Cobenzl, 1792-3, Hof- and Staatskanzler (from 
1793 for Italy only). 

Frbr. Jobn Amadous Francis Maria von Tbugut, 1793-1800, 
Director of State Chancery. 

C. Jobn Ludwig Joseph Cobenzl, 1800-5, Director of State 
Chancery. 

C. Jobn Philip Charles Stadion, 1805-9, Hof- and Staats- 
kanzler. 

Clement Wenzel Lothar, P. Metternich, Minister of Imperial 
House and of Foreign Affairs 1809-21, Haus-, Hof- and 
Staatskanzler 1821-48. 

C. Franz Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky, Minister of State 1826-40. 

B. Francis von Pillersdorff, Minister-President 1848. 
P. Felix von Schwarzenberg, Minister-President 1848-52. 

Alexander Bach, Minister of Interior 1849-59. 
Anton von Schmerling, Minister of Interior 1860-5. 

C. Belcredi, Minister-President and Minister of the Interior 

(1865-7). 
P. Carlos Auersperg, Minister-President (1868-70). 
C. Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust, Minister of Foreign 

Affairs 1866, Reicbskanzler 1867-71. 
{Austro-Hungarian Dual Government begins with the Ausgleich of 1871.) 



Emperors of Austria 
Francis 
1804r-36 



Ferdinand 
1835-48 



Francis Joseph 
1848 



TABLE 142 



CHIEF MINISTERS IN PRUSSIA (TO 1871) 



Sovereigns 
Frederick I 
(1688) 1701-13 



Frederick William I 
1713-40 



Frederick II 

1740-86 



Frederick William II 

1786-97 
Frederick William III 

1797-1840 



Frederick William IV 

1840-61 



Regency of Prince of Prussia 
( William I) 
1858-61 



William I 

1861-88 
(German Emp. 1871) 



[Eberhard Christoph Balthazar von Danckelmann, 

President and First Minister 1696-7.] 
John Casimir von Kolb, C. von Wartenburg, Ober- 
kammerherr 1697-1711. 

Heinrich Riidiger von Ilgen, Minister of State 

(Foreign Affairs) 1711-26. 
Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow, Minister 
of State 1713, Chief of General Supreme 
Directory 1723-39. 
C. Charles William Fink von Finkenstein, Minister of 

State 1747, Cabinet Minister 1749-1800. 
C. Ewald Friedrich von Hertzberg, Minister of State 
and Cabinet 1763-91. 

John Rudolf von Bischoffswerder, 1786-8, 
Adjutant 1786, Adjutant-Gen. 1789. 
C. Christian August Heinrich Kurt von Haugwitz, 

Cabinet Minister 1792-1806. 
Frhr. Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein, 1807-8. 
Frhr. Karl August von Hardenberg, Minister of 

State 1804-6, Chancellor of State 1810-22. 
C. Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg, President 

of Ministry 1848. 
Ludolf Camphausen, President of Ministry 1848-9. 

David Justus Hansemann, Minister of Finance 
1848. 
C. Frederick William von Brandenburg, 1848-60. 

General Joseph von Radowitz, Minister for 

Foreign AiFairs 1850. 
Otto Theodor von Manteuffel, Minister for 
Foreign Affairs 1860, President of Minis- 
try 1857. 
P. Anton of HohenzoUern, 1868-62. 

Rudolf von Auerswald, Minister without port- 
folio, 1858-62. 
C. Maximilian von Schwerin-Putzar, Minister 
of Interior 1859-62. 
P. Otto von Bismarck, 1862-90. 



TABLE 143 



CHANCELLORS OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE 



Emperors 
WilUaml 
Frederick III 
William n 



P. Otto von Bismarck, 1871-88. 

The same, 1888. 

The same, 1888-90. 

C. George Leo von Capri vi, 1890-4. 

P. Chlodwig von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, 1897-1900. 

P. Bernhard von Biilow, 1900-8. 

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, 1908. 



TABLE U4 



CHIEF MINISTERS IN THE KINGDOM OF ITALY 



Sovereigns 
Victor Emiuanuel II 

1862 (1849)-78 



Humbert I 

1878-1900 



Victor Emmanuel III 

1900 



C, Camillo Benso di Cavour, 1862-9 and 1860-1. 
[Sicily, Depretis Dictator, Crispi Sec. of State 1869-60.] 

Presidents of the Council of Ministers, 
B. Bettino Ricasoli, 1861-2. 
Urbano Rattazzi, 1862. 
Marco Minghetti, 1863-4. 
M. Alfonso La Marmora, 1864-6. 
B. B. Ricasoli, 1866-7. 
U. Rattazzi, 1887. 
Gen. Federigo Luigi Menabrea, 1867-9. 

Quintino Sella, 1861-73 (Finance). 

Giovanni Lanza, 1869-73 (Interior). 
M. Emilio Visconti-Venosta, 1869-73. 
M. Minghetti, 1873-6. 
Agostino Depretis, 1876-8. 

B. Giovanni Nicotera, 1876-7 (Interior). 
Francesco Crispi, 1878 Jan. -March. 
M. Cairoli, 1878 March-Dec. 

A. Depretis, 1878-87. 
F. Crispi, 1887-91. 
M. di Rudini, 1891-2. 
Giovanni Giolitti, 1892-3. 

F. Crispi, 1893-6. 

M. di Rudini, 1896-8. 

Gen. Luigi Pelloux, 1898-1900. 

M. Visconti-Venosta (Foreign Affairs), 1899-1901. 
Giuseppe Saracco, 1900-2. 
Giuseppe Zanardelli, 1902-3. 

G. Giolitti, 1903-6. 

B. Sonnino, 1906. 
G. Giolitti, 1906-10. 
Luigi Luzzatti, 1910. 



TABLE 145 



CHIEF MINISTERS IN SPAIN (FROM PHILIP III TO 1873) 



Sovereigns 
Philip III 
1598-1621 
Philip IV 

1621-65 

Charles 11 
1665-1700 
[Regent 1665-75, 
Queen Maria Anna] 



Philip V 
1700-46 



Ferdinand VI 

1746-59 
Charles in 

1769-88 



Charles IV 

1788-1808 

Ferdinand VII 

1814 (1808)-33 
Isabella II 

1833-68 dep. 
Regent 1833-40, 

Q. Cristina. 
Regent 1841-3, 

Gen. Espartero. 
1868 Interregnum 
Regent, Gen. Franc. 

Serrano Dominguez, 

D. of La Torre 
Amadeus (of Aosta) 
1870-3 abd. 



Francisco Gomez de Sandoval, D. of Lerma, 1598-1618. 

Cristoval Gomez de Sandoval, D. of Uceda, 1619-21. 

Gaspar Philip de Guzman, C. of Olivares {f'tlie Count- 
Duke"), 1621-43. 

Luis de Haro, D. of Carpio, 1643-61. 

Father Niethard (Card.), 1665-8. 

Fernando de Valenzuela, 1668-75. 

Don Juan of Austria, 1676-9. 

Juan Franc. Tomas de la Cerda, D. of Medina Celi, 1680-5. 

Emmanuel Joaquin de Toledo, C. of Oropesa, 1685-91. 

The C. of Melgar, D. of Sessa, D. of Infantado, C. of 
Monterey, Card. Portocarrero successively, 1691-1700. 

Card. Portocarrero, 1700-4. 

Pss. Orsini Camarera mayor, 1700-14. 

Card, del Giudice, 1714. 

Card. Giulio Alberoni, 1715-9. 

Jan Willem Ripperda, 1725-6. 

Jose' de Patino, 1726-36. 

de la Quadra, M. of Villarias, 1736-40. 

Jose Campillo, 1740-3. 

Zeno Somo de Villa, M. of Ensefiada, 1743-6. 

M. of Ensenada 

Jose de Carvajal y Lancaster) 

Francisco Borgia, M. of Squillace, 1760-6. 

Pedro Abarea y Bolea, C. of Aranda, 1766-73. 

Jose Guttierez de Solarzano, M. of Grimaldo (Foreign 
Minister), 1773-6. 

Jose Monino, M. of Florida Blanca, 1776-88. 

M. of Florida Blanca, 1788-92. 

C. of Aranda, 1792. 

Manuel de Godoy, P. of the Peace, 1792-1808. 

Jose Leon y Pizarro, 1816-8. 

Gen. Boldomero Espartero, 1837-40. 

Ramon Maria Narvaez, D. of Valencia, 1844-6 ; 1847-51 ; 

1856-7; 1863; 1865-8. 
Enrique O'Donnell, C. de La Bisbal, 1856 ; 1858-63 ; 1864-5. 



\ 1746-54. 



Gen. Juan Prim, M. of Los Castillejos, 1870. 
Gen. Serrano, 1871 (Jan.-July). 
Ruiz Zorrilla, 1871 (July-Dec). 
Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, 1871-2. 
Adm. Topete, 1872 (May-June). 
R. Zorrilla, 1872-3. 



TABLE 146 

SECULARISED BISHOPRICS 

[Principal dates of secularisation : 

Peace of Westphalia, 1648. 
Peace of Luneville, 1801. 
Reichsdepntationsrecess, 1802. 
Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, 1 803. 
Peace of Pressburg, 1805. 
Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, 1806. 
Peace of Tilsit, 1807. 
Peace of Paris, 1814. 
Peace of Vienna, 1816. 
Treaty of Prague, 1866.] 
Bishoprics of: 

Augsburg. 1803 annexed to Bavaria. 
Bamberg. 1803 annexed to Bavaria. 

After introduction of Reformation at B. (1629) Bishops reside at Prunstrut. 

Basel. 1792 see declared itself a Republic. 1793 annexed by French Republic. 

1803 territory on right bank of Rhine ceded by France to Baden. 1814 

territory on left bank assigned to Switzerland. 

Brandenburg. Lutheran 1639; territory divided between Elector and local 

nobility. 
Bremen (Bremen-Hamburg) (Archbprc). Lutheran from 1658. Duchy of 
Bremen ceded to Sweden 1648 ; 1716 (confirmed, 1719) sold by Denmark 
to Hanover ; 1866 annexed to Prussia. 
Cologne (Archbprc. ). 1801 territory on left bank of Rhine annexed to France, 
1816 to Prussia. On right bank of Rhine divided between : 

(a) Wied-Runkel (annexed 1806 to Nassau, 1816 to Prussia). 

(6) Nassau-Usingen (annexed 1815 to Prussia). 

(c) Hesse-Darmstadt (annexed 1816 to Prussia). 

(d) Aremberg (annexed 1816 to Prussia). 

Constance. 1803 annexed to Baden. Its dependency Conzenberg in 1803 
a fief of the Empire, 1806 annexed to Wiirtemberg. 

Eichstedt. 1803 created a principality for Archd. Ferdinand (as compensation 
for Tuscany). 1806-6 annexed to Bavaria. 

Freisingen. 1803 annexed to Bavaria. 

Halberstadt. 1486-1666 united with Magdeburg: 1648 annexed to Branden- 
burg : 1807 to kingdom of Westphalia ; 1816 to Prussia. 

Havelberg. 1648 practically annexed to Brandenburg. 

Hildesheim. 1803 annexed to Prussia: 1807 to Westphalia : 1813 to Hanover: 
1866 to Prussia. 

Liege. 1801 annexed by France : 1816 transferred to Netherlands as princi- 
pality of Liege. 

Liibeck. 1803 annexed to Oldenburg : 1842 to Holstein (in exchange). 

Magdeburg (Archbprc). After 1666 administered by temporal princes of 
Brandenburg or Saxony. 1648 annexed to Brandenburg on death of 
D. Augustus of Saxony (took effect 1680). 



TABLE 146 {continued\ 

Bishoprics of : 

Mainz (Archbprc). 1801 territory on left bank of Rhine annexed to France : 

later, divided between Hesse-Darmstadt and Rhenish Prussia. 

1803 the remainder (in exchange for compensatory dominions) ceded 

by the Imperial Chancellor and divided amongst: Hesse-Cassel, Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Nassau-Usingen, Leiningen, Lowenstein-Wertheim, Salm- 

Reifferscheid-Bedbur, and Prussia, which in 1866 acquired the shares 

assigned to Hesse-Cassel and Nassau-Usingen, and a portion of that of 

Hesse-Darmstadt. 
Meissen. Protestant from 1680. Merged in the Meissen Circle and united 

with Saxony. 
Merseburg. Protestant from 1661. Administered by Christian, 3rd son of 

John George I, El. of Saxony. Saxon principality, united with the 

Electorate 1738. Ceded to Prussia 1816. 
Metz. 1648 formally ceded to France. Secularised in French Revolution. 

1871 part of territory ceded to Germany. 
Minden. 1648 annexed to Brandenburg : 1807 to Westphalia ; 1810 to the 

French Empire ; 1813 to Prussia. 
Munster. 1719-1803 united with Archbprc. of Cologne ; 1803, and again 1813, 

to Prussia. 
Naumburg-Zeitz. Protestant from 1664. 1662 Saxon principality for Maurice, 

4th son of John George I. 1718 united with Electorate. 1815 greater 

part ceded to Prussia. 
Osnabriick. From 1648 the Bishop was alternately Roman Catholic and 

Protestant ; the latter always of the House of Brunswick-Luneburg. 1803 

annexed to Hanover: 1806 to Prussia: 1807 to Westphalia: 1810 to the 

French Empire: 1814 to Hanover : 1866 to Prussia. 
Paderborn. 1802 annexed to Prussia : confirmed 1803. 
Passau. 1803 Western and lesser portion annexed to Bavaria, Eastern and 

larger to Electorate of Salzburg, for the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 1806 the 

whole to Bavaria. 
Ratisbon. 1803 secularised and transferred as principality of Ratisbon to the 

Prince Primas. 1810 transferred to Bavaria. 
Ratzeburg. Lutheranised by Bp. Christopher (II) of Mecklenburg (t 1692), 

afterwards administered by Mecklenburg. 1648 annexed to Mecklenburg. 
Salzburg (Archbprc). 1802 assigned to Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany 

(except Miihldorf, annexed to Bavaria). 1805 ceded to Austria in exchange 

for Wiirzburg. 1809 annexed to Bavaria. 1814 reverts to Austria except 

portion on left bank of Salza, remaining to Bavaria. 
Schwerin. Lutheranised 1530 and from that date administered by princes of 

Mecklenburg (Schwerin). Annexed to Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1648 as 

compensation for Wismar. 
Speier. 1801 territory on left bank of Rhine (the lesser portion) annexed to 

France : 1814 to Bavaria. 

1803 territory on right bank (the larger portion) annexed to Baden. 1789 

outlying dependencies annexed by France, included in Alsace : 1816 part 

of these ceded to Bavaria. 1871 the remainder annexed by the German 

Empire (incl. in Elsass-Lothringea). 



TABLE 146 (continued). 

Bishoprics of : 

Strassburg. 1803 territory on right bank of Rhine annexed to Baden 
(principality of Ettenheim). 1789 territory on left bank (under French 
sovereignty since 1648) incorporated in Departments of Lower and Upper 
Alsace. 1871 annexed by German Empire. 

Toul. 1648 formally ceded to France. Secularised in French Revolution. 

Trent (Archbprc.) and Brixen. From 1611 reckoned as territorially belonging 
to Tyrol. 1803 annexed to Austria, as compensation for Ortenau, and 
incorporated with Tyrol- 
Trier (Archbprc). 1794 territory on left bank of the Rhine annexed to 
France ; 1803 to Prussia, except St Wendel, ceded to Coburg till 1834. 
1803 territory on right bank annexed to Nassau- Weilburg : 1816 to Prussia, 
with certain exceptions. 1866 the whole annexed to Prussia. 

Verden. 1648 secularised and ceded to Sweden. 1719 sold by Denmark to 
Hanover. 

Verdun. 1648 formally ceded to France. Secularised in French Revolution. 

Worms. 1706 district of Reithausen annexed to the Palatinate. 1801 territory 
on left bank of the Rhine annexed to France : 1814-5 divided between 
Bavaria and Hesse. 1803 territory on right bank of the Rhine annexed to 
Hesse-Darmstadt. 

Wurzburg. (1) 1803 major part annexed to Bavaria in compensation for 
lost Rhine provinces, as a hereditary principality: 1805 ceded to Grand 
Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany as compensation for Salzburg. 1815 restored 
to Bavaria : 1866 small portion in north ceded by Bavaria to Prussia. 

(2) 1803 minor part divided between (1) P. of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein: 
1806 transferred to Wiirtemberg with the rest of Hohenlohe ; (2) P. of 
Leiningen ; 1806 transferred to Baden ; (3) principality of AschafFenburg 
(1810 part of grand duchy of Frankfort) : 1814 transferred to Bavaria with 
Aschaffenburg ; (4) Wiirtemberg; (6) Ansbach-Baireuth (Prussian princi- 
palities of): 1806 ceded to Bavaria, 1810 to grand duchy of Wurzburg, 
1814 to Bavaria and Wiirtemberg. 



Fulda. (Abbey declared exempt bishopric 1762.) 1803-6 ceded in com- 
pensation to Nassau-Orange. 1809 to grand duchy of Frankfort. 1810 
Herbstein ceded to Hesse-Darmstadt. 1815 the rest to Prussia, but divided 
between : (1) Prussia, (2) Electoral Hesse (1866 annexed by Prussia), 
(3) Saxe- Weimar-Eisenach, and (4) Bavaria. 









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TABLE 148 



IMPERIAL DIETS 



{Dates of assembly, from 1486 ; meetings of Electors (Kurftirstentage) are 
not enumerated.) 



1486 Frankfort. 




1643 


Nurnberg. 


1489 Frankfort. 




1644 


Speier. 


1491 Niirnberg. 




1645 


Worms (removed to Ratisbon). 


1496 Worms. 




1647 


Augsburg. 


1496 Lindau (removed 


to Worms). 


1555 


Augsburg. 


1500 Augsburg. 




1556 


Ratisbon. 


1601 Nurnberg. 




1569 


Augsburg. 


1606 Cologne. 




1570 


Speier. 


1607 Constance. 




1676 


Ratisbon. 


1610 Augsburg. 




1682 


Augsburg. 


1612 Trier (removed to 


Cologne). 


1694 


Ratisbon. 


1618 Augsburg. 




1597 


Ratisbon. 


1621 Worms. 




1603 


Ratisbon. 


1623 Nurnberg. 




1608 


Ratisbon. 


1526 Speier. 




1613 


Ratisbon. 


1529 Speier. 




1623 


Ratisbon. 


1630 Augsburg. 




1640 


Ratisbon. 


1632 Ratisbon. 




1653 


Ratisbon. 


1641 Ratisbon. 




From 1663 


Diet permanently in session at 


1642 Speier. 






Ratisbon. 


1542 Nurnberg. 






(1806 Dissolution of Empire.) 



TABLE 149 



CONGRESSES AND CONFERENCES 
(SELECTION ONLY) 

{Dates of opening only are given.) 

1620 Field of the Cloth of Gold (Henry VIII and Francis I). 

1630 Conference of Bologna (Charles V and Clement VII). 

1632 Second Conference of Bologna (Charles V and Clement VII). 
1562 Conferences of Linz and Passau. 

1562 Conference of St Germain. 

1565 Conference of Bayonne. 

1594 Conference of Heilbronn. 

1 600 Conferences of Bergen-op-Zoom and Boulogne. 

1609 Conference of the Hague. 

1633 Convention of Heilbronn. 

1634 Conventions of Frankfort and Worms. 
1645 Congress of Westphalia. 

1650 Congress of Niirnberg. 

1677 Congress of Nymegen. 

1697 Congress of Ryswyk. 

1710 Conference of Gertruydenberg. 

1712 Congress of Utrecht. 

1713 Conference of Rastatt. 

1714 Congress of Baden. 
1724 Congress of Cambrai. 
1728 Congress of Soissons. 

1748 Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

1762 Conferences at Fontainebleau and Hubertusburg. 

1790 Congress of Reichenbach. 

1791 Conference of Pillnitz. 
1794 Congress of St Petersburg. 
1797 Congress of Rastatt. 

1800 Conference of Luneville. 

1801 Conference of Amiens. 

1807 Conference of Tilsit. 

1808 Congress of Erfurt. 

1814 Conference of Chatillon-sur-Seine. 

Conference at Paris. 

Congress of Vienna. 

Conference of Ghent. 
1816 Conference at Paris. 

1818 Conference of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

1819 Conference of Vienna. 

1820 Conference of Troppau. 

1821 Conference of Laibach. 

1822 Preliminary Conference at Vienna. 
Congress of Verona. 



TABLE 149 (continued),, 



1824 Conference of St Petersburg. 

1827 Conferences of London. m 

1849 Conference at Berlin. f 

1860 Conference of Dresden. 
Conference of London. 
1866 Conference of Paris. 
1871 Conference of London. 
1878 Conference of Berlin. 
1882 Conference at Tokio. 

1886 Conference at Tokio. 

1887 First British Colonial Conference. 
1889 Conference at Berlin (Samoa question). 

First Panamerican Conference at Washin^on 

1899 First Peace Conference at the Hague. 
Conference at Washington (Alaska Boundary). 

1900 Socialist Congress at Paris. 

1906 Conference of Algeciras. 

1907 Imperial British Colonial Conference. 
Second Peace Conference at the Hague. 

1908 International Naval Conference at London. 



TABLE 160 



LEAGUES AND ALLIANCES 

(SELECTION ONLY) 

1487 Swabian League founded (renewed 1512). 

1495 League of the Pope, the Emperor, Spain, Milan, and Venice against 

France. 

1496 Magnus Intercursus. (England and the Netherlands.) 
1508 League of Cambrai. 

1511 The Holy League. 

1512 Alliance of Scotland with France, and of Maximilian I with Julius II. 
1514 Alliance of Henry VIII and Louis XII. 

1516 French Concordat with the Papacy. 

1521 Alliance of Bruges (Henry VIII, Charles V, and Leo X). 

1522 Alliance of Windsor (Henry VIII and Charles V). 
1524 Catholic Alliance of Ratisbon. 

1526 League of Cognac. 
Alliance of Torgau. 

1531 League of Schmalkalden. 

1533 League of Halle. 

1536 Alliance of France and the Porte. 

1638 League of Nurnberg. 

1546 Alliance of Charles V and Paul III. 

1547 League of Princes (against Charles V). 

1548 Alliance of Scotland and France. 
1551 Habsburg Family Compact. 
1553 League of Heidelberg. 

1558 Landsberg League. 

1571 Triple Alliance (the Pope, Spain, and Venice) against the Turks. 

1576 French Catholic League formed. 

1577 Union of Brussels. 

1578 League between Savoy and Swiss Catholic Cantons. 

1579 League of Arras and Union of Utrecht. 

1696 Alliance of England, France, and United Provinces, 

1607 Franco- Venetian Alliance with the Grisons. 

1608 Union of Ahausen. 
Pressburg Alliance. 

1609 German Catholic League. 

1610 Alliance of Brosolo (France and Savoy against Milan). 
1614 League of French Princes. 

1633 Alliance of Heilbronn. 

1656 Alliance of England and France against Spain. 

1658 Confederation of the Rhine. 

1661 Defensive alliance of England and Brandenburg. 

1666 Quadruple Alliance (United Provinces, Denmark, Brandenburg, and 
Bruns wick-Liineb urg). 



TABLE 160 (continued^ 

1668 Triple Alliance (England, United Provinces, and Sweden) against France* 

1670 Secret Alliance between Louis XIV and Charles II. 

1683 The Hague Alliance. 

1684 The Holy League (the Emperor, Poland, and Venice) against the Turks. 

1685 Alliance of Brandenburg and the United Provinces. 

1686 Alliance of Brandenburg and the Emperor. 
Augsburg Alliance. 

1689 First Grand Alliance. 

1699 Alliance of Denmark, Poland, and Russia against Sweden. 

1701 Second Grand Alliance. 

1707 " Perpetual " Alliance of Sweden and Prussia. 

1709 Alliance of Denmark, Poland, and Russia against Sweden. 

171 6 Alliance of Great Britain, Russia, Denmark, and Prussia against Sweden. 

1717 Triple Alliance (France, Great Britain, and United Provinces). 

171 8 Quadruple Alliance (the same and the Emperor). 

1725 First Vienna Alliance (Spain, the Emperor, and the Empire; 1726 
joined by Russia). 
Alliance of Hanover (Great Britain, France and Prussia ; 1726 joined by 
United Provinces ; 1727 joined by Sweden and Denmark). 
1733 First Bourbon Family Compact. 

1743 Alliance of Fontaiuebleau (Second Bourbon Family Compact). 

1744 Secret Alliance between Prussia and Franc©. 
Union of Frankfort. 

1745 Alliance of Austria and Russia. 

1746 Alliance of France and Sardinia. 
Alliance of Denmark and France. 

1756 Convention of Westminster. 

Defensive Alliance of Versailles (second Treaty 1757). 
1761 Third Bourbon Family Compact. 

1767 Confederation of Radom. 

1768 Confederation of Bar. 

1773 Alliance of France and Sweden. 

1778 Alliance of France with the American Colonies ; 1779 joined by Spain ; 

1780 by Holland. 
1780 First Armed Neutrality. 

Alliance of Austria and Russia against the Porte. 
1785 Tlie Furstenhund. 

1788 Triple Alliance (Great Britain, United Provinces, and Prussia). 
1790 Alliance of Prussia with the Porte, and with Poland. 
1792 First Coalition (Prussia and Austria; 1793 joined by Great Britain, 
Holland, Spain, and the Italian States). 

1799 Second Coalition (Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples, and the Porte). 

1800 Second Armed Neutrality. 
1803 Swiss Act of Mediation. 

1805 Third Coalition (Great Britain, Austria, and Russia). 

1806 Confederation of the Rhine. 

1807 Fourth Coalition (Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia). 
1812 Secret Alliance between Russia and Sweden. 



TABLE 160 (c(mtinued)c 

1813 Alliance between Russia and Prussia. 

1814 Quadruple Alliance of Chaumont. 
Congress of Vienna. 

1815 Defensive Triple Alliance of Great Britain, Austria, and France. 
Alliance of the Eight Powers. 

The Holy Alliance. 

Renewal of Quadruple Alliance of Chaumont. 
1818 Renewal of Quadruple Alliance of Chaumont. 
1833 Secret Alliance of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. 
1845 The Sonderbund. 

1849 The Dreikonigsbiindniss (Prussia, Saxony, Hanover) and Union. 

1850 The Germanic Confederation revived. 

1851 Secret Alliance between Austria and Prussia. 

1864 Alliance of Great Britain and France (1855 joined by Sardinia). 

1863 Alliance of South American States against Spain. 

1866 Alliance of Italy and Prussia. 

1872 The Dreikaiserhund (1884 renewed). 

1876 Alliance between Servia and Bulgaria. 

1879 Secret Defensive Alliance between Germany and Austria. 

1882 Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, and Italy ; renewed quinquennially 

since). 

1896 Alliance between France and Russia. 

1902 Alliance between Great Britain and Japan (1905 amplified). 



TABLE 151 



UNIVERSITIES FOUNDED FROM 1450 

(The dates are where possible those of foundation. Dates enclosed in ( ) are those of 
second foundation. The names of universities which have ceased to exist or to hold 
rank of universities are enclosed in [ ].) 



I. EUROPE 



Great Britain and Ireland. 
Glasgow 1460. 
Aberdeen 1496. 
Edinburgh 1682. 
Dublin (Trinity College) 1591. 
Durham 1831. 
London 1836 (1900). 
Manchester, Victoria U. , 1880 (1903). 
[Ireland, Royal U. of, 1880.] 
Wales, U. of, 1893. 
Birmingham 1900. 
Liverpool 1903. 
Leeds 1904. 
Sheffield 1905. 
Belfast, Queen's U. of, 1909. 
Bristol 1909. 
Ireland, National U. of, 1910. 

AUSTRIA-H ungary. 
Pressburg 1467. 
Clausenburg 1580. 
[Olmutz 1581.] 
Graz 1586 (1817). 
[Salzburg 1623.] 
Budapest 1635 (1769). 
Innsbruck 1677 (1826). 
Lemberg 1784 (1817), 
Agram 1874. 
Czernowiz 1876. 

Belgium. 

Ghent 1816. 
Liege 1817. 
Brussels 1834. 
[Malines 1834.] 

Bulgaria. 

Sofia 1888. 

Denmark. 

Copenhagen 1479 (1539 and 1788). 



France. 

Nantes 1463. 
[Bourges 1464.] 
[Rheims 1647.] 
[Douai 1662.] 
[Besan9on 1664.] 
Dijon 1722. 

[Imperial University 1808 (Univer- 
sity of France).] 
Lyon 1808. 
Rennes 1808. 

[Free Catholic Faculties 1876.] 
Aix-en-Provence 1896. 
Clermont-Ferrand 1896. 
Lille 1896. 
Marseilles 1896. 
Nancy 1896. 

Germany. 

[Trier 1450.] 
Greifswald 1456. 
Freiburg-i.-B. 1467. 
[Ingolstadt 1472.] 
[Mainz 1477.] 
Tubingen 1477. 
[Wittenberg 1502.] 
Marburg 1527 (1650). 
Konigsberg 1644. 
[Dillingen 1549.] 
Jena 1557. 

Braunsberg 1564 (1818). 
[Helmstedt 1576.] 
[Neustadt (Palatinate) 1578.] 
Giessen 1607. 
[Paderborn 1614.] 
[Molsheim 1618.] 
[Rinteln 1621.] 
Strassburg 1621 (1872). 
[Altorf 1623.] 



TABLE 151 {continued\ 



Germany {continued), 
Kiel 1665. 
[Lingen 1685.] 
Halle 1693. 
Breslau 1702. 
Gottingen 1733. 
[Fulda 1734.] 
Erlangen 1742. 
Munster 1780 (1902). 
[Stuttgart 1791.] 
[Landshut 1802.] 
Berlin 1810. 
[EUwangen 1812.] 
Bonn 1818. 
Munich 1826. 

Greece. 

[Corfu 1824.] 
Athens 1837. 

Italy. 

Macerata 1540. 
Messina 1548. 
Parma 1549. 
[Milan 1565.] 
Sassari 1620 (1763). 
[Mantua 1625.] 
Urhino 1671. 
Camerino 1727. 
Cagliari 1764. 
Genoa 1812. 

The Netherlands. 
Ley den 1575. 
[Franeker 1585.] 
Utrecht 1636. 
Groningen 1815. 
Amsterdam 1877. 

Norway. 

Christiania 1811. 

Portugal. 

Counbra (1637) (1772). 

RoifMANIA. 

Jassy 1860. 
Bucharest 1864. 



Russia. 

Warsaw 1576 (1864). 
[Wilna 1576.] 
Kieff 1588 (1833). 
Dorpat 1632. 
[Abo 1640.] 

St Petersburg 1728 (1819). 
Moscow 1755 (1804). 
Kazan 1804. 
Kharkoff 1804. 
Helsingfors 1827. 
Odessa 1865. 
Tomsk 1879. 

Servia. 

Belgrade (1864). 

Spain. 

[Siguenza 1472.] 

Toledo 1474. 

Zaragossa 1474. 

[Alcala 1499.] 

Seville 1504. 

Granada 1531. 

San Jago di Compostella 1532. 

[Osuna 1548.] 

[Gandia 1549.] 

[Osma 1550.] 

[Orihuela 1552.] 

Oviedo 1580. 

Barcelona 1596. 

[Pamplona 1680.] 

[Cervera 1717.] 

Madrid 1836. 

Sweden. 

Upsala 1477. 
Lund 1666. 
Stockholm 1878. 
Goteborg 1887. 

Switzerland. 
Basel 1460. 
Zurich 1521 (1833). 
[Lausanne 1537.] 
Bern 1834. 
Geneva 1873. 
Fribourg 1889. 

Turkey. 

Constantinople 1900. 



TABLE 161 {continued)^ 



India. 

Bombay 1867. 

Calcutta 1867. 

Madras 1867. 

Lahore (Punjaub U.) 1882. 

Allahabad 1887. 

[Alighur.] 

Annam. 

Hanoi 1907. 



IL ASIA 



China. 

Peking 1867. 

Shansi (Imperial U.) 1902. 

Hongkong 1910. 
Japan. 

Tokio 1868. 

Kyoto 1897. 
Philippine Islands. 

Manila 1611. 
Syria. 

Beirut 1875. 



(See also Russia.) 



HI. AFRICA 



Egypt, 

Cairo 1908. 



South Africa. 

Cape Town 1873. 



IV. NORTH AMERICA 

Dominion op Canada 
Quebec 1678. Kingston (Queen's U.) 1840. 

Windsor (U. of King's College) 1788. Montreal (U. Laval) 1852 (1878). 

Halifax (Dalhousie U.) 1818. Lennoxville (U. of Bishop's College) 

Montreal (McGill U.) 1821. 1853. 

Toronto 1827 (1906). Winnipeg (U. of Manitoba) 1877. 

United States of America 
The localities are in ( ). 



Alabama. 

Southern U. (Greensboro) 1856. 
Alabama (Tuscaloosa) 1885. 

Arizona. 

Arizona (Tuscon) 1886. 

Arkansas. 

Arkansas (Fayetteville) 1871. 
California. 

The Pacific (San Jose) 1862. 
California (Berkeley) 1869. 
Southern California (Los Angeles) 

1880. 
Leland Stanford Junior 1886. 

Colorado. 

Colorado (Boulder) 1861. 
Denver (University Park) 1864. 
Westminster 1907. 



Columbia. 

Georgetown (Washington) opened 
1789. 

George Washington (Washington) 
1821. 

Howard (Washington) opened 1867. 

Catholic U. of America (Washing- 
ton) 1887. 

Connecticut. 

Yale (New Haven) 1701. 
Wesleyan (Middletown) opened 
1831. 

Florida. 

Florida (Gainesville) opened 1884. 
John B. Stetson (De Land) 1887. 



TABLE 161 {continued)^ 



United States op America (continued) 



Georgia. 

Georgia (Athens) 1785. 
Mercer (Macon) 1838. 
Atlanta 1867. 
Clark (South Atlanta) 1877. 

Idaho. 

Idaho (Moscow) 1889. 

Illinois. 

Northwestern (Evanston) 1851. 
Illinois (Urbana) 1867. 
Chicago, opened 1892. 
James Millikin (Decatur) 1901. 

Indiana. 

Vincennes 1806. 

Indiana (Bloomington) 1828. 

De Pauw (Greencastle) opened 1837. 

Notre Dame 1844. 

Taylor (Upland) 1846. 

Valparaiso 1907. 

Iowa. 

Iowa Wesleyan (Mount Pleasant) 

opened 1844. 
State U. of Iowa (Iowa City) 1847. 
Central U. of Iowa (Fella) 1863. 
Upper Iowa (Fayette) 1866. 

Kansas. 

Baker (Baldwin) 1858. 
Kansas (Lawrence) 1864. 
Ottawa 1865. 
Highland 1867. 
Kansas City 1896. 

Kentucky. 

Central U. of Kentucky (Danville) 

1819. 
Transylvania (Lexington) opened 

1836. 
Louisville 1837. 
State U. (Lexington) 1865. 

Louisiana. 

Tulane U. of Louisiana (New Or- 
leans) 1845. 

Leland (New Orleans) 1870. 

Louisiana State U. (Baton Rouge) 
1877. 



Maine. 

Maine (Orono) 1865. 

Maryland. 

Johns Hopkins (Baltimore) 1867. 

Massachusetts. 

Harvard (Cambridge) 1650. 

Boston 1869. 

Clark (Worcester) 1887. 

Michigan. 

Michigan (Ann Arbor) 1837. 

Minnesota. 

Minnesota (Minneapolis) 1861. 

Hamline (St Paul) 1864. 

St John's (CoUegeville) 1857. 

Mississippi. 

Mississippi 1844. 

Rust (Holly Springs) 1872. 

Missouri. 

St Louis 1832. 
Missouri (Columbia) 1839. 
Christian (Canton) 1853. 
Washington (St Louis) 1853. 

Montana. 

Montana (Missoula) 1893. 

Nebraska. 

Nebraska (Lincoln) 1869. 
Nebraska Wesleyan (University 

Place) 1886. 
Cotner (Bethany) opened 1889. 

Nevada. 

Nevada (Reno) opened 1886. 

New Jersey. 

Princeton 1746. 

New Mexico. 

New Mexico (Albuquerque) 1889. 

New York. 

Union (Schenectady) 1795. 
Columbia (New York) 1810. 
Colgate (Hamilton) opened 1819. 
New York U. 1831 (1893). 



TABLE 151 (continued). 



United States op America (continued) 



New York (continued). 

Fordham (New York) 1846. 

Rochester 1850. 

St Lawrence (Canton) 1866. 

Alfred (Alfred) 1867. 

Cornell (Ithaca) 1866. 

Syracuse 1871. 

Niagara 1883. 

North Carolina. 

Shaw (Raleigh) 1875. 

North Dakota. 

N. Dakota (University) 1883. 

Ohio. 

Ohio (Athens) 1804. 
Miami (Oxford) 1809. 
Denison (Granville) 1832. 
Otterbein (Westerville) 1849. 
Capital (Columbus) 1850. 
Heidelberg (Tiffin) 1851. 
Baldwin (Berea) 1854. 
Wilberforce 1856. 
Wooster 1866. 

Ohio State (Columbus) 1870. 
Cincinnati, opened 1874. 

Oklahoma. 

Oklahoma (Norman) 1892. 
Ep worth (Oklahoma) 1903. 

Oregon. 

Willamette (Salem) 1853. 
Pacific (Forest Grove) 1854. 
Oregon (Eugene) opened 1876. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) 1755. 

Pittsburg 1819. 

Bucknell (Lewisburg) 1846. 

Lincoln, opened 1864. 

Lehigh (South Bethlehem) 1866. 

Temple (Philadelphia) 1888. 

Susquehanna (Selinsgrove) 1894. 

Rhode Island. 

Brown (Providence) opened 1764. 



South Carolina. 

South Carolina (Columbia) 1801. 
Furman (Greenville) 1860. 
Claflin (Orangeburg) 1869. 
Allen (Columbia) opened 1881. 

South Dakota. 

South Dakota (Vermilion) 1862. 
Dakota Wesleyau (Mitchell) 1883. 

Tennessee. 

Tennessee (Knoxviile) 1794. 
Nashville 1826. 
Cumberland (Lebanon) 1843. 
U. of the South (Sewanee) 1858. 
Walden (Nashville) 1866. 
Chattanooga, opened 1867. 
Fisk (Nashville) 1867. 
Vanderbilt (Nashville) 1872. 
Lincoln Memorial (Cumberland Gap) 
1897. 

Texas. 

Baylor (Waco) 1845. 

St Mary's (Galveston) 1856. 

Trinity (Waxahachie) 1871. 

Fort Worth 1881. 

Texas (Austin) opened 1883. 

Utah. 

Utah (Salt Lake City) opened 1860. 

Vermont. 

Vermont (Burlington) 1791. 

Virginia. 

Washington and Lee (Lexington) 

]782. 
Virginia Union (Richmond) 1896. 

Washington. 

George Washington (Seattle) 1869. 
Puget Sound (Tacoma) opened 1903. 

West Virginia. 

West Virginia (Morgantown) 1868. 

Wisconsin. 

Wisconsin (Madison) 1838. 
Northwestern U. (Watertown) 1867. 

Wyoming. 

Wyoming (Laramie) 1886. 



TABLE 161 (continued)/ 



V. SOUTH AMERICA AND WEST INDIES 



South America. 

Argentine REPUsLia 
Cordoba 1613. 
Buenos Aires 1821. 
La Plata 1905. 

Chili. 
U. of Chili (Santiago) 1743. 

Colombia. 
National U. (Bogota) 1867. 

Ecuador. 
Central U. of Ecuador (Quito) 1787 
(1895). 

Paraguay. 
National U. (Asuncion) 1890. 



South America (continued). 
Peru. 

U. of St Mark (Lima) 1653. 
Uruguay. 

Montevideo 1876. 
Venezuela. 
Central U. of Venezuela (Caracas) 
1721. 

Central America. 
Salvador. 
San Salvador. 

West Indies. 
Cuba. 
Havana 1728. 



VI. AUSTRALASIA 



Commonwealth of Australia. 
New South Wales. 
Sydney 1850. 

Victoria. 

Melbourne 1853. 



Commonwealth of Australia (continued). 
South Australia. 
Adelaide 1872. 

Tasmania. 

Hobart (U. of Tasmania) 189G. 



New Zealand 1870. 



0. 



13 



207 



n 

GENERAL INDEX 



13—2 



208 



EXPLANATORY NOTE 

Kings, queens, queens-consort, royal princes and princesses, archdukes, arch- 
duchesses, popes and cardinals, are to be found as a rule under their Christian 
names (or, in the last instance, surnames). Grand-dukes, dukes, electors and other 
territorial princes of lesser rank are to be found under the names of their States. 
Bishops of the British Isles appear under their ordinary surnames, those of other 
countries (unless they are cardinals or, in rare cases, specially mentioned by name 
only in the text, and in one or two instances of obscure Polish bishoprics) under 
their sees. Noblemen are under their highest or best-known titles. Exceptions 
have been made where a strict following- of rule would seem pedantic, as in the 
case of the Cromwells or of Colbert, of Napoleon I's marshals and others, and in 
the case also of a few men whose titles do not appear in the book. These have been 
put under their well-known names. 

The principle of arrangement of long headings under a single name (in different 
forms) ^^Anna, Anne," "Maria, Marie," has been that of the alphabetical order of 
the countries to which the name is attached. Thus a queen of France would 
precede a queen of Spain of the same name. When a second name follows the 
first that has been taken as the alphabetical guide. 

For compound names of persons the ordinary rules have been followed. Where 
in the text a name is preceded by a preposition the order is here reversed ; for 
example, Gallars, Nicholas de ; m here a name is made up of a preposition and 
article, the article precedes, the preposition follows ; for example. La Motte Fouque, 
F. H. K. de ; where the preposition and article have formed a compound, as in 
Du Bellay, Delia Casa, the compound precedes. But occasional allowance has been 
made on this point for family usage, and here, as elsewhere throughout the Index, 
cross-references have been carefully added where doubt might arise. 

Compound names of places have been treated as one word, as for example. 
La Ilogue, St Domingo, Port Arthur, Cape Passaro, with the single exception of 
those beginning with Fort, which it seemed possible to group under Fort. 

In the case of the Greater States it has not been found possible to give more 
than the main references from which their continuous history may be drawn. For 
the slighter references the Indexes of the individual volumes must be consulted. 

To the names of persons and places a number of Subject Headings have been 
added. In general comprehensive headings, such as Religion, Church, Catholics, 
Protestants, have been avoided. More limited sections of such subjects, however, 
as for instance. Toleration, Calvinists, Lutherans, and even Huguenots, have been 
included. 



209 



GENERAL INDEX 



Aachen, Charles V crowned at (1520), ii 
42, 139, 417; Catholicism in, in 156, 
163 ; ecclesiastical troubles in, 705-8, 
712, 715, 718; Protestants in, iv 10; 
decay of, 420; vi 689; Gustavus III at, 
783 ; capitulates (1793), viii 265 ; spinning 
mills near, x 754 

Peace of (1668), v 39, 153 sq., 

200, 373, 443, 650; (1748), vi 117, 243, 
249 sq., 273, 319, 331 sq., 363; Frederick 
the Great and, 398; and America, 411; 
and India, 537 sq. ; Charles III and, 
597; 608; and Corsica, 609; 622; 640; 
642 

Congress of (1818), vii 367 sq., ix 

666, 761, X 12, 14 sqq., 56, 69, 353 ; and 
Baden, 362; 364; xii 729 

Aalborg, siege and capture of (1534), n 
615 ; capture of Danish horse at, iv 102 ; 
port of, VI 737 

Aar river, Charles of Lorraine at, vi 247 

Aarau, Treaty of, vi 611, 613 

Aargau, added to Swiss confederation 
(1415), II 306; ix 427; subject to Bern, 
VI 613, IX 600 sq., 670; xi 236; 240; 
joins the Siebnerkonkordat, 242 ; 244 ; 
and the Articles of Baden, 246 ; suppres- 
sion of monasteries in, 246 sq., 248; 251; 
industries of, 259 

Aarhuus, port of, vi 737 

Ove Bilde, Bishop of, n 616 

Aasen, Ivar, Norwegian philologist, xi 701 
Abancourt, Charles-X.-J.-Franqueville de, 

French Minister of War, viii 406 
Abaya, Lake, discovered, xii 813 
Abaza, Eussian Minister of Finance, xii 

309; 312 
Abb^s I, Viceroy of Egypt, xii 429 sq. 

n. Viceroy of Egypt, xii 454 

II, Shah of Persia, vi 518; 627 

Pasha, X 550 

Abbeville, ethnological discoveries at, xii 

772 
Abbot, Charles. See Colchester, Lord 

George, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

III 560 ; appeal of Commons to, iv 260 

Abbott, James, in Afghanistan, xii 800 
Abd-el-Aziz, Sultan of Morocco, xii 132 sq. 
Abd-el-Kader, Algerian chief, x 503 sqq. 



Abd-el-Kader, Egyptian Pasha, xn 441 
Abd-ul-Aziz, Sultan of Turkey, accession 

of, XI 636; 637; 639; xii 381; 883; 

death of, 385; 430; and Ismail, Viceroy 

of Egypt, 432 ; 439 
Abd-ul-Hamid I, Sultan of Turkey, death 

of, VIII 326; IX 388 

II, Sultan of Turkey, xi 637 ; xii 14; 

33 ; accession of, 385 ; 386 sq. ; and 
Eastern Rumelia, 408 ; 416 ; and the 
Armenian massacres, 417 sq. ; and Crete, 
419 ; and the war with Greece, 420 sq. ; 
and Macedonian reform, 425 sq. ; deposed, 
428; and Egyptian affairs, 435 sqq., 445 

Abd-ul-Kerim, Ottoman commander, xn 

388 
Abdullah, Pasha of Acre, x 549 
Abdulla Jan, son of Sher Ali, xn 460; 465; 

death of, 469 
Abd-ul-Mejid, Sultan of Turkey, x 662; 

XI 18; reforms by, 275 sq. ; 314; 316; 
and the Treaty of Paris, 323 sq.; death 
of, 636 

Abdulmelek, Emperor of Morocco, in 697 
Abdurrahman Khan, Amir of Afghanistan, 

XII 34 sq. ; 459 ; 467 ; 469 ; becomes Amir, 
471 sq.; 475; and the frontier question, 
478 ; and Lord Dufferin, ib. ; relations 
of, with Great Britain, 482 sq.; death 
of, 483; 488; 490 

Abdy Bey, Turkish Court jester, x 556 
Abel, Karl von, Bavarian statesman, xi 61 
Abell, Thomas, trial and execution of, n 

443 sq. 
Abenaki, The, vii 95, 101 
Abensberg, battle of (1809), ix 349 
Abercrombie, James, vii 126, 132 
Abercromby, Sir Ealph, viii 617; Com- 
mander-in-Chief in Ireland, ix 701 ; in 
the West Indies, 749 
Aberdeen, Episcopal clergy of, and the 
penal laws, v 290 ; Jacobites at, vi 98, 
103, 116 

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl 

of, vn 391, 671; and the Greek 
Question, x 200, 203 ; and the agreement 
with France (1830), 482 sq.; Colonial 
Secretary, 667; xi 2; and the Scottish 
Church, 6 sq. ; 10; foreign policy of, 



210 



General Index, 



16 sq. ; 21 ; 31 ; 33 ; forms a coalition 
ministry (1862), 309 sq.; 312; and the 
question of war with Russia, 315 sq. ; 
resigns, 320 ; character of, ib. ; 346 ; 
379 ; and the Spanish marriages, 554 ; 
XII 683 
Aberdeenshire, elections in, vi 93 ; 98 
Abeshr (Wadai), explorers at, xii 811 
Abhorrers, English party (1679), v 226 
Abjuration, Act of, at the Hague (1581), 
, m 254 

Abo, surrender of (1563), iv 162 ; taken by 
Charles IX (1597), 172 ; free sehool of, 
founded by Gustavus Adolphus, 187; 
VI 314 ; Peace of, 761, 782 

Michael Agricola, Ordinary (and 

Bishop) of, II 629 

Skytte, Bishop of, ii 628 

Abomey, explorers at, xii 807 

Abonyi, Louis, Hungarian novelist, xi 430 

Aborigines Protection Society, xi 788 ; and 
the Congo State, xii 663 

Aboukir, French fleet at (1798), viii 604, 
625; Turkish defeat at (1799), 614 sq., 
674 ; Mehemet Ali at, x 547 ; rebel army 
at, xii 437 

About, Edmond, French writer, xi 526 

Abraham, Plains of, vii 139 sqq. 

Abrantes, Lippe's army at, vi 869 ; Welles- 
ley's army at, ix 451 

Abrial, Andr^-Joseph, Comte, Minister of 
Justice (1801), IX 9 

Abruzzi, Luigi (of Savoy-Aosta), Duke of 
the, Polar expedition of, xii 795, 815 

Abruzzo, peasant movement in, xi 536 ; 
642 

Abu Hamed, taken by Egyptian troops, 
XII 448 

Abyat, crypto-Socinian leader in Poland, 
III 80 sq. 

Abyssinia, the war in (1868), xi 752 sq. ; 
XII 3; the Italian campaign in, 240 sq. ; 
343; war in (1875), 440; the Mahdi 
and, 444; 449; 659; Italy and, 664; 
805; explorers in, 806, 813; 811 

Academies, Humanistic teaching and, i 
553 sq. ; in Florence, the Platonic, 
559 sq. ; in Eome, 560 ; in Naples, ih. ; 
in Venice, Aldo's, the Neacademia, 561, 
563 ; in various Italian towns, ib. ; 
of the Elevati, ii 384; the Modenese, 
386 sq. ; the Platonic, of Florence, 
702 ; under Cosimo de' Medici, in 
394 ; spread of, 469 sq. ; Akademia 
Jagiellonska, 77; Acadeinie frangaise con- 
stituted, IV 156 ; followed by others, v 
741 ; Colbert and five new French, 15 ; 
Acailemie des Sciences, 715, 741 ; Academie 
des Inscriptions, and historical research 
in the eighteenth century, xii 817, 829 ; 
decline of literary, in Italy, v 118 ; 
scientific in general, 739 sqq. ; English 
scientific, 740 ; Austrian scientific, 741 ; 
Prussian, of 1696 and 1700, 670; of 
Elector Frederick III, 741 ; Russian, of 



Theodore III, 519 ; of Peter the Great, 
547, 741 
Acadia, Anglo-French struggle for, iv 747; 
assigned to England (1631), v 442 ; 
Acadians driven from, vi 337 ; disputed 
governorship of, vii 23 ; 72 ; ceded to 
England (1656), 75 ; restored to France 
(1667), 89 ; ceded to England (1713), 95, 
109 ; history of, 110 sqq. ; transferred to 
Britain (1763), x 685. See also Nova 
Scotia 
Acapulco, trade of, with Manila, x 255 
Acarnania, insurrection in, xi 279 
Acciaiuoli, Donate, translation of L. Brum's 
History of Florence by, in 471 

Franco. See Athens, Duke of 

Accialli, Treaty of, xii 240 
Accoramboni, Vittoria, in 427 sqq. 
Achaltsik, acquired bv Russia (1829), x 444, 

XI 274 

Achard, Charles Francois, attempts to manu- 
facture sugar from beetroot, ix 377 

Ach^, de, French naval officer, vi 547 sq. 

French royalist, tries to effect a rising 

in Normandy, ix 136 

Achin, English East India Company and, 

IV 731; Dutch war with, xii 243 sqq., 
669; 248 

Achmet Aga of Dospad, xii 384 
A'Court, Sir William. See Heytesbury 
Acqs (or Dax), Francois de Noailles, Bishop 
of, ambassador to England (1556), ii 644 
sqq., 548; iii 265; ambassador to the 
Porte, 137 
Acqua Felice, Sixtus V and, iii 441 
Acquaviva, Father Claudio, fifth Jesuit 

General, in 448, 766 
Acqui, Austrian retreat to (1796), vin 

566 sq. 
Acre, besieged (1190), v 630, (1799), vra 
610 sqq., (1831), x 549; Sultan's messen- 
gers killed at, ix 385; 387; captured by 
Ibrahim Pasha (1832), x 549; offered to 
Mehemet Ali, 553, 560, 565 sq., 569, 571 ; 
the divan meshura at, 559; surrender of 
(1840), 571 
Acs, Hungarian camp at, xi 210 
Act of Grace, English, of May, 1690, 

V 260 

Act of Mediation, Swiss (1803), xi 236 sqq. 
Act of Neutralisation, Swiss (1815), xi 

238 sq. 
Act of Resumption, of all grants of Irish 

forfeited estates (Ap- 1700), v 323 
Act of Seclusion (Dutch), Cromwell and, 

V 141 sqq. ; reception of, in the Union, 

148 sq. ; rescinded, 148 
Act of Security, Scottish (1703-4), v 298 
Act of Settlement, English (1701), v 275, 

277 ; repeal of two clauses of, 464 ; 

and the Electress Sophia, vi 8 sqq. : of 

Ireland (1662), v 302 sq.; repealed by 

the Irish Pari lament (1689), 310 
Act of the Six Articles (1539), ii 450; 

results of, 466 sq. ; failure of, 477 



General Index, 



211 



Act of Succession (1534), u 442, (1536), 446 
Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII's (1534), 
11 442, Elizabeth's (1659), 567 sqq. ; 
first results of, in 284 ; in later action, 
340 sqq., 349 
Act of Uniformity (1549), ii 485, (1552), 
507 sq., Elizabeth's (1559), 669; first 
results of, in 284; enforcement of, 340 
sqq. ; of 1662, character and results of, 

V 98 sqq. ; 329 sqq. 

Act of Union, between England and Scot- 
land, VI 90 sqq., Chap, in passim 
Act of Union, of Great Britain and Ireland, 

IX 702 sqq., Chap, xxii passim 

" Act of Union and Security," of Gusta- 

vus III of Sweden, vi 781 
Acta Augustana, by Martin Luther, ii 133 
Actium, sea-fight off (1538), in 114 
Acto Addicional, Portuguese, of Saldanha, 

XI 573 
Acton, John Emerioh Edward Dalberg- 

Acton, Lord, v 2; 253; 616; 617; vi 85; 

xn 766; 841; 848 

Sir John Francis Edward, Prime 

Minister of Naples, viii 650 sq., 778 

AculhuaquS (" Strong men"), Mexicans, 

I 38 
Acuna, Alonzo Osorio de. See Zamora, 

Bishop of 

Diego Sarmiento de. See Gondomar 

Adair, Sir Robert, British ambassador, ix 

309; 389; x 542 
Adalbert, St, v 629 

Adam, Edmond, Parisian official, xi 113 
Adami, Adam, Bishop. See Hildesheim 
Adams, Charles Francis, American Minis- 
ter in London, vii 399, 610, 640; xi 
336 sq. ; xn 21 

Henry, historian, xii 841 

John, President of the United States 

(1797-1801), VI 461 ; vii 146, 161, 154, 
164, 189, 232; elected Vice-President, 
315 sq.; elected President, 320 sqq., 324, 
372, 730 ; and Spanish America, x 280 

John Couch, astronomer, xn 768 

John Quincy, President of the United 

States (1826-9), vii 350, 363, 365 sq., 371, 
373 sq., 378 sq. 

Samuel, American statesman, vu 

146, 159 sqq., 173, 182, 189, 197, 730 

Thomas, major, defeats Mir Kasim, 

VI 561; 562 

William, and Japanese trade, iv 740 

Ad an a, occupied by the Egyptian army 

(1832), X 560; 553 sq. 
Adasheff, Alexis, favourite of Ivan the 

Terrible, v 489 
Adda, Count de, papal Nuncio in England, 

V 235 

Addington, Henry. See Sidmouth, 1st 

Viscount 
Addison, Joseph, French influence on, v 

70; 122; 133; 271; Cafo, 474; 476 sqq.; 

succeeded as Secretary by Craggs, vi 30 ; 

X 696; 699 



Adelaide, capital of South Australia, xi 792 
sq.; 798; industries of, xii 023; 624; the 
federation question at, 631; University 
of, founded, 627 

Adelaide, Madame (Princess Eug^ne-Louise- 
Adelaide of Orleans), sister of Louis- 
Philippe, X 479; 484 

Adelantado (admiral), of Castile. See 
Padilla, Martin de 

Adeler, Kort, Norwegian admiral, v 561 

Adelji, secret society, in Lecce, x 111 

Adelmann, Bernhard, von Adelmannsfel- 
den, German reformer, ii 138 

Aden, attacked by Turkish fleet, in 117 

Aderklau, Archduke Charles attacks the 
French at (1809), ix 353 

Adet, Pierre-Auguste, French Minister to 
the United States, vii 320 

Adige river, French army on, v 402; vi 
153; crossed by the allies (1735), 154; 
Austrian retreat towards (1800), ix 68 ; 69 

Adil Khan, ruler of Goa, i 31 

Adlerberg, Count Vladimir, xi 614 

Adlersparre, George, Count, Swedish gen- 
eral, forces abdication of Gustavus IV, 
IX 323 

Admiralty, Courts of, in the American 
colonies, contested jurisdiction of, and 
the War of Independence, vii 184 sqq. 
See also Navies 

Admiralty Colleges of Holland, Zeeland 
and the North Quarter, in 621 

Adolphus Frederick, King of Sweden, vi 
354; 741 sq.; 761 sqq.; death of, 766 

John, Prince, brother of Charles X 

of Sweden, iv 687; 590; v 663 

Adorno, Botta, Austrian general. Regent in 

Tuscany, vi 601; 608 
Adowah, battle of, xn 219, 241, 447, 664 
Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspeare), Pope, 
Northern mission of, ii 601 ; and the 
donation of Ireland, iii 582, 585 

VI (Adrian Boyers of Utrecht), Pope, 

the fall of Rhodes and, i 94; Spanish 
regent, 368, 372 sqq., 457; at Louvain 
University, 436, 674; Church reform and, 
678; Erasmus and, 682; failure of, 691; 
election of, n 20, 44, 378, 418; reign and 
character of, 19 sqq. ; reasons for failure 
of, 27; reforming policy of, 32, 170 sqq., 
378,400,641; Bavaria and, 169; Gus- 
tavus Vasa and, 623; iii 186; v 635 

Patriarch of Russia, v 530 

Adriani, Giovanni Battista, in 394 
Adriano de Corneto. See Castellesi, Car- 
dinal 

Mateo, Melanchthon and, ii 402 

Adrianople, Mohammad IV in, v 353 ; 

Turkish army at, 359; Tokolyi at, 364, 
366; X 556; Peace of (1713), v 607; 
Treaty of (1829), x 98, 200, 202 sq. , 444, 
481, 546, XI 274, 281, and Moldo- 
Wallachia, 281 sq., and Servia, 284; 
Russian occupation of, xn 389; 390 sq.; 
426 



212 



General Index. 



Adriatic Sea, vi 241; Venice and, 605; 
British evacuation of places on, ix 77 ; 
tribute from the islands of, x 172 ; Greek 
piracy in, 186; Neapolitan fleet in, xi 
85; 366 

Adwalton Moor, Fairfaxes defeated at, iv 313 

Adullamites, faction of the, xi 339 

Advancement of Learning, Bacon's, iii 377 

Aegean Sea, Venetians lose their islands in, 
in 115-6; tribute from the islands of, 
X 172; Greek piracy in, 186 

Aegidius of Viterbo, i 648; ii 8, 28; at 
Fifth Lateran Council, 30 sqq. 

Aegina, surrendered by Venice to the Turks, 
ni 116 

Aegineta, Petrus (Greek professor at Flor- 
ence), II 16 

Aehrenthal, Baron Aloys L. B., Austrian 
statesman, xii 211 

Aeneas Sylvius. See Pius II, Pope 

Aerschot, Philip de Croy, Prince of Chimay, 
Duke of. III 190, 194, 214, 226, 232, 244, 
245, 248, 250 

Aerssens, Francis van (Franz van Aerssen), 
lord of Sommelsdijk, iii 649, 651, 655; 
councillor of Frederick Henry, iv 690; 
appeals to Eichelieu for help, 691 ; 
negotiations of, in England, 701 

^sop, Kussian translation of, v 529 

Assens, victory of Christian III over Lii- 
beck at, ii 230, 615 

ASane, ford of, iii 594 

Affonso V, King of Portugal, the Guinea 
trade and, i 16; schemes of exploration 
and, 19, 21 

Affre, Denis-Auguste. See Paris, Arch- 
bishops of 

Affry, Louis-Auguste-Augustin, Comte de, 
lieutenant-general, French envoy at the 
Hague, VI 343 

Louis - Auguste - Philippe, Comte de 

(son of above), appointed Landammann 
of the Swiss Confederation, ix 423 

Afghan Boundary Commission, xii 477 sq. 

Afghanistan, the Emperor Babar in, vi 503 
sq. ; 510 sqq.; 517; Shah Jehan in, 518; 
insurrection in, 521 ; 624 ; physical 
features of, 526 sqq. ; and Oudh, ix 721 
British mission to, 732; history of (1815- 
69), Vol. XI, Chap, xxvi; Russia and, 632 
affairs in (1863-1907), xii. Chap, xvi 
passim; 4; British war with, 34, 36 sq 
66 ; 161 ; Russia and, 343 ; political 
mission to, 800 

Afiz, Pasha of Nissa, ix 387 

Africa, exploration of, i 13 sqq., 17, 20; 
English and Dutch in, v 108, 149, 179 ; 
Brandenburg colony in, 647; European 
settlements in, 691 sqq. ; vi 151 ; colonisa- 
tion of, 184 ; the slave trade in, 186 sqq. ; 
the European Powers in, 187 sqq. ; 
Moslem States of, ix 385 ; and the slave 
trade, x 19; xii 3 sq. ; British progress 
in, 47; 94; the French in, 128 sqq., 159; 
German colonisation in, 160 sq., 167, 



172 ; Italy and, 219, 240 ; the Portuguese 
in, 270; the colonisation and partition 
of, 657 sqq.; exploration in, 805 sqq. 
Africa, Central, opening up of, xii 255 sq. ; 
635 

South, English and Dutch in (1850- 

70), Vol. XI, Chap, xxvn (3); British 
rule in, 761 ; Union of, xii 2; 39; Chinese 
labour in, 64; British emigration to, 63; 
603; affairs in (1871-1910), 635 sqq.; 
England and, 658; 734 

West, the West Indies and, iv 759; 

XII 658 sq. 

African Association, vi 188, xii 805 sq. 

Company, Swedish (1647), iv 759; 

English (1618), 759; English (1631), 759; 
French (West) (1626), 759 ; vi 173. See 
also Royal African Company, British East 
and South African Companies, etc. 

Society (German), xii 658 

Trading Company (Brandenburg), 

V 647 

Africander Bond, in South Africa, xii 638 
Afridis, The, attack British posts, xii 488 
Afrosina, Tsarevich Alexis' mistress, v 

539 sq. 
Aftonblad, Swedish journal, xi 685 
Afzal, son of Dost Mohammad, xii 459 

Khan, general of the Bijapur army, 

VI 521 

Agadem, explorers in, xii 807 
Agades, explorers in, xii 810 
Agassiz, Louis, naturalist, xi 260 
Agen, Republican attack on, xi 137 

Matteo Bandello, Bishop of, ii 15 ; 

the novels of, iii 368, 467 sq. 

Agenois, peasants' rising in, iii 664 
Agnadello, Venetian defeat at (1509), i 132, 

246 
Agnew, Patrick Alexander Vans, British 

official in India, xi 740 
Agordat, Italian success at, xii 240 
Agostini, Agostino de (Wolsey's physician), 

II 434 
Agoult, Antoine-Jean, Vicomte de, viii 156 
Agra, William Hawkins at, iv 741 ; English 
factory at, 742; captured by Babar, vi 
509 ; 511 ; Emperor Shah Jehan pro- 
claimed at, 517 ; 519 sq. ; 523 sqq. ; 
Sindhia seizes, ix 718; 719, 725; British 
capture of, 726; presidency of, xi 731; 
738; relief of (1857), 747 

and Oudh, United Provinces of, 

XII 495 

Agram, revolutionary movement at, xi 156; 
Croato- Slavonic Diet at, 179 sq.; disturb- 
ances at, XII 198, 209 

Agrarian revolution, in England. See 
England 

" Agreement of the People," iv 345 ; 353 ; 

V 327 sq. 

Agricola, Georgius. See Bauer, George 

Johann, Lutheran theologian, u 201, 

264 

Michael. See Abo 



General Index, 



213 



Agricola, Rudolf (Roelof Huysmann), i 436, 
569, 572, 634 

Stephen, Lutheran theologian at 

the Conference of Marburg, ii 207 

Aguesseau, Henri-Francois de, Chancellor 

of France, vi 129 sqq.; 162; ix 165; 

167 sq. 
Aguila, Don Juan del, Spanish general in 

Ireland, in 532 
Aguinaldo, Emilio, Filipino leader, vii 

679; XII 530 sq. 
Ahalya Bai, ix 727 
Aharlow, forest of, ni 595 
Ahlden, Sophia Dorothea at, vi 8 
Ahmad I, Sultan, in 700 

II, Sultan, V 369 

Ill, Sultan, V 604 sqq. 

Pasha, III 123; murdered, 124 

Pasha, Turkish admiral, x 562 

Shah Abdali, Afghan ruler, vi 524 

Vefyk Effendi, Turkish ambassador 

in Paris, xi 636 

Ahmadabad, English factory at, iv 742; 

captured, vi 576 
Ahmadnagar, kingdom of, vi 612 ; 515 ; 

Khan Jehan in, 517; 518; 523; Wellesley 

captures, ix 726 
Aidzu clan and daimids. Vol. xi. Chap. 

xxviii (2), passim 
Aigues Mortes, conference of Charles V and 

Francis I at (1538), ii 73, 98, 235, 288, 

ra 115 
Aiguillon, Emmanuel- Armand de Vignerot- 

Duplessis - Richelieu, Duke of, vi 695 ; 

Governor of Britanny, 356 ; Minister of 

Foreign Affairs, 357 sq.; viii 82 

Armand de Vignerot - Duplessis - 

Richelieu, Duke of (son of above, d. 
1800), VIII 179; 692; 716 

Aigun, Treaty of, xi 273, 632, xii 796 
Aikin, John, physician, viii 764 sq. 
Aiily, Pierre de, Cardinal, doctrine of 
Conciliar authority of, i 623; at Con- 
stance, II 281 
Ainali Kavak, Treaty of, vi 709, xi 282 
Ain-Sefra, French boundary at, xii 129 
Airds Moss, Covenanters defeated at, v 287 
Aire, ceded to France, v 39, 45; captured 
by the Allies (1710), 429 

river, pollution of, xi 1 

Aislabie, John, statesman, vi 41; 180 sq. 
Aisue river, French army at, xi 596; 597 
Aitchison, Sir Charles Umpherston, and 

the Indian Civil Service, xii 480 
Aix, the plague at, vi 128 ; Fouch6 retires 
to, IX 140; Parlement of, in 6, 415-6, 
662, IV 610 sq., v 4; viii 47; and Mira- 
beau, 160; Terrorists lynched at, 387 

Albert Genebrard, Archbishop of, i 

615 

Gilbert Genebrard, Archbishop of, 

z 615 

Jean-de-Dieu-R. de Cuc6 de Bois- 

gelin. Archbishop of, viii 24, 179 

Aix-la-Chapelle. See Aachen 



Aix Roads, Willaumez anchors in, ix 238 
Ajaccio, French fleet off, ix 220 
Ajmir, Sir Thomas Roe at, vi 516; 519 
Akashi, daimio of, xi 832 
Akbar Khan, son of Dost Mohammad, xi 
733; 735 

Shah, Moghul Emperor, vi 611 sq. ; 

character of, 613 sqq. 

Akhalzik, Pasha of, ix 385 

Akkerman, Russian capture of, vi 673 ; 
Treaty of (1826), x 192 sq.; repudiated 
by the Sultan, 198; xi 282 

Ak Meohet, captured by Russia, xi 273 

Akrotiri, Christian insurgents in, xii 420 

Aksakoff, Ivan, Russian journalist, xi 
625 sq.; xii 298; 300; 309; 311 

Aksu, travellers at, xii 799; 802 

Alabama, Spanish claims in, vii 315, 323; 
migration into, 359; enters the Union, 
359, 413; and the Tariff, 377; secedes 
(1860), 446; joins the Confederacy, 453, 
603; cut off from Confederate centre, 
622 ; threatened by Grant, 528 ; emanci- 
pation in, 595; representation of, 632; 
becomes Democratic, 642 

Alabama incident, vii 565 sq., 636; xi 336 
sq., 776; xn 20 sqq., 27 sq., 717, 720 

Alagdn, Duke of, x 208 

Alain le Grand, Lord of Albret. See Albrei 

Alais, Louis de Yalois, Comte de. See 
Angoul^me 

Alam, Shah, and Indian politics, ix 717 
sqq. 

Alamanni, Luigi, in 65, 469, 468 ; Giron 
il Cortese, 469; exile of, 470 

^lamo, massacre of the (1836), vii 392 

Aland Isles, Conference at, vi 28; 34; 36; 
seized by Russia (1808), ix 323 

Alanio, Pedro, Spanish revolutionary, xn 
267 

Alary, Abb6, and the Club de I'Entresol, 

VIII 15 

Alaska, boundary dispute of, vii 371, xn 
617, 722 ; purchased by the United States, 
vn 637, 666, xn 344; xi 632 sq.; 776; 
xn 814 

Alatau mountains, xn 793; exploration 
in, 799 

Alava, incorporated in Castile, i 235 

Don Francis de, iii 16 sq., 210 

Alba, Duke of. See Alva 

de Tormes, del Parque defeated at, 

IX 455, 456; Spanish force placed at, 
473 

Albani, Alessandro, Cardinal, vi 687; 595 

Giovanni Francesco. See Clement XI, 

Pope 

Jean Francois, Cardinal, vm 637 

Joseph, Cardinal, Papal Secretary 

of State, X 154 sq. 

Albania, Scanderbeg and, i 70, 71; Venice 
fights the Turks in, 80; suggested oc- 
cupation of, by France, ix 308; Ali 
Pasha in, 386, (1814), x 176, 177; 
revolts in, 549, 660, xi 279; Italian 



214 



General Index, 



and Austrian rivalry in, xii 242; 381; 

the Treaty of Berlin and, 396, 398; 

425; 428 
Albanian League, xii 401; 403 
Albanians, and Montenegro, xii 401 sq. ; 

415 sq.; 425 
Albany (U.S.A.), conquest of (1664), vii 

39 sq. ; fortified, 42 ; charter granted to, 

43; 44 sq.; federation meeting at (1754), 

VI 412; operations round (1756), vii 126; 

railway from Boston to, 694 

Western Australia, xi 790 sq. 

Alexander Stewart, Duke of, i 484 

John Stewart, Duke of (son of 

Alexander), i 484, 488; advances on 
Naples (1524), n 50; in Scotland, 419 
sq., 422 sq. ; returns to France, 426, 
453 sq. 

Albemarle^ The, vii 563 sq. 
Albemarle, Arnold Joost van Keppel, 1st 
Earl of, v 257 

George Keppel, 3rd Earl of, vi 

369; 426 

George Monck, Duke of, at Nantwich, 

IV 321; 443; victory of, off Scheveningen, 
476; 480 sq.; soldier and seaman, 485; 
subdues Scotland, 436, 510 sq.; in Ulster, 
531 ; 532 ; declares for a free Parlia- 
ment, 538; 540; 545 sqq.; marches into 
England, 548 sq. ; and the Restoration, 
650-9; V 93; 100; and the marriage of 
Charles II, 105; 106; in naval campaign 
of 1666, 183 sqq.; 190; death of, 191; 
280 ; VI 795 sq. ; vii 34 

William Anne Keppel, 2nd Earl of, 

VI 333 

Alber, Matthaus, of Reutlingen, reformer, 
II 160; Zwingli and, 332 

Albericus Gentilis, iii 767 

Alberoni, Giulio, Cardinal, Spanish states- 
man, VI 25 ; 29 ; and Great Britain, 30 sq. ; 
and Sicily, 32 ; 33 sqq. ; and the Ja- 
cobites, 104; and England, 122 sq.; and 
the Eegent Orleans, 123; reforms by, ib.; 
foreign policy of, 12 i; fall of, 125; 126; 
134; 136; 138; and Eipperda, 139, 142 
sq. ; 157 ; Elisabeth Farnese and, 166 ; 
586 sq. 

Albert I, King of the Belgians, xii 256 

II (of Habsburg), Emperor, reforms 

of, in the Empire, i 294; 687; ii 198; 

V 623 

King of Poland. See John Albert 

I (of Mecklenburg), King of Sweden, 

defeated at Falkoping (1393), ii 600; 601 

Archduke, Archbishop of Toledo 

(later sovereign of the Netherlands), 
Governor of Lisbon, iii 318, 519; in 
Italy, 527; marriage of, 630; Governor 
of Netherlands, 522 sqq., 634 ; efforts of, 
for peace, 534, 628, 639; and the war, 
535, 629 ; at battle of the Dunes, 635 sq. ; 
takes Calais, 670; fails to relieve Amiens, 
522, 672 sq. ; attacks France, 679, 686 sq. ; 
and Jiilich, 689 sq., 730, 732; and 



Emperor Rudolf, 720, 735; death of, 
655; IV 77; career of, iii 699; and the 
Imperial throne, iv 1; 11; 13; Henry IV 
and, 624 
Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria-Munich. See 
Bavaria 

of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia. 

See Prussia 

Prince, of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and 

Prince Consort of Queen Victoria, married 
to her, X 681 ; xi 33 ; 163 ; and Napoleon 
III, 308 ; 338 ; and William I of Prussia, 
406 ; and the Spanish marriages, 553 ; 
death of, 336 

Edward Nyanza Lake, xii 810; 812 

Nyanza Lake, discovery of, xii 439, 

662; 809; 812 

Alexandre-Martin, French politician, 

XI 101; 103; 105; 107 

Alberta, district of, xi 776; ranching in, 

XII 610; 615 

Alberti, Aristotile (Ridolfo Fioravanti), v 

482 
Leo Battista, architect and painter, 

I 559; II 702; in 458 
Albertini, Francesco, Italian scholar, i 549 
Albigny, C. E. Philibertde Simiane, seigneur 

de, Governor of Savoy, and the escalade 

of Geneva, iii 420 sq.; death of, 686 
Albitte, Antoine-Louis, Commissioner of 

the Convention, viii 561 
Albizzi, Giovanna, i 176 

Luca, supporter of Savonarola, 1 169 

Albornoz, Gil Alvarez Carillo, Cardinal, i 

237, 663 
Albrecht, Archduke of Austria, xi 153 sq.; 216 

C, professor at Gottingen, x 379 

Wilhelm Eduard, German jurist, xi 

162 

Albret, Alain le Grand de, Sieur d'Albret 
and Count of Dreux, i 393 sqq., 397 

Catherine, Queen of Navarre. See 

Navarre 

Charlotte de, marriage of, to Cesare 

Borgia, i 120 

Henri and Jean de. Kings of Navarre. 

See Navarre 

Jeanne de. Queen of Navarre. See 

Navarre 

Albuera, battle of (1811), ix 467 
Albufera, Duke of. See Suchet 
Albuquerque, Aranda winters at, vi 359 
Alburquerque (Albuquerque), Affonso de, 
crusading schemes of, i 11; capture of 
Goa by, 31; ideals of, iv 728; v 695 

Antonio de. Governor of the Rio, 

V 679 

Jos6 Maria de la Cueva, 14th Duke 

of, defence of Cadiz by, ix 456 

Matthias de, iv 707 

Alcabala, Spanish tax, n 99; under 

Philip III, IV 627 
Alcala, University of, founded by Ximenes, 

I 355, 380, 622, 651, ii 400 

Alfonso de, Spanish scholar, n 400 



General Index, 



216 



Alcafiiz, Suohet repulsed at, ix 454 

Alcantara, Order of, i 11 

Alcasabah, The, in 105 

Alcazar-Kebir, battle of (1678), iii 499, 

597 
Alciati, Andrea, Calvin and, ii 352 ; iii 

68 

Giovanni Paolo, Italian reformer, ii 

393 

Aloolea, battle of, xi 669 

Alcott, Amos Bronson, transcendentalist, 
VII 739 

Alcoy, outrages at, xii 267 

Federico Boncali, Count of, Spanish 

Minister, xi 569 

Alcuin, and the schools of Charles the Great, 
I 636 

Aldan, river, xu 794 

Aldea de Ponte, fight at (1811), ix 468 

Aldemey, naval works at, xi 333 

Alderson, Dr John, of Norwich, viii 764 sq. 

Aldini, Antonio, Count, ix 84 

Aldobrandini, Pietro, Cardinal, ni 419 ; 
and Clement VIII, iv 667 ; friendly to- 
wards France, 668 

Silvestro, iv 666 

papal nuncio in Spain (1724), vi 

137 

Aldringer, Johann, Count, Austrian Field- 
Marshal, IV 72; Mantua taken by, 115; 
at Erfurt, 206; Tilly reinforced by, 208; 
210; at Leipzig, 219; 231; Feria and, 
234; protection of Bavaria and, 238; 
Emperor and, 239 sqq.; at Ratisbon, 
244 

Aldrovandus, Ulysses (Ulisse Aldrovandi 
of Bologna), naturalist, v 736 ; 738 

Aldus Manutius, Venetian printer, v 508 

Aleander, Girolamo, Cardinal, Bector of 
University of Paris, i 675 ; the Reforma- 
tion and, 678; 686, 690; at the Diet of 
Worms (1621), ii 139 sqq., 240; church 
reform and, 379; 383, 643 

Aleardi, Aleardo, Italian poet, xi 646 sq.; 
649 

Aleko Pasha. See Vogorides, Alexander 

Aleksinats, battle at, xii 386 

Alembert, Jean-Baptiste le Rond de. Ency- 
clopaedist, VI 698; 825; vm 26 

Alemtejo, awarded to Godoy, ix 302; the 
Duke of Terceira in, x 333 

AlenQon, Frott^ surrenders at, ix 14 

Charles, Duke of, at Pavia, ii 51 

Francis of Valois, Duke of. See 

Anjou, Francis of Valois, Duke of 

Margaret, Duchess of. See Margaret, 

Queen of Navarre 

Aleppo, trade of, i 32; Turkish victory at 
(1516), 91 ; winter-quarters of Prussian 
Army at, ni 121; Ibrahim Pasha enters 
(1832), X 650; 663; revolt in (1834), 559 

Aleria, John Andreas de Bossi, Bishop of, 

I 558 

Alesius (Alexander Aless), Scottish divine, 

II 666 



Alessandria, fall of (1499), i 121; claimed 
by Francis I, iii 110; 400; French garri- 
son at, V 415; VI 160; siege of, 161, 245, 
608; fortress of, viii 564; occupied by 
the French (1796), 567; surrenders (1799), 
669; IX 61-2; retreat of Austrians to, 
63; revolt at (1821), x 116; fortress of, 
XI 366 sq. ; 371 

Alet, canonry at, v 86 
Nicolas Pavilion, Bishop of, v 84 sq. 

Alexander III (Roland Bandinelli), Pope, 
II 422 

IV (Riualdo Conti), Pope, the Augus- 

tinian Eremites and, ii 114 

V (Pietro Philargi), Pope, i 268 

VI (Rodrigo Borgia), Pope, i 105; 

elected, 225 ; question of deposition of, 
110; Savonarola and, 149, 177 sqq.; 
allied with Naples, 227 sq. ; treats with 
Charles VIII, 231 ; the Orsini and, 223 ; 
allied with France, 124, 236-9 ; Church 
reform and, 620 ; nepotism of, 234 ; 
extravagant and splendid, 667; methods 
of raising money used by, 669, 670, 672 ; 
a pluralist, 659 ; death and character of, 
126, 196, 241, II 1 sq. ; 400 ; the Spanish 
Inquisition and, 660; prohibited books 
and, 687 ; Bull of, in regard to the New 
World, IV 728; 744 

VII (Fabio Chigi), Pope, papal nunoio 

at Munster, iv 402, 688; Charles X and, 
582; V 76; 84 

VIII (Pietro Ottobuoni), Pope, v 68 

I, King of Poland, i 345 

I, Tsar of Russia, vi 681 ; 696 ; vm 

786 sq. ; IX 36 ; 49, 50, 93 ; reconciled with 
England in Treaty of St Petersburg, 73 ; 
champions the King of Sardinia, 79 ; 236 ; 
relations of, with France, 245 ; 249 ; with 
Austria, 248; 249 ; threatens the Prussian 
Government, 250 ; 256 ; welcomed at 
Potsdam, 266 ; Napoleon and, 269 ; at 
Austerlitz, 261 ; relations of, with Prussia, 
266; 272, 280-2, 287 ; with France, 269; 
270-2, 283 ; with Turkey, 281 ; and the ne- 
gotiations of Tilsit, 291 sqq., 296, 297 sq. ; 
consequent relations of, with Britain and 
Turkey, 304 sqq. ; 307 ; hesitates to com- 
plete the Tilsit agreement, 308-13; and 
Finland, 314; Napoleon's communica- 
tions to, 316; policy of balance of, 317; 
at Erfurt, 318 sqq., 325 ; 337 ; power of, 
in Baltic lands, 340; 341; resists over- 
tures of Prussia and Austria, 344 ; de- 
clares war against Great Britain (1807), 
366-7; yields to Napoleon, 374; 375; 
offends Napoleon, 379 ; hesitating attack 
of, on Turkey, 388 sq., 485 ; character 
and policy of, 483-6, 670 ; refuses to treat 
with Napoleon, 497 ; allies himself with 
Prussia, 607, 612 sq. ; at Dresden, 623, 
627 ; at Leipzig, 535 sq. ; at Frankfort, 
542 sq. ; 646 ; and the Conference 
of Ch&tillon, 648, 650; enters Paris, 
556 ; and Talleyrand, 666 ; considers 



216 



General Index, 



Napoleon's terms, 558 sq.; at the Congress 
of Vienna, 580 sq., 653 sqq., 670 sq.; 
and the slave-trade, 614, x 19 ; and 
the Holy Alliance, ix 664 sq., x 9 sq. ; 
and the Treaty of Tilsit, 3; and the 
Quadruple AUiance (1815), 7 ; character 
and policy of, 8 sq. ; and the Treaty of 
Paris, 11; at Aix-la-Chapelle, 14-20; 
and Austria's German policy, 22 sq. ; 
change of opinions of, 23, 25, 27, 364 
sq., 488 sq. ; at Troppau, 27-30, 438 ; 
and the Turkish Question, 32 ; influenced 
by Metternich, 34 ; and Spanish affairs, 
35, 211, 222 sqq. ; hostile to France, 45 ; 
and the Due de Richelieu, 47; 50; 
favours the evacuation of France by the 
Allies, 56; 69; 74; and Cardinal Con- 
salvi, 141 ; and the Treaty of Bucharest, 
169 ; and the disputes with the Porte, 
175 ; and the Ionian Islands, 177 ; 179 ; 
and the execution of Gregorios, 183 ; 
199 ; and the Eastern Question, 187 sqq.; 
at Czernovitz, 187 ; and the St Peters- 
burg Conference, 188 ; 349 ; influence of, 
upon the King of Prussia, 352 ; and 
Stourdza's pamphlet, 864 ; and the 
Germanic Federal constitution, 368; 370; 
wars of, prior to 1815, 413 ; the military 
colonies of, 415 sq. ; and the navy, 417 ; 
and Jeremy Bentham, 418 ; and the 
Senate, ih. ; and the Committee of 
Ministers, 419 ; and provincial adminis- 
tration, 420 ; and the prisons, 422 ; and 
the Church, 424 ; dismisses Galitzin, 
425 ; and the abolition of serfdom, 428 ; 
and the secret societies, 482, 439 ; and 
Finland, 434 sq. ; and the imperial 
family, 436 ; and the succession to the 
throne, 437; schemes of (1815-19), 
437 sq. ; and Poland, 445 sq., 448 ; enters 
Warsaw, 446 ; signs the Polish Constitu- 
tion, ih. ; Concordat of, with Pius VII 
(1818), 449; at the Diets at Warsaw, 
450 sqq., 455 sq. ; and the Polish bishops, 
452 ; and Polish secret societies, 453 sq. ; 
458 ; and the Lithuanian provinces, 459, 
464 ; and the Republic of Cracow, 460 ; 
death of (1825), 190, 439; and Bern, 

XI 236 ; 262 ; 264 sq. ; 268 ; 664 ; and 
Charles XIV of Sweden, 681 sqq.; xii 729 

Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, x 436 ; at 
Warsaw, 458; visits England (1839), 558; 
and the Crimean War, xi 323, 373 ; and 
Austria, 402 ; and the King of Prussia, 
434 ; and the Austro-Prussian War, 456 ; 
attempts on the Hfe of, 484, 626, 630; 
character of, 613 ; and the emancipation 
of the serfs, 614 ; and the railway system, 
619 ; and local government, 620 ; and 
law reform, 622 sq. ; and national educa- 
tion, 624; and the Press, 625; 627; 
Asiatic policy of, 632 ; foreign policy of, 
633 sq. ; and the Black Sea, 683 sq. ; 
and the poet Odyniec, 658 ; and France, 

XII 97 ; 138 ; at Berlin, 139, 141 ; and 



Germany, 142 sqq. ; domestic policy of, 
294 sqq. ; 304 ; and the Liberal demon- 
strations, 306; plots against, 308; 
assassination of, 310 sq. ; 314 ; 317 ; and 
Finland, 334 ; and Servia, 386 ; and the 
war with Turkey, 388 sq. ; and the Con- 
gress of Berlin, 394 ; 398; 404; arbitrates 
between Japan and Peru, 555 
Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, xii 98 ; and 
Germany, 162; 291; 311; character of, 
312 ; 313 ; 315 sq. ; policy of, 322 ; 324 ; 
and Finland, 334 ; and the Jews, 340 ; 
foreign policy of, 341 ; and Bulgaria, 
406, 409 ; and the Armenians, 416 

King of Servia, xn 411 sqq. 

Prince of Bulgaria, xii 163 ; 341 ; 

rule of, 404 sqq. ; abdicates, 408 sq. 

Prince, of the Netherlands, xii 

244 sq. 

Karageorgevich, Prince of Servia, 

XII 413 

Grand Duke. See Alexander I, Tsar 

of Russia 

Blasius, rv 38 ; leader among the 

Grisons Prddikanten, 52 ; capture of, 55 

Sir William. See Stirling, Earl of 

Lord (son of E. of Stirling), settles in 

Nova Scotia, vii 75 

of Aphrodisia, commentator on 

Aristotle, n 702 

the Great, Asiatic conquests of, vi 

606 

of Hales, and the conception of the 

Treasury of merits, ii 124 sq. 

Alexandra, Queen of Great Britain, xi 338; 
XII 409 

Grand Duchess of Russia, ix 36-8, 41 

Feodorovna (Princess Charlotte of 

Prussia), Tsarina, consort of Nicholas I, 
X 436 

Alexandre, Charles-Louis, Revolutionary 

leader, viii 228 
Alexandretta, Turkish fleet at, x 550 
Alexandria, captured (1798), viii 599 ; battle 
outside (1801), 617 ; surrenders, 617 sq. ; 
1x53; Nelson at, 220; British expedition 
to (1807), 235, 368 ; force from Bombay 
in, 734; Mehemet Ali at, x 551 sq., 
569; Turkish fleet at, 562, 567; 565; 
Sir Charles Napier at (1840), 571; 572; 
bombardment of, xii 40, 430 sq. ; 430 ; 
British occupation of, 438 ; 455 

(Virginia), attacked (1814), vii 344 ; 

Federal troops at (1861), 464 

Alexandroff, Ivan IV at, v 491 

Alexandrovsk, fortress of, xi 273 ; mine laid 
at, XII 308 

Alex6yeff, Erghenyi Ivanovich, Admiral, 
Russian Viceroy, xii 346; 376; 521; in 
the Russo-Japanese War, 582 sq., 587, 
596 

Alexis Romanoff, Tsar of Russia, the 
Cossacks and, iv 580 ; 581 ; in the Baltic 
Provinces, 582 sq.; 584; Charles X and, 
586-8; feud between Poland and, 591; 



General Index, 



217 



position of, v 343 eq.; 503; the reign of, 
504 sq. ; and the Patriarch Nikon, 606 sq.; 
and ecclesiastical reforms, 508 sq. j 614 ; 
the Code of, 515; 616; character of, 516 
sq.; 518; laws of, xi 264 
Alexis, Crown Prince of Russia, xn 346 

Tsarevich, son of Peter the Great, 

V 636 sqq.; death of, 542; 547 

Wilibald. See Earing, Wilhelm 

Alexius in, Emperor of the East, i 255 
Alfieri, Giuseppina, Marchioness, xi 392 

Count Vittorio, poet, yi 824; viii 

778 sq.; ix 86 ; x 106 ; xi 649 

'^— di Sostegno, Cesare, Marquis, Pied- 
montese Minister of Education, xi 75; 
79; and Italian Federation, 90; 92; 
retires, 93 
Alfonso V of Aragon, King of Naples, i 
105, 660 

II, King of Naples, i 105, 110, 114, 

231 

VI, King of Portugal, v 34; 105 

XII, King of Spain, xi 669 sqq.; xn 

257 sq.; 260; proclaimed, 262; reign of, 
263 

XIII, King of Spain, xn 257; birth 

of, 264; marriage of, 266 

II of Ferrara. See Ferrara, Dukes of 

Alfred, Prince, Duke of Edinburgh. See 

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Duke of 
Algarve, awarded to Godoy, ix 302 
Algeciras, naval actions at (1801), ix 64; 

Freemasons of, x 215 

Conference, xn 65, 98, 133, 242, 456 

Algeria, France and, x 98 sq., 502 sqq., 

645, xn 96, 128 sq., 132, 658; the Queen 
of Madagascar deported to, 131 
Algiers, Charles V and the pirates of, n 
68 sq., 76 sq., 242; Charles V retires 
from, ni 112; 398, 399; Spanish expedi- 
tion to, 420, 435 ; pirates of, 438 ; Spanish 
and Italian expedition to, 541 ; Blake at, 
IV 483 ; French fleet sent to, v 63 ; Spain 
and, VI 374, 381; Venice and, 606; 
Denmark and, 745; expedition to (1816), 
IX 662; France and, xi 35; transporta- 
tions to, 139 sq., 304 
Algoa bay, Livingstone at, xn 808 
Algonquins, i 34; origin of name, 44; vn 

75 sq. 
Aliaga, Father, and XJceda, iv 629 ; bribed, 

632 
Ali Alta, Bussian advance on, xi 630 
Alicante, v 376; capture of (1709), 426 
Alidosi, Francesco, Cardinal, i 136; 249 sq. 
Aligre, Etienne-Franpois de, President of 

the Parlement (1787), vin 106 sq. 
Alikhanoff, General, in Georgia, xii 363 
Alima river, exploration on, xn 812 
Ali Masjid, British mission at, xn 469 sq. 
Ali Murad, Chief of Khairpur, xi 737 
Ali, Pasha of Drama, x 181 ; 185 
Ali Pasha of Janina, ix 269 ; makes himself 
independent in Albania, 386 ; x 172 sq. ; 
the successes of, 176 ; claims Parga, 177 ; 



deposed by the Sultan, t6.; death of, 
178; 181; 547 
Ali Pasha, Grand Vezir of Turkey, dies 
(1665), in 125 

Grand Vezir, superseded (1710), v 

604 

Alison, Sir Archibald, History of Europe, 

xn 837 
Ali Verdi Khan, Nawab of Bengal, vi 551 
Aliwal (Punjab), battle of, xi 739 

North (S. Africa), Treaty of, xi 787 

Alkmaar, assault on, in 236 ; and the Act 

of Seclusion, v 143; Convention con- 
cluded at (1799), vin 662; Duke of York 
capitulates at (1799), ix 41 

AUaci, Leone, papal commissary, iv 82 

Allahabad, vi 524 ; 663 ; ceded to the Mara- 
thas, 668 ; 669 ; xi 748 ; proclamation at, 
749 

Allardin, Reformed minister at Emden, v 757 

Alle river, and the campaign of 1807, ix 
285, 287, 290 

Alleghany mountains, and the Civil War, 
VII 470 

AU^gre, Ives de, French general in Italy, 
I 117, 122 sq., 126, 129, 137 

AUemand, Comte Zacharie Jacques-Theo- 
dore, replaces Missiessy, ix 225 ; fails 
to effect a junction with Villeneuve, 227; 
returns to Rochefort, 234; sails for 
Toulon, 237; replaces Willaumez, 238; 
replaces Ganteaume, 239 

AUemane, French socialist, xn 124 sq. 

Allen, John, Archbishop of Dublin, mur- 
dered, n 442 

Samuel, governor of New Hampshire, 

VII 31 

Sir Thomas, naval commander, v 

108; 180; 186; 190 

William, Cardinal, m 285-9, 290, 

350-1, 358, 436, 449 

William, Quaker, visits Russian 

prisons, x 422 

William O'Meara, Fenian, xn 65 

Allenstein, French army at, ix 285 
Allerheim, French victory at, iv 390 
Allgemeine Zeitung, xi 719 

Allier, rising in, xi 137 

Allion, de, French charge d'affaires in Russia, 
VI 315 

Allix, Jules, French politician, xi 602 

All-Polish Review, xn 339 

All Saints' Bay. See Bahia 

Allstedt, success of Miinzer's preaching at, 
n 186 

Alma, battle of the, xi 317, 319, 364 

Almada, captured by the Duke of Terceira 
(1833), X 334 

Almanza, battle of (1707), v 419 

Almaraz, Cuesta's position near, ix 450, 
452 ; seized by Wellesley (1809), 453 sq. 

Almeida, siege of, vi 369 ; ix 303 ; garri- 
soned by Junot, 440 ; taken by Mass6na 
(1810), 459; 462; besieged by Wellington 
(1811), 465; surrendered, 466; 468; 476 



218 



General Index. 



Almeida, Don Francisco de, first Viceroy 

of Portuguese India, i 31, v 696 
Almenara, victory of Starhemberg at (1710), 

V 428 
Almonacid, Venegas beaten at (1809), ix 

454, 455 
Almoster, victory of Saldanha at (1834), 

X 336 
Alopa, Laurentius Francisci de, Italian 

printer, i 562 
Alost, negotiations at (1482), i 445; seized 

by Spanish mutineers (1576), in 244 sq. ; 

Archbishop Gebhard's victory at, 708 
Alpujarras, Morisoo fastnesses in the, in 

494 
Alquier, Charles-Jean-Marie, French envoy 

at Eome, ix 195; press to be controlled 

by, 196 
Alsace. See Elsass 
Alsen, island of, taken by Charles X, iv 

432; XI 161; captured by the Prussians 

(1864), 442 
Alsh, Loch, men-of-war in, vi 105 
Altai mountains, xii 793 sq. ; exploration 

in, 798 sq. 
Altamira, Eafael, Spanish historian, xii 

842 
Alt-Breisach, ceded by France, v 436, 454 
Altemps, Marc de (Count Marcus Sitticus 

von Hohenems), Cardinal, Bishop of Con- 

stance, at Council of Trent, ii 676, 682 
Altenburg, peace negotiations opened at 

(1809), IX 359; Schwarzenberg at, 533; 

revolutionary movement at, xi 150 
Altenkirchen, Jourclan repulsed at, viii 497 
Altenstein, Karl von Stein zum, ix 332; 

Prussian statesman, x 351; educational 

system of, 355; 370; 372; 382 
Althan, Count, vi 37 
Althorp, Viscount. See Spencer, 3rd Earl 
Althusius, A. Johann, of Herborn, in 765 ; 

the Politics, 767 sq. 
Altieri, Baldassare, tlie Italian Reformers 

and, II 383 
Altmark, truce of (1629), iv 115, 187, 193, 

578 
Alton, victory of Waller at, iv 315 
Richard Alton, Count de, Austrian 

general, vi 651 sq. ; vm 320, 328 
Altona, Congress at (1687), v 579; Swedish 

sack of (1713), 609; 612; 756; port of, 

VI 737; 745 ; death of the Duke of Bruns- 
wick at, IX 278; smuggling at, 378 
Altoona (Pennsylvania), Convention at 

(1862), vn 593 
Altoviti, Antonio, Cardinal, Archbishop of 

Florence, and Cosimo I, in 390 
Altranstadt, Charles XII at, v 417, 697; 

Peace of (1706), 695, 597 
Altyn Tagh mountains, discovery of, xii 

799 
Alula, Ras, xii 240 
Alut6, Empress of China, xii 501 sq. 
Alva, Fadrique de Toledo, 2nd Duke of 

(d. 1527), I 480 



Alva, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 3rd 
Duke of, defends Perpignan, ii 76 ; 
Paul IV and, 91 sq.; 250, 261; 409; 
invades papal territory, 545 ; defeats 
Guise, 547 ; in 7 sqq., 132, 174, 190 sqq., 
208, 213 sqq., 271 sqq., 297, 302, 404, 
410, 476 sqq. ; recalled to lead Spanish 
army into Portugal, 500, 514 sqq., 705 

Alvarez de Castro, Mariano, Spanish general, 
Gerona held by, ix 454 

Alvear, Supreme Director of the Argentine 
Provinces, x 301 

Alvensleben, Count Philip Charles von, 
Prussian Minister, viii 288 

Konstantin von, Prussian general, 

XI 686; 690 sq. 

Alvensleben-Erxleben, Count Albert von, 

Prussian statesman, xi 167 sq.; 192; 199; 

at the Dresden Conference, 233 ; mission 

of, to St Petersburg, 434 
Alverstone, Richard Everard Webster, Lord, 

Lord Chief Justice of England, xii 617 
Alviano,Bartolommeo de(Venetian general), 

I 131 sq., 197 

Alvintzy, Baron Joseph von Barberek, 
Austrian Field-marshal, viii 435, 679 sq. 

Alvite, Spanish success at, vi 369 

Alxinger, Johann Baptist von, Austrian 
poet, VIII 776 

Amadeo I, King of Spain (Duke of Aosta), 

XI 570 sqq.; xn 257; 259 sq. 

Amadis of Gaul, Spanish romance, i 381 
Amalia, Queen of Greece, xi 279 

Prussian Princess, vi 281 

von Solms, Princess of Orange. 

See Orange 

Amalfi, Costanza d'Avalos, Duchess of, 

II 390 

Amanvilliers, French army corps at, xi 

592; 593 
Amar, J.-P.-Andr6, French politician, 

vni 350, 385 
Amaral, General, Governor of Macao, xn 

507 
Amarante, Count of, x 316 
Amari, Michele, Italian historian, xi 548; 

XII 842 

Amasia, Treaty at (1555), between Turks 
and Persians, iii 122; Morier at, xn 
800 

Amat, Cardinal-Legate at Ravenna, x 166 

Amazon river, trade on, iv 709; Portugal 
and, V 448, 679; Jesuits on, 683, vi 
386; 389 sq. ; unexplored regions on, 
xn 814 

Ambala, British forces at, xi 738 

Amberg, Christian of Anhalt at, in 717 ; 
French troops in, vi 232; Jourdan re- 
pulsed at (1796), vni 497 

Amberger Handel, in 713 

Ambleteuse (Newhaven), captured by the 
French (1549), n 493 

Amboina, Dutch trade at, in 638, 644; 
"massacre" at, iv 87, 713, 738 sqq., 
756, V 138, 697, vn 22; taken by the 



General Index, 



219 



Dutch (1605), IV 733, 736; agreement of 
June 1619 and, 737 ; forts in, 742 ; cap- 
ture of (1796), VIII 484, ix 750, (1810), 
240 
Amboise, Tumult of (1660), ii 297, 576 sq., 

III 265; Edict of (1663), ii 584, in 6 

Charles de, Seigneur de Chaumont, 

I 123, 129, 135 sq. 

Georges de, Cardinal of Rouen, i 123, 

129, 245, 388, 415 

Ambras, Castle of, Cardinal Elesl at the, 

IV 22 

Ambriz, slavery abolished at, xi 575 
Ambrogini, Angelo. See Politian 
Ambrosius, St, writings of, revised by 

Sixtus V, III 426, 445 
Ambur, battle of, vi 539 
Amegial, battle of (1663), v 84, 105 
Amelia, Princess, of Great Britain, death 

of, IX 689 
Amelot de Chaillou, Jean-Jacques, French 

statesman, vi 109 sq. ; 156 ; 159 ; 239 
Amelot, Sebastien-Michel, French Minister 

of the Household, viii 87 sq. 
America {General mention: see also Central^ 
North, South and the various States, 
especially the United States and Canada), 
Colombo and the discovery of, i 21-4, 
618; the Cabots and, 34-5; Magalhaes 
and, 36; exploration of, by Verazzano, 
ib., 43; influence of discovery of, 43, 

47 sq. , 56, 62, 65, 518, vii 1 ; treasure 
sent from, i 43, 46, 618; Cartier ex- 
plores, 44; Huguenot settlements in, 

48 sqq. ; English in, 50 sqq. , 56 ; 
Montaigne and, 58 sqq., 63; Catholic 
Church in, 60 sqq.; Bacon and, 63 sqq.; 
European capitalists and, 518; partition 
of, IV 747; the European Powers in, vi 
61 sqq., 69; Wesley in, 82, 86; White- 
field in, 83 sq.; 157; colonisation in, 183 
sqq., 189; 340; 344; Spanish successes 
in, 377; 383; British policy in, 432 sq., 
436 ; 491 ; Ireland and the war in, 495 ; 
the Jesuits in, 590 sq. ; influence of, on 
the French Revolution, viii Isq., 727 sq.; 
French possessions in, 80; British trade 
with, IX 71; cotton imported from, 125; 
the Irish in, xii 70; the Clan-na-Gael in, 
75 sqq.; Parnell in, 77; Swedish emigra- 
tion to, 279 

Central, and the United States, 

VII 649, 656; xii 1, 6; the Republics of. 
Chap. XXI 

North, English colonisation in, iv 

747 sq., V 685 sq., (1607-1700), Vol. vii. 
Chap. I, (1700-63), Chap, ii ; French 
in, V 57, 438, 442, 648 sq., vi 172, 299, 
327, 331, Vol. vn. Chap, in; English 
and Dutch in, iv 749, v 108 ; conflict of 
French and English in, vi 332, 410 sqq.. 
Vol. VII, Chap. IV ; Pitt's policy in, vi 
414 sq. ; withdrawal of France from, 422 ; 
quarrel of the English colonies of, with 
Great Britain, vi 438 sq., 446 sq.. Vol. vn, 



Chap. V ; independence of, declared, vi 448, 
VII 174, 208 ; legal relations between Great 
Britain and. Chap, vi ; War of Indepen- 
dence in, Chap, vii ; and France, viii 73, 
77, 91 sqq. ; constitution of the United 
States of (1776-89), Chap, vni; trade 
with, X 759 sqq. ; emigration to, 762, 
xii 63, 168 ; XI 16 ; trade of, with Bremen, 
54 ; French exiles in, 140 ; Confederate 
States of, 248 ; Russian policy in, 632 ; 
British North America, 765, 770 sq.; xii 
2; historical study in, 841. See also 
United States, Canada 
America, South, English schemes of coloni- 
sation in, IV 754 sq. ; v 107; Portuguese 
in, 372, 674 sqq. ; Spanish colonisation 
in, 680 sqq. ; 693 ; the South Sea Com- 
pany and, VI 177 sq., 181; 374; 471; 
trade of, vn 327; Republics of, and the 
United States, 366 sqq., 649 ; xn 1, 6 

(Spanish), bullion from, in 481; 

Spanish trade with, 492, 496 ; possessions 
of Philip of Spain in, 600 ; Spanish ex- 
ports to, 512 ; slave-trade to, v 403, 445, 
455; illicit trade with, vi 64 sq.; 158; 
South Sea Company and, 177 sq. ; 343 ; 
361; Jesuits expelled from, 372; 475; 
under Spanish rule, Vol. x. Chap, viii 
passim ; establishment of independence 
in. Chap, ix passim, 31, 34, 38 ; 19 ; and 
the Congress of Verona, 33 sq. ; 186 ; 
and Great Britain, 212; revolutionary 
agents from, 213; and the United States, 
ib.; foreign trade with, 586, 761 

Amersfoort, Oldenbarneveldt born at (1547), 
ni 624 ; captured by de Berg (1629), iv 
693 

Amherst, Jeffrey Amherst, Lord, Field- 
marshal, VI 426 ; VII 97, 132 sqq. ; ex- 
pedition of, to Montreal, 137, 139, 141 
sqq. 

of Arracan, William Pitt Amherst, 

Baron Amherst of Montreal, Earl, retires 
from Sicily, ix 383 ; Governor- General of 
India, xi727; 729; embassy of, to Peking, 
803 

Amicable Grant, English (1525), n 425, 

abandoned, ib. 
Amidas, Captain Philip, in Virginia, vn 3 
Amiens, taken and lost by Spaniards, 
m 522 ; fall of, 629 ; submission of, to 
Henry IV, 663, 666 ; taken by Spaniards, 
671-2 ; taken by Henry IV, 673 ; Biron 
at, 679 ; xi 601 ; 603 ; German occupation 
of, 606; 607; 610 

Treaties at, between Francis I and 

Henry VIII (1527), n 428; Peace of 
(1802), v 444, VI 549, ix 18, 19, 76 sqq., 
90 sq., 187, 269, 321; rupture of, 28, 122, 
124, 244, 270, 752 ; and trade, 90, 242, 
363 ; and Switzerland, 101 ; and Turkey, 
386 ; and Malta, 604, 752 ; and Ireland, 
706 

Fran9ois Lef^vre de Caumartin, 

Bishop of, V 756 



220 



General Index. 



Amiens, Jean-Pierre de Gallien de Chalons, 

Bishop of, X 85 
Amigues, Jales, French journalist, xn 94 
Amio, Domenico de, executes statue of 

Leo X, n 13 
Amir Khan, founder of the Tonk State, 

XI 725 sq. 
Ammirato, Scipione (the younger), Floren- 

tine historian, i 200; in 394; 457 
Amnesty Association, in Ireland, xii 73 
Amoravieta, Convention concluded at, xii 

260 
Amouroux, Charles, French politician, xi 

602 
Amoy, capture of, xi 809 
Ampere, Jean-Jacques, x 101 
Ampfing, retreat of Grenier from, ix 67 
Ampringen, Caspar von. Governor of 

Hungary, v 352 sq.; 357 
Ampthill, Odo W. L. Eussell, Lord (Lord 

Odo Eussell), xii 28; 97; 139 
Ampudia, Pedro de, Mexican general, vn 

394, 396 
Amsdorf, Nicholas. See Naumhurg, Bishop 

of 
Amsterdam, commercial rise of, x 459 ; in 

250; Separatist congregations formed at, 

346; corn trade in, 620, 631; East India 

trade with, 632-3, 640 sqq. ; interests of, 

IV 466 sq. ; threatened by de Berg, 693 ; 
difficulties of Frederick Henry with, 694, 
699, 724; Chamber of, 709; Academy 
founded at, 717 ; 718 sqq. ; Spinoza 
born at, 722; William II and, 725 sq.; 

V 43 ; peace party in, 164 sq. ; 199 ; Bank 
of, 266 sqq., vi 169, x 746; v 270; 420; 
Peter the Great in, 525, 612; Russian 
printing at, 529; Treaty of (1717), 613, 

VI 28; and the American Congress, 448 
sq. ; flight of Independents to (1593), vii 
12; Republicans in, viii287; surrenders 
(1787), 323; French troops in (1795), 
436 ; French ambassador in, ix 371 ; 
Napoleon and, 416, 417; risings in 
(1813), X 517; assembly of notables at, 
618; discontent in, 533; and European 
finance, 728, 742 sq. ; 745 ; and the 
Eastern trade, 761; socialism in, xn 248; 
249 

Amu Daria river, Russian expedition to, 
v 544 

Amundsen, Roald, makes the North-West 
passage, xn 815 

Amur, Russian advances in, xi 272 sq. 

river, Chinese drowned in, xn 521; 

Japanese force on, 600; 792; 794 sqq. 

Amurath III, Sultan, m 91 sqq. ; truce 
between Stephen Bathory and, 101 ; mis- 
sion of William Harborne to the Court 
of, IV 729 

Amyot, Jacques, Bishop of Auxerre. See 
Auxerre 

Anabaptists, and their relation to the other 
Reformers, i 686; in the Netherlands, 
n 103 ; rise of, in Germany, 166 sqq. ; 



the movement of, at Munster, 222 sqq. ; 

Swiss, and Zwingli, 319 ; a radical 

rather than doctrinal movement, 323 sq. ; 

and Lutheranism and Calvinism, 715; 

theocratic ideas of, iii 740 sq., 756 sq.; 

English, V 100; 326 
Anadyr river, xii 794 
Anagni, captured by Colonna (1626), ii 63 
Anahuac, the Indians of, x 260 sq. 
Anapa, acquired by Russia, x 202, 444, 

XI 274 

Anastasia Romano va, Tsaritsa, v 495 

Anastro, Gaspar, in 255 

Anatolia, Ibrahim Pasha in (1833), x 553 ; 

Reshid Pasha in, 569 sq. 
Anatolian railway. The, xn 170 
Ancel, Guillaume, French ambassador in 

Germany, iii 671 
Anchialos, Greek quarter in, destroyed, 

XII 426 

Ancillon, Johann Peter Friedrich, Prussian 
Minister, x 350 sq.; 376 

Anckarstrom, Jakob Johan, assassinates 
Gustavus III, VI 784 

Anckarsvard, Baron, Swedish politician, 
XI 685 

Anc6n, Peace of, xn 679 

Ancona, death of Pius II at, i 79; trade 
with, in 131, 393, 438, vi 606; French 
garrison in, viii 573, 633, 636; Napoleon 
at, 695; surrenders (1799), 663; des- 
patches captured at, ix 40; capitulation 
of (1798), 41; 63; restored to the Pope, 
189 ; occupied by Saint-Cyr, 193 ; seizure 
of Papal revenues in, 195; 203; March 
of, annexed by Napoleon (1808), 400; 
occupied by Austrians, x 150; occupied 
by French troops (1832), 155 sq., 488; 
troops withdrawn (1838), 506; xi 71; 
capitulates (1860), 389 

Ancrum Moor, victory of Scots at (1545), 
n 460 

Andalusia, Isabella in (1477), i 354; ex- 
posed to Barbarossa's attacks, in 110; 
Moors expelled from, 494; Philip's troops 
ready in, 500 ; the Duke of Medina 
Sidonia and, iv 652 sq.; evacuated by 
French, v 416 ; colonisation of, vi 383 ; 
IX 430; 431; Spanish army in, 435, 437 
sq., 450; Napoleon's projected invasion 
of, 447 ; occupied by French (1809-10), 
456; Soult in, 457, 469; re-occupied by 
Spanish, 473 ; French evacuate (1812), 
475; revolt of troops in, x 220; French 
in (1823), 228, (1810), 285; xi 657; 
harsh measures in, 566; brigandage in, 
xn 259; 261; 267 

Andaman Islands, Lord Mayo assassinated 
in, xn 463 

Andelot, Fran<?ois de. See D'Andelot 

Andermatt, Swiss general, ix 100 

Andemach, captured by French, vin 
437 

Andersen, Hans Christian, xi 699 
Jens. See Odense, Bishops of 



General Index, 



221 



Anderson, Bobert, defends Fort Sumter 
(1860-1), VII 446 sq., 450; 461 sqq.; 545 

William, British oflBcer in India, xi 

740 

Andes, Bolivar crosses the, x 294 
Andigne, Chouan leader, ix 2; 3, 13 
Andkhui, travellers at, xii 800 sq. 
Ando, Japanese statesman, xi 844 
Andover, James II at, v 247 
Andrada, Jo86 Bonifacio de, and the in- 
dependence of Brazil, x 314 sq. ; 817 sq. ; 
guardian of Pedro II, 325 

Martin Francisco de, Brazilian 

statesman, x 315; 317 sq. 

Andrade, Gomez Freire de, Portuguese 
general, x 312 

Andral, Gabriel, physician to the Court of 
Naples, IX 571 

Andrassy, Count Julius, Hungarian states- 
man, XI 214; 400; and Bismarck, xii 
144; and Hungary, 183 sq. ; 188 sq. ; 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 190 sq. ; and 
the Austro-German alliance, 192; 383; 
at the Congress of Berlin, 394, 396 

Count Julius, the younger, xii 205 

sqq. ; 210 

Andr6, John, vii 217, 226 

de Puyraveau, French deputy, x 476: 

491 

Andrea, Girolamo di. Cardinal, xi 392 

Fr4, of Ferrara, Lutheran, ii 380 

Andreae, Jacob, iii 704 

Laurentius (Lars Andersson), ii 624, 

628 

Andr6e, Salomon August, Polar expedition 

of, xii 795 
Andrelini, Fausto, and the Julius Exclusus, 

It 9 
Andr6ossi, Comte Antoine-Frangois de, in 

^gypti viii 616; ambassador to London, 

IX 102; 244 
Andrew, Archduke, iii 535 
Andrewes, Lancelot, Bishop of Winchester, 

and religious controversy, iv 268 
Andriani, General, defends Sagunto, ix 470 
Andrieux, Fran<?ois-Guillaume-Jean-Stanis- 

las, IX 153 
Andros, Colonel Sir Edmund, colonial 

governor, vii 28 sqq., 42 sqq., 47, 64 
Andrusovo, Treaty of (1667), v 505 
Andujar, Dupont retreats to (1808), ix 

437 
Anethan, Baron Jules Joseph de, Belgian 

statesman, xi 674; xii 250 
Angelico, Fr4, i 168, 647 
Angennes, Claude de. Bishop of Le Mans. 

See Le Mans 
Angermannus, Abraham, Archbishop of 

Upsala. See Upsala 
Angers, seized by Huguenots, iii 41; gift to 

Mary de' Medici of, iv 126 ; feudal courts 

in, vui 49 ; cavalry school at, 446 ; 

d'H^douville at, ix 3 
Anghera, Peter Martyr of, historian, the 

Decades, i 53; 248, 379 



Angiolillo, Michael, murders Cinovas, xii 
268 

Anglesey, Sir Henry William Paget, Mar- 
quis of (Earl of Uxbridge), General, 
brilliant feat of, at Benavente, ix 445; 
charge of, at Genappe, 630; Viceroy of 
Ireland, x 648 ; 650 sq. ; and reforms in 
Ireland, 657; 663 

Angola, taken by the Dutch, iv 752; 
Brandenburg trade with, v 647; Portu- 
guese in, XI 575, xii 3,657, 663, 808; 811 

Angostura, Bolivar captures, x 293 sq. 

Angouleme, negotiations between Louis XIII 
and Queen-Mother at, iv 126 

Charles d'Orl^ans, Count of (d. 1496), 

I 393 

Charles d'0rl6ans, Duke of, ii 70, 72 

Charles de Valois (bastard son of 

Charles IX, King of France, Comte 
d'Auvergne, 1691-1619), Duke of, plots 
against Henry IV, in 672, 679 sq. ; heads 
an embassy to Saxony (1620), iv 34 

Diana of. See Montmorency 

Francis, Count of. See Francis I, 

King of France 

Louis de Valois, Comte d'Alais, Duke 

of, IV 611; 614; Mercoeur and, 618 

Louis-Antoine de Bourbon, Due de, 

proclaimed Prince Eegent at Bordeaux, 
IX 481 ; in Bordeaux, 555 ; and the 
Ministry of Louis XVIII, 566; 568; at 
Nlmes, 617; enters Spain with a French 
army (1823), x 36; 46; in Spain, 80, 
228, 230; return of, 80 

Louise of Savoy, Duchess of, ii 46, 

52, 59, 97, 123, 423 

Marie- Th6r^se-Charlotte, Duchesse 

de, welcome of, in Paris, ix 562 ; suspicions 
against, 572 ; at Bordeaux, 617 ; x 62 

Bastard of. Grand Prior of Malta 

(son of Henry II), iii 19 

Ant. Charles Coueseau, Bishop of, 

XI 473 

Angra, garrison of, x 323 sq.; English mer- 
cenaries at, 327 

Pequena, acquired by Germany, xii 

41 ; 160 sq. 

Angria, admiral of the Maratha fleet, vi 

631 
Angrogne (Piedmont), Conference of Wal- 

denses at (1532), n 289 
Anguilla, colonised by the English, v 687 
Anguillara, sale of, to Virginio Orsini, 

I 110; recovered by Alexander VI, 233 

Giovanni Andrea della, the Meta- 
morphoses, III 471 

Angus, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of, 
marriage of, with Margaret Tudor, i 485 ; 

II 453 sqq., 560 

William Douglas, 10th Earl of, in 

551 

Anhalt, sufferings of the principality of, 
IV 418 

House of. III 704, 712, 715, 725; 

Gustavus Adolphus and, iv 207; v 618 

14 



222 



General Index, 



Anhalt-Bernburg, revolutionary movement 
in, XI 150 

extinction of House of, x 343 

Alexander Karl, Duke of, xi 150 

Alexius, Duke of, x 373 

Anne, Princess of (Countess Anne of 

Bentheim), iii 717 

. Prince Christian I of, iii 712, 717, 

719 ; negotiations of, 721-6 ; 730-2, 734 ; 
diplomatic efforts of, iv 1; the guiding 
spirit of the Palatine clique, 12 ; 16 sqq. ; 
and the Elector Palatine, 29, 33; with 
Mansfeld, 64; and the battle of Prague, 
65 sq.; 68; the "Chancery" of, 3, 
69 sq. ; end of political importance of, 71 

Prince Christian, the younger, iv 

65 sq. 

Anhalt-Dessau, and the Germanic Con- 
federation, X 344 

John George I, Duke of, m 717 

■ Leopold, Duke of, x 373 

Leopold IV, Duke of, xi 150 

Prince Leopold of, vi 206 sq. ; 210 ; 

213; 215 sq.; 244 

Prince Moritz of, vi 262; 268; 284, 

286; 289 

Anhalt-Kothen, revolutionary movement in, 
XI 150 

extinction of House of, x 343 

Ferdinand, Duke of, and the Prus- 
sian tariff treaty, x 372 sq. 

Wolfgang, Prince of, ii 196, 205, 

215 

Anhalt-Zerbst, Prince Christian August of, 
VI 657 
Princess Elizabeth of, vi 316 ; 657 sqq. 

Princess Sophia Augusta Frederica 

of. See Catharine II, Tsarina 

Anhausen, Protestant Union founded at 

(1608), III 725 
Anholt, island of, seized (1809), ix 236 

Johann Jakob, Freiherr von, after- 
wards Count of, Tilly's lieutenant, iv 79, 
85; 162 

Anhui, disturbances in, xii 517 
Aniello, Tommaso (Masaniello), heads in- 
surrection in Naples, iv 657 sq. ; death 
of, ih. 
Anjala, VI 778; 780; confederation of, 782 
Anjou, annexed to the French Crown, i 
396; the League in, iii 663; customs of, 
V 13; scarcity in, vi 162 
House of, I 396 

Charles, Count of. King of Sicily, 

III 464 sq. 

Francis of Valois, Duke of Alen<?on, 

Duke of, and the marriage with Queen 
Elizabeth, iii 17 sq., 238 ; and the Nether- 
lands, 249, 252 sq. ; inaugurated Duke 
of Brabant, 254-8, 501 sq. ; 669; death 
of, 288, 617 

Gaston-Jean-Baptiste, Duke of. See 

Orleans 

Henry of Valois, Duke of. See 

Henry III, King of France 



Anjou, Louis I, Duke of, i 108 

Louis III, Duke of, i 108 

Philip, Duke of. See Philip V, King 

of Spain 

Ren^, Duke of. King of Naples, etc., 

I 108, 396 

Anna, Anne, St, the cult of, in Germany, 

II 107, 114 
Anna, Anne: — 

Empress, consort of Matthias, iv 1 ; 

death of, 25 

(of Hungary and Bohemia) , Empress, 

consort of Ferdinand I, i 318; n 198 

Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, 

party government under. Vol. v, Chap. 
XV ; 63; 211; marriage of, 230; 247; 
262; and the Act of Settlement, 275; and 
the Union, 297 sqq.; and the peace 
negotiations, 417, 430; and Marlborough, 
428; 429; 441; 451; iUness and death 
of, 459 sq., 610; vi6; and the succession, 
8, 10 sqq.; illness of, 15 ; death of, 17 sq. , 
and the Scottish peers, 93 ; and the Union; 
96; 97; 815 sq. 

(Boleyn), Queen of England, second 

consort of Henry VIII, marriage of, n 
67 ; 429 sqq., 439 sqq.; trial and execution 
of, 445 

■ (of Cleves), Queen of England, fourth 

consort of Henry VIII, ii 237, 239, 450 
sq. 

(of Denmark), Queen of England, 

consort of James I, iii 551; estranged 
from the Protestant faith, iv 89 

• (of Austria), Queen of France (Infanta), 

consort of Louis XIII, in 538 ; 547, 684 ; 
marriage of, iv 119; Richelieu Grand 
Almoner to, 123 ; relations of Chateauneuf 
Vv'ith, 142 ; former adherents of, 596 ; 
Mazarin and, 597, 608 sq., 702; Anne di 
Gonzaga and, 610 ; affronted by Cond6, 
612; 614 sq.. Regency of, 593, 659; the 
marriage of Louis XIV and, 660; v 72; 
376 sq. 

Duchess of Britanny, Queen of France, 

consort of Charles VIII and Louis XII, 
Maximilian and, i 302, 395, 450; Charles 
VIII marries, 111, 450, 467; Louis XII 
and, 483; Henry VII and, 466; death of, 
483 

Queen of Holland, consort of Wil- 
liam II, XI 664 

(de Candale), Queen of Hungary, con- 
sort of Wladislav II, i 336 

■ (Korolewna), Queen of Poland, iii 

87-9, 97 ; crowned with Stephen Bathory 
(1576), 99 

(of Styria), Queen of Poland, consort 

of Sigismund III, iii 699, 714 

Tsarina of Russia, v 556 sq. ; vi 195 ; 

and Poland, 196 sq. ; reign of, 301 sqq. ; 
312 sq.; 665; 672; 760; death of, 228, 
309 

Tsaritsa of Russia, consort of Vladimir, 

V 483 



General Index, 



223 



Anna, Anne, contd. : — 

(of Austria), Queen of Spain, fourth 

consort of Philip II, marriage of, m 175, 
177; intercession of, 227 sq.; death of, 
490, 500, 699 

Duchess of Bavaria, vi 229 

de Beaujeu. See Bourbon 

Feodorovna (of Coburg), consort of 

the Tsarevich Constantine, x 436 

Grand Duchess of Russia, Napoleon 

the suitor of, ix 486 

Leopoldovna. See Brunswick- Wolfen- 

biittel, Princess of 

(of Egmont), first wife of William of 

Orange. See Orange 

(of Saxony), second wife of William 

of Orange. See Orange 

Petrovna or Tsesarevna. See 

Holstein-Gottorp, Anne, Duchess of 

Annam, China and, xi 802; affairs in 
(1787-1902), xn 623 sqq. ; France and, 
4, 131 sq.; 536 

Annapolis (Maryland), Convention at (1786), 

VII 244, 312, 314 

(Nova Scotia), settlement at, vii 

71 sq., Ill; destroyed (1613), 72; 75; 
recovered, 89 ; taken by Sidgwick (1654), 
111; destroyed (1704), 112 

Basin, Nova Scotia, American fishing 

vessel seized in, vii 659 
Annebaut, Claude de, baron de Eetz, 

admiral and marshal of France (d. 1552) , 

n 78, 97, 460; Venetian mission of, 

III 115; dismissed by Seigniory, 116 
Annepy, Charles Emmanuel at, iii 420; 

added to France, ix 564, 576 
Annenkoff, Michael, Russian general, xi 

629; and the Samarkand railway, xir 

343 
Annesley Bay, expedition to, xi 753 
Annone, capture of, by French (1499), i 

121 
Annunzio, Gabriele di, xii 13 
Anrep, von, Russian politician, xii 376 
Ansbach, re-united to Baireuth, v 622 ; 

margravate of, vi 633; 704; principality 

of, reverts to Prussia (1792), viii 530; 

proposed cession of, to Austria, 534 ; 

French army marches through, ix 255, 

256; cession of, to Bavaria, 262, 264, 

265, 267, 656 

Margraves, etc. of. See Braudenburg- 

Ansbach 

Anselme, Jacques-B. -M. de, French general, 

VIII 437 

Provencal adventurer, in 408 

Anson, George Anson, Ist Viscount, vi 75 ; 

248; 250; First Lord of the Admiralty, 
419; 424; death of, 427; x 273 

George, General, in India, xi 746 

Anstett, Baron Hans P., Russian diploma- 
tist at the Congress of Vienna, ix 586 

Anstruther, Sir Robert, iv 89 
Antananarivo, French troops at, xii 130 
Antarctic, expeditions to the, xn 815 



Antella, Lamberto della, betrays Medicean 

conspiracy, i 175 
Antibes, the Young Pretender at, vi 110; 

150; 159 sq. 
Anticosti, placed under Newfoundland 

government, x 685 
Anti-Erasmistas, in Spain, ii 401 
Antietam, battle of (1862), vn 481 sqq., 

691 
Anti-Eugeniani, secret society, in Milan, 

X 111 
Antigua captured by the French, v 110; 

687; VI 454; cotton-growing in, xn 654 
Anti-Jacobin, The, x 580, 700 
Antilles, British successes in, vi 421 ; French 

colonial expedition to, ix 80; Missiessy 

sails for, 221; administration of, x 248; 

257; Spanish trade with, 275 
Anti-Martinists, in 344 
Anti-Masons, vn 379 
Antiparos surrendered by Venice to Turks, 

in 116 
Antivari, captured by Montenegrins, xn 

390; 392; Treaty of Berlin and, 396sq.j 

414 

bay of, XII 427 sq. 

Antoine, Franpois-P.-N., member of the 
Directory of Insurrection, viii 232 

Antologia, Italian review, x 128 

Antonelle, Pierre-Antoine, Marquis de, viii 
504 

AntoneUi, Count, xn 240 

Giacomo, Cardinal, papal Secretary 

of State, X 156 ; xi 93 ; Napoleon III and, 
128; 378; 389; 392; character of, 705; 
709 ; 712; and the dogma of Infallibility, 
722 

Antonino (St). See Florence, Archbishops of 
Antonio, Don, of Portugal, ni 34 ; Enghsh 

expedition for, 317 sq.; vicissitudes of, 

500 sq., 511 
Antonius, Lutheran preacher in Norway, 

n 618 
Antonovich, Ivan, claimant to the Russian 

throne, vi 660; 680 
Antony (Antoine) of Bourbon (King-consort 

of Navarre). See Bourbon 

King of Saxony, x 374 

Antraigues, Emmanuel -Louis -Henri de 

Launay, Comte de, vcii 509; 511 
Antrim, English Colony in, m 601; the 
Steelboys in, vi 491 

Alexander Macdonnell, 3rd Earl of, 

v 307 

Randal MacDonnell, 2nd Earl and 

1st Marquis of, taken prisoner in Ulster, 
IV 316; promises to attack Argyll, 620; 
army and, 522; transports Irish troops 
into Scotland, 527 

Antung, XII 511; Boxers at, 619; 683 sq. 

Antwerp, commercial rise and importance 
of, I 429, 459, 507 sqq. ; Anjou's attempt 
on. III 35; Calvinists in, 206; Icono- 
clastic riot in, 208; William of Orange 
at, 211 ; Act of amnesty at, 227 ; " Spanish 

14—2 



224 



General Index, 



Pury" at, 245-6, 498; Spaniards ex- 
pelled from, 248; States General at, 249; 
Thanksgiving service at (1582), 255 ; 
*• French Fury" at, 256 ; remains faithful 
to William of Orange, 257-8; Philip TL 
at, 480 ; bullion landed at, 493 ; crowning 
of Anjou as Duke of Brabant at, 502; 
threatened by Maurice of Nassau, 538; 
Peace negotiations transferred to, 540; 
truce signed at (1609), 658, 642; taken by 
Parma, 618-9; trade of, 630, 640 ; v 199 ; 
407; 457; surrenders to Marlborough 
(1706), 416; conference at (1713), 458 sq.; 
siege of, vi 246; 247; 641; and the 
navigation of the Scheldt, 642 ; 644 sqq. ; 
disturbances in, 651; defences of, viii 
281; seminary at, closed, 327; 418; 
Council of Allies at (1793), 429; Pichegru 
captures (1794), 436; port improvements 
at, IX 120 ; and the Walcheren expedition, 
358; prosperity of, x 522, 533; Prince 
of Orange at (1830), 535, 537; plots at, 
539; siege of (1832), 543; 759; the 
Regulation of, xi 672 ; port of, ih. ; 
674 

Anwar-ud-din, Nawab of the Camatio, vi 

, 539 

Anyos, Paul, Hungarian poet, xi 422 

Anzengruber, Ludwig, Austrian novelist 
and dramatist, xi 412; 415; 420 

Anziuo, Canon, xii 216 

Aosta, occupied by Lanneo (1800), ix 60 

Duke of. Ste Amadeo I, King of 

Spain 

Aoust, Eustache de, French commander, 
VIII 439 

Apa Sahib, Mar;itha chief, xi 725 

Apaffy, Michael, Prince of Transylvania. 
See Transylvania 

Apia, German aggression at (1885), vii 
662 

Apocrypha, early printed editions of the, 
I 613 

Apodaca, Juan Ruiz de, Viceroy of 
Mexico, X 304 

Apolda, Davout marches on, ix 276 ; Berna- 
dotte at, 277 

Apologia of William of Orange, in 191, 251, 
253, 254 

Apologie for Poetrie, Sir P. Sidney's, in 
366, 372 

Apologists, Greek (Athenagoras, Justin 
Martyr, Tatian, Theophilus, Clement of 
Alexandria, Eusebius of Cesarea.Irenaeus, 
Origen), early printed editions of, i 615-6 

Latin (Lactantius, Arnobius, Minucius 

Felix), early printed editions of, i 617 

Aportanus, Georgius. See Dare, Jurien 
van der 

Apostolato popolare, x 106 

Apostolic Fathers (Barnabas, Clement, 
Ignatius, Polycarp, etc.), early printed 
copies of, I 614-5 

Apostolicum Pascendi^ Bull of Clement XIII, 
VI 593 



Appenzell, joins the Swiss confederacy 

(1513), I 308 ; Canton of, xi 244 ; 248 ; 

250 sq. 
Appleby, Jacobite force at, vi 101 
Appomattox, surrender of Lee at (1865), 

VII 452, 541 sq. ; capture of provisions at, 

540 
Apponyi, Count Albert, xn 204 sq. ; 209 

Anton Rudolf, Count, at Rome, x 139; 

at Paris, 495 

Count George, xi 152 

Aprakin, Stephen, Count, Field-marshal, 

Russian Commander-in-chief, vi 264 ; 

266 ; 277 ; 322 
Apraksin, Fedor Matveievitch, Russian 

admiral, v 601 sq. ; 613 
Apsley, Lord. See Bathurst, 2nd Earl 
Apu-Capac-Incas, " headchiefs " of the 

Peruvians, i 45 
Apukhtin, Curator of Education in Poland, 

XII 336 
Apulia, Barbarossa descends upon, iii 112; 

grazing rights on the tavoliere of, ix 406 
Apulian aqueduct, xii 238 
Aquaviva, Cardinal, Spanish protector at 

the Vatican, vi 110 
Aquednok (Rhode Island), settlement of, 

VII 20, 23 sq. 
Aquila, Alvaro de la Quadra, Bishop of, 

Spanish ambassador in England, ii 563, 

582 sq. ; in 265, 480, 590 
Aquileia, patriarchate of, vi 606 ; regained 

by Austria, ix 660 

Niccold Donato, Archbishop of, i 657 

Aquinas, St Thomas, influence of, in the 

Netherlands, i 627 ; n 125, 127 ; influ- 
ence of. III 740, 749 ; his Summa, 766 ; 
XI 718 
Aquisgran, Treaty of, vi 363 ; 366 
Aquitaine, Charles, Duke of Normandy 
and Berry, Duke of, brother of Louis XI, 
I 389 sq., 393 
Arabi, Ahmad, Pasha, xn 40 ; 240 ; War 

Minister in Egypt, 436 sqq. ; 441 
Arabia, importance of, in trade, i 28 ; the 
Ottomans conquer, 91; Wahabites masters 
of, IX 385 ; their successes in, 387; British 
India and, xi 753 ; Turkey and, xn 4 
Arabian Sea, pirates in, vi 531 
Arabs (Spanish), translations of, in 546 
Arad, fortress of, xi 184 ; Hungarian 
Government at, 210 sqq. ; military execu- 
tions ('/the Arad Martyrs ") at, 214 
Arago, Etienne, French politician, xi 99 

Franpois-Jean-Dominique, ix 133 ; 

X 499 ; XI 26 ; 102 ; Minister of Marine, 
104; 118; 124; xn 782 

Francois- Victor-Emmanuel, French 

politician, xi 600 

Aragon, constitution of, i 350 sq., 353; 
claim of, on Naples, in 465 ; Cortes of, 
485, 513-4 ; conflict with Philip II, 488, 
496, 516-7; Inquisition in, 488, 514; 
judicial system of, 613 sqq. ; flight of 
Perez to, 515; Parliament of, iv 643; 



General Index. 



225 



Los Velez in, 648 ; Philip IV and, 650, 
652 sq., 654, 658 ; v 419 ; invaded by the 
Allies (1710), 428 ; vi 136 ; disaffection 
in, 145 ; canal of, 383 ; insurrection in 
(1808), IX 436, 438; French operations 
in, 447, 454, 457; Carlist forces in (1837), 

X 239 sq. ; clerical influence in, xii 258 
Arakan, xi 727 ; ceded to Great Britain, 

728 ; 729 ; lost by Burma, xii 479 
Arakcheieff, Count Alexei A., Russian 
general and statesman, ix 35 ; 49, 50 ; 
Minister for War, 314; influence of, in 
Bussia, 483 ; 484, 487 ; x 416 ; supports 
Archbishop Seraphim, 425 ; oppressive 
rule of, 427; 428; 437 
Aral, Sea of, Eussian expedition to, v 544 ; 

XI 273 

Arana, Jos6. See Baena, Duke of 
Aranda, Synod of (1473), i 651 

Pedro Abarca y Bolea, Count of, 

Spanish statesman, vi 351 ; 369 ; 371 
sqq. ; and peace negotiations, 380 ; 382 ; 
592; vm 782; xii 691 

Arande, Michel de, preacher of Meaux, 

II 282 sqq. 

Aranjuez, the Spanish Court at, v 376, 
391, VI 166 ; Treaty of, 363 ; 371 ; 383 ; 
League of, 608; revolution of (1808), 

IX 430-1 ; absolutist demonstrations in, 

X 224; Queen Isabel at, xi 556 
Arany, John, Hungarian poet, xi 428 sqq. 
Araujo de Lima, Pedro, Regent of Brazil, 

X 325 
Arbitration, extended use of, xii 12 ; and 

the United States Civil War, 21 sq. See 

also Law, International 
Arboga, Articles of, iv 161-9 ; Estates meet 

at, 172 
Arbroath, Argyll at, vi 103 sq. 
Arbu6s, Peter, Spanish Inquisitor, xi 715 
Arbuthnot, John, English writer, v 70 

Marriot, Admiral, vi 453 

Arcadia, insurrection in, xi 279 
Arcadia, Sidney's, in 371 

Archangel, Dutch factory at, iii 632 ; v 
531 ; leather exports from, 534 ; Orthodox 
mission in province of, x 422 

"Archdukes, the" (Archduke Albert of 
Austria and the Infanta Isabel Clara 
Eugenia), m 63e-40, 685. See Albert, 
Archduke 

Archdukes (the five sons of Maximilian II), 

III 698; family compact of (1606), 720 
Archenholz, Johann Wilhelm von, German 

historian, viii 773 
Archimedes, v 707 sq. 
Archinard, occupies Timbuktu, xii 129 
Archivio Storico, founded, xn 842 
Arcimboldo, Giovanni Angelo. See Milan, 

Archbishop of 
Arcis-sur-Aube, battle of (1814), ix 552 
Arco, Duke of, vi 166 
Areola, fighting at (1796), viii 579 sq. 
Arijon, Chevalier Jean-Claude-El^onore le 

Michaud de, vi 379 sq. 



Arcos, revolt at (1820), x 216 

D. Rodrigo Ponz de L^on, Duke of. 

Viceroy of Naples, iv 656 ; flight of, 657 

Arcot, seized by Clive, vi 541; 543 ; 576 

Nawabs of. See Mohammad Ali and 

Azim-ud-daulah 

Arctic Ocean, and the North-East passage, 

xii 792 sqq. 
Arcueil, Huguenots at, in 4 
Ardagh, Sir John Charles, xn 722 
Ardahan, Russia and, xn 392, 398 
Ardee, James II retires to, v 313 
Ardennes, separation of, from France, 

IX 664 ; agriculture in, x 750 
Ardoch, Jacobite force at, vi 100 
Ardres, fall of, in 670 
Ardschel, Island of, ni 109 
Areizaga, Spanish general, ordered to march 

on Madrid, ix 455 ; troops of, flee to 

Murcia, 456 
Arellano, Crist6bal de, Spanish reformer, 

II 406 
Aremberg, Count Jan van Ligne of, in 9, 

194, 211, 223, 536 

William of. See La Marck, William 

de 

Arena, Barth61emy, Jacobin, arrested, ix 

17 
Arenales, Juan Antonio Alvarez de, x 293 
Arenberg, merchandise tolls of, v 647 
Areniti, Constantin, military adviser of 

Maximilian I, i 133 
Areopagus, London Literary Club, m 369 
Aresen, Jon. See Holum, Bishop of 
Aretin, J. A. von, ix 595 
Aretino, Cristoforo, n 16 

Pietro, II 17, 28, in 459, 468 

Arezzo, rebellion of (1510), i 193 sq. 

GentUe di, Italian scholar, n 16 

Argall, Sir Samuel, deputy governor of 

Virginia, vii 110 
Argaum (Argaon), victory of Wellesley at, 

IX 440, 726 
Argenson, Count Marc-Pierre de Voyer de, 

Minister of War, vi 334 ; 338 ; 348 

Marc-Ren6 de Voyer de. Chancellor 

of France (d. 1721), vi 129 ; x 45 ; 61 ; 
65; and the plots of 1820-2, 68, 76; 
485; 491 

Ren6-Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, 

Marquis of, minister and economist 
(d. 1757), Foreign Minister, vi 110; 113; 
160 sq. ; 243 sqq. ; fall of, 247 ; 329 ; 
and Benedict XIV, 591 ; viii 9, 12 ; his 
career and principles, 16, 19, 21, 27 ; x 
770 

Argenteau. See Mercy- Argenteau, F. C. 

Argentine Republic, independence of, x 287, 
293, 301; war of, with Brazil (1826-8), 
301, 325; affairs in (1833-1904), xn 
680 sqq.; 672; and Paraguay, 674; 
Brazil and, 676; 679; development of, 
690; 692; foreign capital in, 694; 701; 
boundary arbitration by, 722, 727; 734 

Argos, French occupation of, xi 277 



226 



General Index, 



Argiielles, Augustin, x 218 ; 222 ; appointed 

guardian to Queen Isabel, 242 
Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of 
(Earl of Islay), vi 99 

Archibald Campbell, 4th Earl of, n 

457 

Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of, the 

Scotch Covenant supported by, ii 558, 
573; III 270-1, 273, 550 

Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl, later 

Marquis, of, Presbyterianism and, iv 339 ; 
347 ; at the General Assembly at Glasgow, 
600; " Plotters" and, 505; Cromwell and, 
350, 508; crowns Charles II at Scone, 
610; 620; execution of, v 282 

Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of, v 

229; 232; and the Scottish Test Act, 
287; execution of, 289 

George Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke 

of, XII 23; resigns office, 39; 746 

John Campbell, 2nd Duke and 11th 

Earl of, V 298; 476 ; vi 96; and the Earl 
of Mar's rising, 99 sq., 102 

Argyropoulos, Johannes, Greek professor at 

Florence, i 543 ; ii 16 
Ariosto, Alfonso, in 462 

Ludovico, II 11, 15; 28; iii 457-62, 

466 ; Orlando Furioso, ii 19 ; in 469, 471 

Arista, Mariano, Mexican general, vii 395 

Aristophanes, Hungarian translation of, xi 
429 

Aristotle, Gemistos Plethon and the study 
of, II 701 ; Pomponazzi and the study of, 
702 sqq.; influence of, in 740, 745, v 
707 sq.; 712; 736; xn 704 

Arisugawa, Prince, Japanese Minister, xi 
834; 857 

Arizona, ceded to the United States (1848), 
VII 397 

Arkansas, enters the Union (1836), vii 413, 
421; and secession, 453-581, 603; in the 
Civil War, 462 ; emancipation in, 595, 
698; new government set up in, 625; 
becomes Democratic, 642; population 
of, 695, 711 

Arklow, Parnell at, xn 83 

Arkwright, Sir Richard, vii 374; x 735 

Arlanges, General de, in Algeria, x 504 

Aries, clamours for Papal protectorate, in 
416; the plague at, vi 128; and the States 
General, vm 125; the "White Terror" 
at, 387 

Arleux, fort at, taken by Marlborough, v 
431 

Arlington, Henry Bennet, Earl of, v 100; 
113; 152 sq.; 198; and the Triple AlU- 
ance, 200; signs the Treaty of Dover, 
204; 205; created Earl, 207; 208 sq.; 
and the Test Act, 210; and the Prince 
of Orange, 213 sq. ; grants in Virginia 
made to, vii 9 

Armada, The Spanish, see Vol. iii, Chap. 
IX ; Sixtus V and, 436 ; equipment, des- 
patch and catastrophe of, 605 sqq. ; v 
826 



Armagh, Bagenal's defeat at, iii 530; 
Cathedral of, garrisoned, 590 ; victory 
of Tyrone near (1598), 607; plantation 
of, 614 ; resists English allotment, 615 ; 
the Oakboys' rising near, vi 490 ; Catholics 
in, X 644 

Armagnac, Jacques de, Duke of Nemours. 
See Nemours 

Jean V, Count of, treachery and 

death of, i 396 sq., 415 

Louis de, Duke of Nemours. See 

Nemours 
Armagon, fort at, iv 742 
Armed Neutrality, the first (1780), vi 449, 

460, IX 42 sqq.; the second (1800), 46 sqq. 
Armella, Nicole, French mystic, v 762 
Armellini, Carlo, Triumvir in Rome, xi 94 
Armenia, the Elector Palatine and, v 660 ; 

geographical situation of, vi 528 ; Russia 

and, X 545 ; xn 10 ; 37 
Armenians, xn 342 ; 393 ; the Treaty of 

Berlin and, 398 sq. ; 415 sqq. 
Arm^nonville, Joseph-J.-B. Fleurian de, 

French Keeper of the Seals, vi 162 
Armenteros, Tomas, secretary of Margaret 

of Parma, in 195-6, 198, 206, 207 
Arm felt, Baron Gustaf Maurice von, 

Swedish statesman, vi 778 ; plot of, ix 

38 ; 46 ; 487 ; Governor-General of Fin- 
land, X 433, 435 

Baron Karl Gustaf von, Swedish 

general, v 609 

Armies, their conditions, organisation etc., 
16fch century barbarities of, in 105, 111', 
use of Spanish military treatises for, 
548; Austrian, in 1809, ix 346 sq.; in 
1813, 522 ; Egyptian, reform in, xii 447 
sq. ; English, under Henry VIII, ii 473; 
the Army Plot (1641), iv 288-9, 291; 
in 1642, 302 sqq. ; Cromwell's Ironsides, 
312; reform of, and the Self-denying 
Ordinance, 325 sqq.; the New Model in 
the field, 329 sqq.; political and military 
action of, during the years 1645-9, see 
Chap. XI passim, 336-55 ; Cromwell's 
Major-Generals, 441 sq.; 542 sqq.; ques- 
tion of a standing army, v 113 ; 
Wellington's, of 1815, ix 622; Act of 
Gladstone's first Ministry and follow- 
ing Acts, XII 25 sq. ; attempts at reform 
during the last few years, 59 sq. ; Indian, 
Lord Curzon's reforms in, 493 ; European 
in general, burden of, 7 sq. ; Flemish, 
under Philip the Good and Charles the 
Bold, I 432 ; under Mary of Burgundy, 
43'J ; French, early misrule and reform 
in, under Charles VII and his successors, 
I 411 sqq.; in the earlier 16th century, 
n 96 sq. ; under Henry IV, in 691 sq.; 
under Louvois, v 18 sq.; under Louis XV, 
VI 269 ; Choiseul's reforms in, 348 sq. ; 
under Louis XVI, viii 51 sq.; and the 
constitution of 1791, 207 ; at the opening 
of the wars of the Revolution, 401 sqq. ; 
reorganisation of, 432 sq.; change of spirit 



General Index. 



227 



in (c. 1795), 445 sq.; the Law of Conscrip- 
tion, 518 sq. ; Conscription under the 
First Empire, ix 114 sqq.; strength of, 
in 1808-9, 345; the Grand Army of 
1812, 488 sq., 498, 606; in 1813, 508, 
622 ; Napoleon's, in 1815, 618 sq. ; re- 
organised (1832), X 487; under Louis 
Napoleon, xi 291 ; in 1870, xi 680 sqq. ; 
since 1870, xii 96 sq.; Italian, of recent 
years, 233 sq.; Japanese (1904), 578; 
the Ottoman, constitution of, i 98 
sqq. ; under Solyman the Magnificent, 
III 126 sq.; Prussian, organised by the 
Great Elector, v 642 sq., by Frederick I, 
669; under Frederick WiUiam I, vi 213 
sqq. ; remodelling of the (from 1807), 

IX 331 sqq. ; in 1813, 510 ; Bliicher's, 
of 1815, 623; in 1870, xi 579; Russian, 
the Strieltzy, and Peter the Great; v 523 
sqq.; in 1812, ix 489 sq., in 1813, 509, 
522 ; in and after the revolutionary wars, 

X 415 sqq.; military colonies, 415 sq.; 
under Alexander II, xi 623 sq. ; reorgan- 
ised (1874), XII 295; (1904) East of 
Lake Baikal, 577 sq. ; Savoyard, under 
Emmanuel Philibert, iii 411 ; of the 
Spanish Indies, x 256 sq.; the Spanish, 
in recent years, xii 258 sqq. ; Swedish, 
under Gustavus Adolphus, iv 193 sq.; 
after his death, 228 sqq. ; organisation 
of, under Charles XI, v 578 ; reformed in 
the late 19th century, xii 276 sq. 

Arminius, Jacobus (Jakob Herman), and 
the doctrine of predestination, n 717 ; 
III 646-7 ; IV 717 
Arnau, Austrian position at, vi 706 
Arnauld, Ang^lique, Abbess of Port- 
Royal, v 83 

Antoine, Pascal and, iv 795 ; Carte- 

sianism and, v 73; 83 sq.; exile and death 
of, 89 

Arnauts, in Servia, xii 416 

Arndt, Ernst Moritz, ix 328; 335, 589; x 

352 ; 365 ; 403 sq.; xi 49 ; 164 ; 168 ; 199 ; 

xii 818 

Johann, theologian, v 758 sq. 

Arneth, Reichsritter Alfred von, xii 825 ; 

829 

Arni, Clive at, vi 541 ; 577 

Arnim, or Arnheim, Hans Georg von, iv 
101 ; in Pomerania, 104, 106 ; besieges 
Stralsund, 107 sq.; 109 ; 187 ; sent to the 
Polish frontier, 192; in Saxony, 204; 206; 
in Bohemia, 209; 211; 213; 215 sq.; 219; 
commands Saxon forces in Silesia, 221; 
commands Brandenburg troops, 225 ; 
Wallenstein and, 231, 234 sqq., 240 sq. ; 
Silesian scheme of, 236 ; march of, to- 
wards the Oder, 237 ; 243 ; victory of, at 
Liegnitz, 244 j 247 ; negotiations at Pirna 
and, 252 

Count Harry, German ambassador 

in Paris, xii 140; 149 

Heinrich Alexander, Baron von, 

Prussian Foreign Minister, xi 159 



Arnim, Ludwig Achim von, German Ro- 
manticist, X 401 sqq. ; goes to Berlin, 
404; 405 sqq.; xii 818; 822 

Arnim-Boitzenburg, Count Adolf Heinrich 
von, XI 157 sqq. 

Arnim-Heinrichsdorf, Count Heinrich Fried- 
rich von, Prussian Foreign Minister, xi 
200 

Arnold of Brescia, and Zurich, ii 311 

Benedict, American general, vii 170 

sq., 215, 226, 230 

Gottfried, historian, v 760 sqq. 

Matthew, the poems of, xi 354 sq. ; 

365 

Dr Thomas, and convict colonies, 

XI 794 ; XII 835 

water-miller in the Neumark, vi 714 

Arnold-Forster, Hugh Oakeley, and army 

reform, xii 59 
Arnoldi, Wilhelm, Bishop of Trier. See 

Trier 
Aron, Peter, Prince of Moldavia, i 83 
Arques, battle of (1589), iii 48, 658, 660 
Arquien, Henri de Lagrange, Marquis de, 

v 356 ; 360 

Mary de. See Mary d' Arquien, 

Queen of Poland 

Arrabbiati, i 169 sq., 174 
Arran, James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of. See 
Chatelherault, Duke of 

James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of, ii 657, 

659 ; proposed as husband to Queen 
Elizabeth, 574 sq., 580 

Captain James Stewart, Earl of 

{cr. 1581), III 550 

Arras, Peace of (1482), i 229, 391, 395, 399, 
445; Treaty of (1435), 389, 418, 423, n 
36; Treaty of (1579), in 251; attempted 
surprise of (1596), 671; Cond6 defeated 
before, iv 619 ; the "Terror" at, vm 372; 
fortress of, xi 607 

Bishop of. See Granvelle, Cardinal 

Arrazola, Lorenzo, Spanish statesman, xi 

566 
Arret de Merindol (1540), against the 

Waldenses, ii 289 
Arrhenius, Svante, Swedish scientist, xii 

280 
Arrighi, Jean-Toussaint, French general, 

the duchy of Padua granted to, ix 111 
Arrow, The (lorcha), incident of, xi 325, 815 
Ars, Louis de, French general, i 125, 127 
Arsilli, Francesco, the De Poetis Urbanis, 

II 15 
Art and architecture, English, of late years, 

XII 64; European, in general, in the 
latest age, 13 sq. ; French, in the 15th 
century, i 414 sq. ; under the First 
Empire, ix 133 sqq. ; painting, sculpture 
and music of the Restoration, x 103 ; 
in the 19th century, xi 628; German, 
Maximilian I and, i 326 sq. ; in Holland, 
revival of Dutch painting in recent years, 
XII 249 sq. ; Italian, in general, effects of 
the French invasions (from 1494) on, i 



228 



General Index, 



143; and the Italian Eenaissance, ii 14 
sqq., 27 sq.; after the French Be volution, 
X 129 sq. ; in the Netherlands, under the 
Burgundian Dukes, i 432 sq. ; in Spain, 
in the early 16th century, 382 sq. ; under 
Philip IV, IV 662 sqq. ; in Tuscany, under 
Cosimo de' Medici, in 394; in Borne, 
especially under Sixtus V, 438 sqq.; 
Venetian, i 284 sq. ; in the United 
States, vii 748 sq. 

Arta, bridge of, xii 403 

Arta-Volo, frontier of Greece, x 202, 204 

Artevelde, Jacques van, i 426 

Arthur, Chester Alan, President of the 
United States, vii 650, 652 

Articles of Beligion, The Forty-Two, ii 508; 
the Thirty-Nine, 587 sq. ; the Marburg, 
209 

Artico, Filippo, Bishop of Asti. See Asti 

Articuli cleri, in 563 

Artigas, Jos6, x 300 

Artista, El, Spanish periodical, x 241 

Artois, ceded by France (1493) to Burgundy, 
1 229, 392, 395, 451, 454; claim of Francis I 
to, II 72 sq. ; march on, 76 ; France re- 
nounces claim to (1529), 102; French 
designs on, iii 16, 34; Catholics in, 251; 
raids into, 666, 671; loss of greater part 
of, to Spain, iv 620, 660 sqq. ; Estates of, 
V 4 ; viii 39 ; agricultural population 
in, 61 

Charles-Philippe, Comte de. See 

Charles X, King of France 

Arundel, Henry Fitz-Alan, 12th Earl of, 
II 497 sqq., 505, 525 ; and Philip II, m 
281 

of Wardour, Henry Arundel, 3rd 

Baron, v 202; 204; 220 

and Surrey, Thomas Howard, 2nd 

Earl of, confinement and release of, iv 
264 sq. ; at Vienna, 276 

Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

II 464 

Aruwhimi river, exploration on, xii 812 
Asan, XII 510 ; Japanese occupation of, 511 
Asben, explorers at, xii 810 
Asbjornsen, Peter Christian, Norwegian 

writer, xi 701 
Aschaffenburg, taken by the Swedes, iv 

208; "Pragmatic Army" at, vi 238; 

Jourdan repulsed at, viii 497; granted 

to Dalberg, ix 414; acquisition of, by 

Bavaria, 658 
Ascham, Boger, and classical studies at 

Cambridge, i 580; and John Frederick 

of Saxony, ii 275 
Aschersleben, castle of, v 618 
Ascoli, Trojano Marulli, Duke of, x 112 
As61, Anton, Spanish Beformer, ii 408 
Aselli, Gaspar, anatomist, v 727 
As^nyefif, Eussian journalist, xii 298 
Ashbourne, Edward Gibson, Lord, Lord 

Chancellor of Ireland, xii 83 
Ashbumham, John Ashburnham, 2nd Earl 

of. TZ 428 



Ashburton, river, gold discovered on, xn 
619 

Alexander Baring, Lord, and the 

Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842), vii 
391 sq. ; x 355 ; 615 

John Dunning, Lord, as Solicitor- 
general, VI 439; 442; 455; 459 

Ashinoff, Cossack adventurer, xii 343 

Ashley, Anthony, Lord. See Shaftesbury 

Ashta, fight at, xi 726 

Asia, Eussian policy in, v 544 sq. ; a market 
for English products, ix 363; Eussian 
advances in, xi 272 sqq., 630, 632; 
European influence in, xii 4 ; Eussia 
and England in, 94; French colonisa- 
tion in, 159; bubonic plague in, 486 sq. ; 
modern exploration in, 792 sqq. 

Central, rivalry of Great Britain and 

Eussia m (1833), x 556, 558, xii 343; 373 

Eastern, Germany and, xii 160 

Minor, insurrection in, in 701 ; 

Turkey and, xn 4; Germany and, 10; 
the Eusso-Turkish War in, 389; the 
Treaty of Berlin and, 398; 416; 
massacres in, 417; 418; archaeological 
research in, 774 

Asiatic Company of Denmark, vi 738 
Asiento, secured for French traders, v 403 ; 

England and, 445; 455; 684; vi 25; the 

English South Sea Company and, 64 

sqq.; 157; 178; 181; 363 
Asiu, explorers at, xn 810 
Aske, Eobert, rebellion of (1536), n 446 sq.; 

468 
Askew, Anne, n 466 sq. 
Asparros, Andre de Foix de, invades 

Navarre and Castile (1521), i 378 
Aspern, battle of (1809), ix 345 sq., 350 

sqq.; results of, 352; 353; 401 
Aspre, Constantin de, Baron, Austrian 

general, ix 353 ; xi 95 
Aspromonte, Garibaldi wounded at, xi 

534; 635 
Asquith, Herbert Henry, Home Secretary 

(afterwards Prime Minister), xn 49 ; 760 
Assab bay, Italian occupation of, xn 664 
Assada Association, iv 731 ; 746 
Assam, xi 727 ; ceded to Britain, 728 ; united 

to Eastern Bengal, xn 495 ; caravan route 

to, 793; 796 
Assaye, victory of Wellesley at (1803), ix 

440; 726 
Assche, Marlborough at, v 420 
Asseirceira, the Miguelists defeated at 

(1834), X 336 
Assembly of Notables (1527), n 57, 284; 

(1558), 93; at Fontainebleau (1560), 298. 

See also Council of Notables 
Assiette, Col de, Belleisle's march by, 

VI 245; 362 
Assiniboia, district of, xi 776 
Assiout, travellers at, xn 805 
Assuan, dam of, xii 446; James Bruce at 

805 
Assyria, researehes in, xn 846 sq. 



General Index, 



229 



Asti, claimed by Francis I, m 110, claimed 
by Spain, 400, disorder in, 401, evacua- 
tion of, 407; Peace of (1615), iv 129; vi 
161 ; French defeat at, 245 
Filippo Artico, Bishop of, xi 369 

Astley, Sir Jacob (Baron Astley), iv 304 ; 
at Naseby, 330; at Stow-on-the-Wold, 
335 

Aston, Sir Arthur, in Drogheda, iv 533 

Sir Richard, Irish Chief Justice, vi 

490 

Astorga, Baird reaches, ix 443; the Em- 
peror at, 445; 448 ; fall of (1810), 458 
Astoria, port of, vii 364 
Astrabad, ceded to Eussia, v 545 
Astrakhan, annexed to Russia, v 479; 494; 
revolt at (1705), 531; 544; system of 
recruiting in, x 415 
Astronomy, history of. See Science 
Astruc, Jean, studies of, on the Pentateuch, 

XII 816 
Asturias, arrival in London of deputies 
from, IX 440; Liberalism in, x 214; 
revolt in (1820), 216; Riego banished to, 
221; the Junta of, 282, 303 

Prince of the. See Ferdinand VII, 

King of Spain 

A8unci6n, government of, x 246; 269 
Atacama, xii 678 ; frontier dispute in, 679 
Atahualpa, Head-chief of the Inca people, 

X 299 

Atalaya, Spanish periodical, x 207 

Atbara river, sources of, xii 805 

Ath, restored to Spain, v 45, 63; captured 

by Marlborough (1706), 416 
Athabasca, district of, xi 776 
Athenry, Cathedral Church of, iii 593 
Athens, surrendered to the Turks (1457), 
I 74, 285 ; captured by the Venetians 
(1687), V 365; civil war in, xi 642; xii 
403 ; demonstrations at, 408 ; rising at, 
420 ; 421 sq. 

Franco Acciaiuoli, Duke of, i 74 

Athlone, besieged (1690), v 315, (1691), 

317 sq. 

Godert de Ginkel, Ist Earl of, in 

Ireland, v 316 sqq. ; takes Limerick, 
319 

AthoU, John Murray, 1st Duke of, vi 92 

John Stewart, 4th Earl of, iii 270, 

272, 279 

Athos, Mount, v 507 sq. 

Atkins, Sir Jonathan, Governor of Bar- 
bados, V 690 

Atlanta, Sherman's campaign against, vii 
514, 521; captured (1864), 522, 523, 
526, 579; 551 

Atlantic Monthly, vii 746 

Atlantic Ocean, submarine telegraph under, 

XI 346 

Atlas, Mount, xn 805 
Atouguia, Count of, executed, vi 386 
Atrek river, Russia and, xii 343 
Atterbury, Francis, Bishop of Rochester, 
VI 44 



Attrition, doctrine of, in later Middle Ages, 
II 126 ; distinguished from contrition, 
126 
Attwood, Thomas, and the Birmingham 
Political Union, x 612, 615 ; in Parlia- 
ment, 656 ; 675 ; and the Chartist move- 
ment, 683 
Atuntse, caravan route to, xii, 793; 796 
Auber, Daniel-Franpois-Esprit, x 103 
Aubert-Dubayet, J.-B.-Annibal, Minister of 

War, vni 490 
Aubign6, Theodore- Agrippa de, in 62, 64; 

V 20 

Aubigny, Esm6 Stewart, Seigneur de. See 
Lennox 

Stuart de, French general (1494), i 

113, 123 sq., 155 

Aubray, Sieur de, leader of the Politiques, 

m 70, 
Aubry, Emile, French politician, xi 492 

Francois, member of the National 

Convention, viii 442, 512 

Aubusson, Pierre de. Grand Master of the 

Knights of St John, i 84, 86 
Auch, Republican attack on, xi 137 
Auchmuty, Sir Samuel, at Buenos Ayres, 

IX 753 
Auchterarder, Jacobite force at, vi 100 ; 

102 
Auchy, member of the Extraordinary Junta 

for Tuscany, ix 399; 419 
Auckland, capital of New Zealand, xi 793 

sq.; province of, 796 

George Eden, Ist Earl of, Governor- 
General of India, xi 731 sqq.; 743 

William Eden, 1st Baron, vi 471 ; 

VIII 284, 287 sq. ; British Minister at the 
Hague, 294, 301; 429; and Ireland, ix 
699; 702 

Audeoud, and the conquest of Dahomey, 

xn 129 
Audijos, leader of the rising in Gascony, 

V 9 

Audley, Edmund, Bishop of Salisbury, books 
collected by, i 597 

Thomas, succeeds More as Chan- 
cellor, II 438 

Auerbach, Berthold, German novelist, xi 418; 

420 
Auersperg, Prince Adolf von, xn 188 sq. ; 

192; 194 

Count Anton Alexander von (*' Ana- 

stasius Griin "), xi 173 ; 413 

Prince Carlos von, xn 186 sq. 

Prince Johann Weichard von, Aus- 
trian statesman, v 349; 352 

Auerstadt, Prussian army at, ix 275; battle 
of (1806), 276 sqq., 326; Schamhorst at, 
332 

Auerswald, Alfred von, Prussian statesman, 
XI 159 

Hans Adolf Erdmann von, Prussian 

general, xi 169 

Rudolf von, Prussian Minister-Presi- 
dent, XI 166, 191 



230 



General Indect, 



Aufklarung, in Switzerland, vi 625 ; pene- 
trates Poland, 671 ; in Russia, under 
Catharine II, 686 sqq. ; Frederick the 
Great and, Chap, xx passim ; the Rosicru- 
cians and, 726 sq. ; in Germany, vni 772 
sqq. 

Augereau, Pierre-FranQois-Charles, Duo de 
CastigUone, MarshaJ of France, viii 440, 
444, and the coup d'etat (1797), 508 sq., 
512, 591 ; in Italy, 564, 666 sqq., 574 sq., 
578 ; IX 66 ; 89, 252 ; marches from Brit- 
anny, 253 ; sent to Tyrol, 256 ; surrender 
of Jellachich to, 258; in Swabia, 258; 
262 ; commands the 7th corps, 275 ; at 
Thorn, 281; 284; at Eylau, 286; 287; 
captures the fortress of Hostalrich, 457 ; 
superseded by Macdonald, 464; on the 
Council of War, 565 

Aughrim, battle of (1691), v 261, 318 

Augier, Guillaume-Victor-Emile, French 
dramatist, xi 516 sq.; 548 

Augila, Hornemann at, xii 806 

Augsburg, decline of, i 507 ; Lutheranism 
adopted by, ii 233 sq.; Zwinglianism at, 
216; the Interim in, 264, 266; submits 
to Charles V (1547), 258; Luther at, 
133; Catholics in, iii 158, iv 12, 77; 
saved by Wertb, 391; Treaty of Ulm 
and, ib. ; Swedish army in, 214 ; and the 
Peace of Westphalia, 413 ; commercial 
state of, 420 ; Bavaria and, v 52 ; 408 ; 
410; Alliance (1686), 35, 52 sq., 235, 
654 ; proposed Congress at, vi 343 ; occu- 
pation of, by the French, ix 64; Napoleon 
reaches, 255; annexed by Bavaria, 262, 
269 

Diets of (1500), i 308, (1510), 319, 

(1518), II 40, 133, (1525), 191, 196, (1530), 
25, 211, 213, (1547), 84, 262 sq., (1555), 
276, 672, (1559), iii 163, (1566), 172 sq., 
(1582), 706 ; Recess of (1530), 214, (1555), 
277; Confession of (1530), 211 sqq., iii 
141, 163, 174, 180, 210, 740, iv 68, 111, 
200, 412 ; Religious Peace of (1555), ii 89, 
277 sq., m 140 sqq., 162 sqq., 714, 718, 
723 sqq., 754, iv 3, 109, 410, 676, v 627 

Henry von Knorringen, Bishop of 

(d. 1646), III 723; iv 110 

Otto Truchsess of Waldburg, Car- 
dinal-Bishop of, at the Diet of Augsburg 
(1555), II 276; in 161; 707 

Augusta (Georgia), settlement of, 62 ; oc- 
cupied by the British (1778), vii 219, 
abandoned, ib. 

Maria Louisa, Princess of Weimar, 

German Empress, consort of William I, 
in 1848, XI 159; xii 149 

Princess of Bavaria, wife of Eugene 

Beauharnais, ix 265 

Princess of Wales, vi 417; 423; 

434 

Victoria, Empress of Germany, xii 

165 

Augustenburg, Christian, Duke of, xi 226 
sq.; 696 



Augustenburg, Prince Christian Augustus 
of. See Schleswig-Holstein- Augustenburg 

Frederick, Duke of, claims on Schles- 
wig-Holstein of, XI 437 sqq. ; 477 ; Prussia 
and Austria and, 444 sqq.; 448 sq. 

Augustine, St, Rule of, ii 114 ; Calvin's 
relation to, 365 ; and the Teutonic Re- 
naissance, 712 sq. ; the Jansenists and, 
V 82; 755 
Augustinian Eremites, Order of, ii 106 ; 
history of, 114; University of Witten- 
berg and, 117; 131; and the Reform 
movement, 161 
Augustinus Triumphus. See Triumphus 
Augustov, Polish province, x 449; 470 
Augustus II, King of Poland (Frederick 
Augustus I, Elector of Saxony), v 369; 
King of Poland, 370 sq., 417 ; 438 ; and 
Peter the Great, 526 ; 555 ; and Den- 
mark, 580 sq.; and Patkul, 586, 595; 
joins tbe league against Sweden (1699), 
680, 587 ; and the great Northern War, 
587 sqq. ; Charles XII and, 689, 592 ; 
deposed, 593; treaty of, with Sweden 
(1706), 595 ; and the Emperor Joseph, 
596; and the second anti-Swedish league 
(1709), 602; 603 sq. ; 606 sq.; 660; and 
Frederick I of Prussia, 666 ; 743 ; vi 35 
sq.; 151 ; 166 ; crowned, 191 ; and Lithu- 
ania, 192 ; 193 sq. ; 198 ; and the Prag- 
matic Sanction, 202; 239; 303; 665; 
death of, 166 

Ill, King of Poland (Frederick 

Augustus II, Elector of Saxony), vi 193 ; 
195 sqq. ; marriage of, 201 ; and the 
Austrian Succession, 228 sq., 231 sq. ; 
242 ; and the Convention of Hanover, 
244; Frederick the Great and, 251, 254 
sq., 266 ; 303 ; 310 ; 346 ; 665 sq. ; 703 ; 
and the Peace of Teschen, 707; death of, 
200, 353, 628 ; vin 522 

Aulard, FranQois-V.-Alphonse, historian, 

XII 833 sq. 
Aulic Council. See Reichshofrath 
Aulich, Louis, Hungarian general, xi 214 
Aulick, Commodore, mission of, to Japan, 

XI 824 
Aulnay-Charnis6, Charles de Menou, Sieur 

de, VII 110 sq. 
Aumale, Henry IV in danger of capture at, 

III 51 

Caroline, Duchesse de, xi 653 

— »- Charles of Lorraine, Duke of (son of 
Claude II), iii 46 sq. ; 663; 669 

Claude II of Lorraine, Duke of, ii 

273; III 5, 12, 19 

Henri-Eug^ne-Philippe-Louis d'Or- 

16ans, Due de, xi 33 ; 605 ; 553 ; xii 
105; 107; 834 

Aumont, Jean de, Marshal of France, in 

47 
Aungier, Gerald, in India, v 698 
Aunis, customs of the, v 13 
Aurang4bad, Malik Ambar at, vi 516; 

Wellesley captures (1803), ix 726 



General Index. 



231 



Auras, Eussian troops at, vi 294 ; 299 

Auratus (Jean Dorat). See Dorat 

Aures, revolt of, xn 129 

Aurispa, Giovanni, Italian humanist, i 
550 

Aurungzeb, Moghul Emperor, v 697 sqq. ; 
VI 518 sqq. ; and the Marathas, 521 sq. ; 
death of, 523; 532 

Ausserrhoden, vi 625 

Aussig, Charles of Lorraine at, vi 244 ; 
257 

Austen, Jane, novelist, vi 833; xi 360 

Austerlitz, battle of (1805), ix 117, 260 sqq. ; 
campaign of, 396; effect of the news of, 
on Pitt, 684 

Austin, John, jurist, ix 160 sq. ; x 598 

Australasia, development of (1815-70), 
Vol. XI, Chap. XXVII (4) ; self-govern- 
ment in, 761; emigration to, xii 63; 
and Chinese immigration, 508; develop- 
ment of, 618 sqq.; 734 sq. ; 805 

Australia, trade of, with California, vii 402 ; 
colonial empire in, ix 735 sqq, ; the wool 
trade with, x 751, 759 sq. ; British policy 
in, XI 16; 310; 760; Constitutional Act 
(1850) of, 763; xii 2; and imperial de- 
fence, 47; 57; 94; and Germany, 160 
sq.; development and progress of, 603 
sqq., 618 sqq. ; federation of, 631 sqq. ; 
and naval defence, 649, 651; 650; and 
New Guinea, 666 ; and the Pacific Islands, 
667 sq.; labour legislation in, 751; social 
movements in, 753, 755, 763 

South, XI 792; a Crown colony, 

794; population of, 796, 799; 797 sq. ; 
development and progress of, xii 619 sqq., 
624 sqq., 629, 631 

Western, origin of, xi 791 ; convicts 

sent to, 795; 797 sq. ; population of, 
799; development and progress of, xii 
619 sqq, ; and immigration, 626 ; 630 
sq. ; 634 ; aboriginal population of, 624, 
629 

Australian Agricultural Company, xi 790 
Austria 

I X Hungary and the Sclavonic king- 

doms, passim, {chiefly) 329-44 
See also here Maximilian I, 
Emperor-Elect 

II ii Habsburg and Valois (i), 36-65 
iii Habsburg and Valois (ii), 66-103 

See also Germany 
in V The Empire under Ferdinand I 
and Maximilian U, passim, 
140-81 
xxi The Empire under Rudolf II, 
passim, 696-735 
For Austrian relations with 
Turkey, see also iv The Height 
of the Ottoman Power, passim, 
104-39 
IV i The Outbreak of the Thirty Tears' 
War, passim, 1-34 
ii The Valtelline (1603-89), passim, 
86-63 



Austria, 
IV iii 

iv 

vi 

vii 



XIV 

xxiii 

V xii 

xiii 



XVlll 
XX 



XIV 

xvii 
xxi 



XXV 

IX iii 



Xll 

xiv 



xvii 
xix 



contd. 
The Protestant Collapse (1620- 

30), passim, 64-117 
Richelieu, passim, 129, 138, 141 

sqq. 
Gustavus Adolphus, passim, 190- 

222 
Wallenstein and Bernard of 

Weimar (1632-5), passim, 223- 

55 
The later years of the Thirty 

Years' War (1635-48), passim, 

364-94 
The Peace of Westphalia, passim, 

395-433 
Papal policy (1590-1648), 2)a««m, 

673 sq,, 676 sqq. 
Austria, Poland and Turkey, 338- 

71 
The Treaties of Partition and the 

Spanish Succession, passim, 

372-400 
The War of the Spanish Suc- 
cession and the Peace of 

Utrecht, passim, 401-59 
The War of the Austrian Suc- 
cession, 201-50 
The Seven Years' War, 251-300 
The reversal of alliances and the 

Family Compact, passim, 329- 

60 
Italy and the Papacy, passim, 

586-610 
Joseph II, 626-56 
Frederick the Great and his suc- 
cessors, passim, 702-34 
The European Powers and the 

Eastern Question, passim, 306- 

37 
The General War [of the French 

Revolution], passim, 398-446 
The extinction of Poland (1788- 

97), passim, 521-52 
The Second Coalition [against 

the French Revolution], passim, 

633-64 
p. 776 
The pacification of Europe 

(1799-1802), passim, 55-80 
France and her tributaries (1801 

-3), passim, 81-106 
The Third Coalition, I (1805-6), 

passim, 244-64 
The Third Coalition, II (1806-7), 

passim, 265-93 
The Napoleonic Empire at its 

height (1807-9), passim, 294- 

340 
The War of 1809, 341-60 
The French dependencies, pas«m, 

390-427 
The War of Liberation (1813-4), 

606-54 
The Congress of Vienna, I (1814- 

6), 676-615 



232 



General Index, 



Austria, contd. 

IX xxi The Congress of Vienna, II (1816), 

646-71 

X i The Congresses (1815-22), pas- 

sim, 1-39 
iv Italy, passim, 104-30 
V The Papacy and the Catholic 

Church, passim, 131-68 
vi Greece and the Balkan Peninsula, 

passim, 169-204 
xi The Germanic Federation (1815- 

40), passim, 340-82 
xvii Mehemet Ali, passim, 545-72 

XI iii Liberalism and Nationality in 

Germany and Austria (1840-8), 
43-64 

iv Italy in Revolution (1846-9), pas- 
sim, 65-95 

vi The Revolution and the Reaction 
in Germany and Austria, I 
(1848-9), 142-201 

vii The Revolution and the Reaction 
in Germany and Austria, II, 
202-33 

xiv Cavour and the Kingdom of Italy 
(1849-61), passim, 366-92 

XV Austria, Prussia, and the Ger- 
manic Confederation 

(1) Reaction and Reorganisa- 

tion (1852-62), 393-410 

(2) German Literature (1840- 

70), 411-20 

(3) The National Spirit in 

Hungarian Literature 
(1686-1900), 421-31 
xvi Bismarck and German Unity, 

passim, 432-66 
xix The completion of Italian Unity, 

passim, 529-49 
XXV Rome and the Vatican Council, 
passim, 703-23 

XII vii Austria-Hungary, 174-212 

xiv The Ottoman Empire and the 
Balkan Peninsula, passim, 381 
-423 
Austria, House of. See Habsburg 

Leopold III, Duke of, i 264, 342 

Austro-Hungarian Bank, xii 191; 203 
Austruweel, rout of Calvinists at (1567), 

III 211-2 
Auteil, de, French officer in India, vi 541 
Auteuil, ideologues at, ix 21, 24 
Autichamp, Charles de Beaumont, Count 

de, IX 2; 14 
Autos-de-fe, at Seville and Valladolid, ii 

404, 407 sq. ; at Palma, Majorca, 1691, 

v375, 
Autre Eglise, and battle of Ramillies, v 

415 sq. 
Autun, revolt of (1595), m 667 
Auvergne, iii 418 

Charles de Valois, Count of. See 

Angoul^me 

Auxerre, Napoleon at, ix 574 

Jacques Amyot, Bishop of, in 56 



Ava, XI 727; British Resident at, 729; 742 
Avalos, Costanza de. See Amalfi 
Avanti, Italian socialist journal, xii 225; 

231 sq. 
Avaux, Claude de Mesmes, Count of, agent 

of Richelieu at Stuhmsdorf, iv 365 ; 

French plenipotentiary in Germany, 373 ; 

negotiations at Hamburg between Salvias 

and, 377; 397; proposal of, in 1641, 398; 

at Miinster, 402 sq. ; at the Hague, 602 

Jean-Antoine de Mesmes, Count of, 

French ambassador at the Hague, v 165 
sq., 244, 397; in Ireland, 307 sq., 312, 
314; 417; in Sweden, 566, 585 

Aveiro, Duke of, executed, vi 386 
Avellain, Admiral, visits Toulon, xii 98 
Avellaneda, Bernardino de, ni 322 
Avellino, revolt at (1820), x 112 
Avenir, Le, founded by Lamennais, x 163 ; 
164 

national, Le, French journal, xi 487 

Aventinus, Johannes, Bavarian historian, 

II 202 

Aversa, capitulation of the French at (1528), 
n 59 

Carlo Caraffa, Bishop of, nuncio to 

Emperor Ferdinand II, iv 73, 83; zeal of, 
111 

Giovanni Bernardino di, Italian re- 
former, II 391 

Avery sborough, Slocum attacked at (1865), 

VII 530 

Avesnes, acquired by France, v 33 

Avignon, Charles IX. at, in 7, Henry III 

at, 25 ; city of, v 449 ; the Old Pretender 

at, VI 27, 104; 128; 594; restored to the 

Papacy, 595; revolutionary disorder in, 

VIII 217 sq.; united to France, 217; 
Marseillais routed at, 348 ; Napoleon at, 
352 ; the " White Terror " in, 387 ; com- 
pensation demanded for loss of, ix 182 ; 
Pius VII banished to, 196; added to 
France, 564; retained by France, 576; 
claim of Papacy to, 661; Pius VII and, 
X 144 

Avila, Juan de, Spanish reformer, n 409 

Juan Alvarez de, Spanish admiral, 

III 639 

Sancho de, in 215, 239, 245, 520 

Avogadro, Americo, Conte di Quaregna, 

man of science, xii 769 sq. 
Avonmore, Barry Yelverton, 1st Viscount, 

as Irish Attorney-general, vi 502 
Avranches, captured by Montpensier, in 51 

Jean Bochard, Bishop of, i 637 

Avvakum, Russian ecclesiastic, v 509; 524 
Awa, daimio of, xi 834; 836; 846; 850; 864 
Awans, political faction in Li6ge, i 422 
Axarquia, battle of the (1483), i 358 
Axiake. See OchakofE 

Axim, taken by the Dutch (1642), iv 759 
Ayacucho, battle of, 295 sq., (1824), x 307, 

xn 689 
Ayala, Pedro de (Bishop of Catania), 

Spanish ambassador in England, i 471 



General Index. 



233 



Ayamonte, Rodrigo de Guzman, C. of 
Saltes, Marquis of, treason and execution 
of, IV 662 sq. 
Aylmer, John, Bishop of London, iii 343 
Aymara-Quiohua (Peruvians), i 38, 45 
Ayr, and the Treaty of Union, v 299 
Ayrshire, recusants in, v 283 sq. ; 285 
Ayrton, Acton Smee, First Commissioner 

of Works, XII 29 
Ayicue, Sir George, Admiral, West Indian 
Islands subdued by, IV 466 ; 468; 470; in 
the Downs, 471; defeated by Euyter off 
Plymouth, 472; 477 
Ayub Ehan, xn 37; defeated at Kandahar, 

475 
Ayuthia, capital of Siam, xii 534 sq. 
Azarea, Jos^ Nicolas de, Spanish ambassa- 
dor, IX 77 
Azeff, Eussian police agent, xn 350; 376 
Azeglio, Massimo Taparelli, Marquis de, the 
Ricordi, x 108-9, xi 547; other publica- 
tions of, X 127; 156; 167 sq. ; xi 65; the 
Casi di Romagna, 66 sq., 69, 73; expelled 
from Florence, 69 ; 70 ; the Lutti di 
Lomhardia, 80, 546; 84; Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, 367 sqq. ; separates from 
Cavour, 370 sq. ; Ministry of, 371 ; 373 ; 
529; 548 
Azim, son of Dost Mohammad, xn 459 
Azim-ud-daulah, Nawab of Arcot (or the 

Carnatic), accession of, ix 724 
Azim-ul-Umar4, at Haidarabad, ix 721 ; 722 
Azoff, conquered by Peter the Great, v 370 ; 
371, 521 sq. ; 503; 520; ceded to Russia, 
627; 531; 545; 603 sq.-; abandoned by 
Russia, 606; 677; vi 305 sqq.; acquired 
by Russia, 674 

Sea of, Russian fleet in, v 527, 605 ; 

XI 322 
Azores Islands, discovery of, i 12; projects 
to colonise, 10, 15, 19; Lord Thomas 
Howard sent to, in 319 ; Spanish squadron 
at, 531 ; Dutch squadron at, 539 ; British 
convoys captured at, vi 377; Miguelists 
in (1828), X 323; Villa Flor in, 326; 
Dom Pedro in, 327 
Azteca ("crane-people"), Mexican tribe, 
I 39 

Baahus, Treaty of Roeskilde and, iv 586 
Babar, Zahirruddin Mahmud, Moghul Em- 
peror, VI 507 ; career of, 508 sqq. ; death 
of, 510; 514; 524 
Babeau, A., on social conditions in France, 

VIII 63 sq. 
Baber, Colborne, in China, xn 797 
Babeuf, Frangois-Noel, French communist, 

vni 34, 503 sq., 790 
Babington, Antony, arrest of, in 291 sq. 
Babylonish (Japtivity, Luther's, in ,738 
Bacciochi, Elise. See Bonaparte, Elise 
Bacelli, Alfredo, Italian statesman, xn 228 
Bach, Alexander von, Austrian statesman, 
XI 153; 155; 171 ; and the Austrian Con- 
stitution, 174; Minister of Justice, 176, 



190; 179; and Hungary, 181, 183, 398 
sq, ; 185 ; resigns, 186 ; 187 ; policy of, 
215 sq.; Minister of the Interior, 216, 
398; 217; 401; dismissed, 403; xn 176; 
178 sqq.; 192 

Bacher, French President in the Grand 
Duchy of Frankfort, ix 414 

"Back-lane Parliament," of Myles Keon 
and Wolfe Tone, x 628 

Bac-le pass, French troops attacked in, 
xn 131 

Baco de la Chapelle, Mayor of Nantes, 
VIII 341 

Bacon, Anthony, in 335 

Sir Francis (Viscount St Albans 

and Baron Verulam), influence of New 
World discovery on, i 62 sq. ; 205 ; ii 
691, 706; ni 329 sq.; and Essex, 335 
sq.; and Puritanism, 347; 553; 557; 
and Coke, 564 sqq.; fall of, 571-2; 737; 
748 ; and Ireland, iv 513 ; his Novum 
Organum, v 716, 724 sq. ; vi 793 ; 803 

Nathaniel, Virginian settler, vii 9 

Sir Nicholas, becomes Chancellor, 

II 565, 568; in 280 

Roger, I 18, 585; works of, 587, 

590 

Badagry, explorers at, xn 807 sq. 

Badajoz, death of Anne of Austria at, in 
600 ; V 416 ; 456 ; royal wedding at, vi 
166; Treaty of (1801), ix 72, 75, 605; 
Victor advances on, 449 sq.; army of La 
Romana at, 460; surrenders to Soult 
(1811), 462; 463; besieged by Welling- 
ton (1811), 466 ; siege of, abandoned, 
467 sq.; captured by Wellington (1812), 
471 sq. 

Badakshan, province of, vi 518; Russia 
and, xn 461; 801 

Baden, margravate of, invaded by the 
French, v 57; 418; receives bishopric of 
Constance, ix 94 ; the Church in, 201 ; 
joins France, 253 ; 262 ; Grand Duchy 
of, 581 ; and the Congress of Vienna, 
649, 651 ; succession of, and the Allied 
Powers, X 19 ; 22 ; 31 ; relations of the 
Papacy with, 148 sq. ; and German unity, 
342 sq.; and the Germanic Confedera- 
tion, 344 ; and Bavaria, 346, 359, 361 sq.; 
358 ; the political position of, 361 ; Con- 
stitution of (1818), 362; 363; and the 
Carlsbad meeting, 366; and the Triasidee, 
369 ; and customs reform, 372 ; constitu- 
tional concessions in, 375 ; and the press 
laws, 377; 380; and the Protestant 
Churches, 382 ; revolutionary movement 
in, XI 60 sqq., 144 sq., 152, 192, 218; and 
the Vorparlament, 163; insurrection in, 
221; and Prussia, 228; the "Articles" 
of, 246; 259; and the Schleswig-Hol- 
stein question, 438; and the Austro- 
Prussian war, 457 ; and the North Ger- 
man Confederation, 460 sq., 464 sq. ; and 
the Franco-German War, 464 ; and the 
Papacy, 708 ; legal code of, xn 150 



234 



General Index, 



Baden, House of, iii 704 ; religious attitude 
of, 159 ; an original member of the Pro- 
testant Union, 725 

Margraves of: — Charles II, in 150, 

164 ; Christopher I (and of Hochberg), 
excluded from the Swabian League, i 
321; Philibert, at Moncontour, in 12 sq.; 
Philip I, humane policy of, n 191 

Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of, 

X 361 

Charles (Louis Frederick), Grand 

Duke of, marries Josephine's niece, ix 
265, X 361 ; and the Congress of Vienna, 
IX 582 ; 610 sq. ; x 145 sq. ; 362 

Frederick I, Grand Duke of, xi 397; 

406 

Leopold I, Grand Duke of, x 875; 

XI 60 ; 145 ; 218 sq. 

Frederica Dorothea of, marries Gus- 

tavus IV Adolphus of Sweden, ix 38 

Louisa Caroline (Countess von Hoch- 
berg), Grand Duchess of, x 361 

(in Aargau), Federal Swiss Diet at 

(1523), II 320 ; (1528), 329 ; Disputation 
at (1526), 325 sq. ; Peace of (1714), v 436, 
450, 454 sq., vi 614 

Baden-Baden, margravate of, iv 84; Ca- 
tholicism of House of, III 710 

Edward Fortunatus, margrave of, 

IV 79 

Lewis William, margrave of, v 61 ; 

341 ; 366 ; commander of the Imperial 
Army, 368 ; 369 ; and the Spanish Suc- 
cession, 401 ; Ehine campaign of (1702), 
406; at Stolhofen, 407; 408; joins Marl- 
borough, 409; besieges Ingolstadt, 410; 
414 ; 416 ; 437 ; 452 ; death of, 418 ; vi 
191 

Philip, margrave of, iii 716 ; his 

wife Sibylla, ib. 

JacobsBa of. See Jiilich-Cleves 

Baden-Durlach, margravate of, iv 66; 84; 

re-instatement of House of, at Peace of 
Westphalia, 409 

Ernest Frederick, margrave of, at 

Heilbronn, iii 714 

George Frederick, margrave of, iv 1; 

67; 79; defeated by Tilly at Wimpfen, 
80 

Prince of (son of Prince Christopher 

of), VI 289 sq. 

Baden-Hochberg, Jacob III, margrave of, 

in 710 
Badeni, Count Kasimir Felix, Austrian 

statesman, xii 197 ; administration of, 

200 sqq. 
Badenoch, Jacobites at, vi 103, 117 
Bader, Augustin, German sectary, n 224 
Badia, Tommaso, church reform and, ii 

379, 643 sq. 
Badius Ascensius (Bade of Asche), the 

Brethren of the Common Life and, i 435 
BadH Sarai, fight at, xi 746 
Badoer, Alberto, ambassador to Sixtus V, 

III 445 



Badoer, Alvisi, sent to Constantinople, as 

ambassador of peace, in 116 
Baduel, Claude, Protestant Eector of Nismes 

University, n 292 
Baeda, ecclesiastical historian, i 535 
Baena, Isabel de, Spanish Reformer, ii 

406 sq. 

Jos^ Arana, Duke of, xi 560 

Barenklau, Johann Leopold, Baron zu 

Schonreith, Austrian Field-marshal, vi 

233; 236 
Barsch, Georg B,, one of the founders of 

the Tugendhund (1808), ix 328 
Barwalde, Treaty of (1631), iv 141, 198 sq., 

210, 220 ; 226 ; 249 ; 251 
Baffin bay, explorers at, xii 814 

William, navigator, xii 814 

Bagchaserai. See Bakchi-serai 
Bage, Robert, novelist, vi 836 
Bagenal, Sir Henry, in Ireland, ni 604 ; 

defeated at Armagh, 630, 607 
Bagge, Jakob, Danes defeated by, iv 163 
Baggesen, Jens Immanuel, Danish poet, 

vm 788; xi 697 
Baghdad, Turkish army at, in 112 ; be- 
comes Ottoman fortress, 113 ; Russia 
and, X 545 ; xii 170 ; caravan route to, 
793 

Pasha of, ix 385 

Baghirmi, xn 130; Barth in, 810 
Baglione, Giampaolo, of Perugia, i 194 ; 

submission of, to Julius II, 128; 134; 

136; n 14 
Bagni, Papal nuncio, in Paris, rv 680 
Bagno, Marchese di, commands papa) 

troops, IV 57 sq. 
Bagnolo, Peace of (1484), between Venice, 

Milan and Naples, i 287 
Bagot, Sir Charles, x 32 ; 37 ; at the Con> 

ference of St Petersburg, 189 ; Governor 

General of Canada, xi 767 
Bagration, Peter Ivanovitch, Prince, ix 

257; 260; at Friedland, 290; and the 

war with Turkey, 485 ; and the invasion 

of 1812, 489 sqq. 
Bagyidaw, King of Ava, xi 727 sq. 
Bahadur, King of Guzerat, vi 510 

Shah, Moghul Emperor, vi 523 ; 531 

Bahamas, the, landing of Colombo on, i 

23; piracy in, v 691; vi 184; 380; re- 
linquished by Spain, 464; government 
of, xn 657 

Bahawalpur, Nawab of, xi 736 

Bahia (San Salvador), the Dutch and, iv 
703 sq. ; retaken by the Spaniards, 705, 
706; Oquendo at, 707, 708; 750, 752 sq.; 
growth of importance of, v 676; 677; 
VI 184; 389 sq. ; Portuguese troops in, 
X 312, 314 sq.; blockade of (1823), 316 

dos Vaqueiros (Mossel Bay) dis- 
covered by Diaz, i 17 

Bahr-el-Gazal, xn 130 ; taken by the Mahdi, 
442; 449; France and, 660; 661; explo- 
ration in, 811 sqq. 

Baif, Jean Antoine de, ui 54 sq. 



General Index, 



235 



Baikal, Lake, zii 344; and the Busso- 

Japanese War, 577 sq. ; 794 
Baikie, William, African traveller, xii 810 
Bailleul, ceded to France, v 45 

Jacques- Charles, member of the 

Corps Legislatif, viii 610 sq., 515, 517 

Bailli de Litta, Prior of the Bussian branch 
of the Order of St John, viii 648 

Baillie, Bobert, iv 317; 324 

William, Lieutenant-colonel, defeat 

of, VI 576, IX 714 

Bailly, Antoine, French Inspector-general 
of Finance, viii 74 

Jean- Syl vain, vin 101; elected to 

the States General, 131 sq., 153, 155, 
157; Mayor of Paris, 165, 167 sqq., 200; 
resigns, 225; guillotined, 357 

Bainbridge, Cardinal Christopher, death 

of, I 483 
Bairactar, Pasha of Bustchuk, ix 388 
Bairam Khan, Moghul general, vi 512 
Baird, Sir David, General, viii 617; lands 

at Corunna, ix 443; joins Moore, 445; 

at Kosseir, 734; expedition of, to Cape 

Colony, 752; xi 778 
Baireuth, and Ansbach, v 622; margravate 

of, VI 633; Frederick the Great and, 704; 

principality of, reverts to Prussia (1792), 

vni 530 ; proposed cession of, to Austria, 

634 ; the boundary of, ix 262, 266; French 

troops enter, 273 ; Soult at, 274 ; lost to 

Prussia (1815), 656 
Margraves, etc. of. See Brandenburg- 

Baireuth 
Baius, Michael, professor at Louvain, v 82 
Baji Bao I, Peshwa, vi 531 sq. 

II, Peshwa of Poona, xi 725 sq. ; 747 

Bajza, Joseph, Hungarian writer, xi 426 
Bakchi-serai, Treaty of (1680), v 506; vi 

305; captured by the Cossacks, 306 
Bakel, French outpost at, xii 129 
Baker, Sir Samuel White, in Africa, xii 

439; 809 

Valentine (Baker Pasha), in Egypt, 

xn 440 sq. 

Major, at Dromore, v 307 

Bakewell, Bobert, agriculturist, x 731 
Bakkerzeel, Jan de Casembroot, lord of, 

secretary to Egmont, in 216 
Bak6cz, Thomas, Primate of Hungary, i 

336 sq. 
Baku, ceded to Bussia, v 545; evacuated 

by Bussia, vi 304; labour agitation in, 

xii 332; 342 
Bakunin, Michael, Bussian revolutionary, 

XI 219; 504; escapes from Siberia, 629; 

630; XII 294; 296; Statecraft and Anarchy, 

303; at Geneva, i&. ; 307; 758 
Balaban, Turkish general defeated by 

Scanderbeg, i 71 
Balagny, Jean de Montluo, Sieur de, 

Marshal of France, holds Cambray, iii 

47, 669; ambassador to Poland, 85 
Balaguer, captured by Starhemberg, v 426 
Bala Hissar, xi 733; occupation of, 735 



Balaklava, battle of, xi 319 sq., 364 
Balashoft, Bussian Minister of Police, ix 

487 
Balassi, Valentine, Hungarian poet, xi 422 
Balbini, Niccold, Italian Minister at Geneva, 

II 387 
Balbo, Conte Cesare, Italian patriot, ii 35; 

IX 399; opinion of, on Italian priests, 

401; X 109; 115; writings of, 167; 168; 

XI 65 sqq. ; 70; 73 ; Piedmontese Minister, 

80; 371; 547 

Lorenzo, Spanish scholar at Alcalfi, 

n 400 

Baldiron, Imperialist commander, iv 41; 

48; and the Engadine, 54 sq.; flight 

of, 56 
Baldissera, Antonio, Italian general, xn 

241 
Baldo, Monte, Prince Eugene crosses, v 402 
Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, grants 

privileges to Venetians, i 254 

Abraham, Georgian deputy, vii 246 

Bale, John, Bishop of Ossory, the Biblio- 
graphy of, I 611; II 19 

Balearic Islands, prisoners sent to, xi 556, 
668 

Balfour, Arthur James, Secretary for Scot- 
land, XII 45; Secretary for Ireland, 46, 
48, 85 sq.; 52; Ministry of, 54; and the 
Education Act, 57 ; and the War Office, 
69; 90; 594 

Gerald William, Secretary for Ire- 
land, XII 87 

Sir James, Act of Bevocation and, 

IV 490; Traquair and, 503 

Sir William, dismissal of, iv 297 

Balkan Peninsula, 1812-33, Vol. x, Chap. 

VI, passim ; evacuated by Bussia, xi 402) 
Chap. XXII (2); 1870-1909, Vol. xii, Chap, 
xiv; 6; 9 sqq.; 37 ; 57; Austria and, 211; 
212 ; Italy and, 242 ; 341 ; the Powers 
and, 728 

Balkh, province of, vi 518; caravan route 
through, XII 793; 800 

Ball, Sir J. Alexander, naval captain at 
Naples, VIII 658 

Ballanche, Pierre-Simon, x 101 

Ballarat, gold in, xi 796; 798 

Ballard, John, and the Babington con- 
spiracy, III 291 

Ballenstadt, House of, v 618. See Bran- 
denburg 

Ballesteros, Francisco, Spanish general, 
disgraced, ix 475; x 217; 227 sq. ; 231 

Ballinamuok, French force surrenders at, 
VIII 476 

Ballot, African explorer, xn 129 

Ball's Bluff, engagement at (1861), vn 469 

Ballybay, Catholic demonstration at, x 
647 sq. 

Bally castle, battle at (1565), m 691 

Ballymore, captured by Ginkel, v 317 

Ballyneety, Sarsfield at, v 316 

Balmaoeda, Jos6 Manuel, President of Chile, 
xn 677 sq. 



236 



General Index, 



Balmerino, Arthur Elphinstone, 6th Baron, 
Jacobite, vi 114; 117 

John Elphinstone, 2nd Baron, trial 

of, IV 493 sq. 

Balmont, K. D., Bussian poet, xii 333 
Baltaji Mebemet, Grand Vezir, v 604 sqq. 
Balta Liman, Convention of, xi 284 
Baltasar Carlos, Infante, Isabel of Bourbon 

and, IV 649 sq., 654; 658; death of, 659; 

664 
Baltic ConTention, The, xii 290 sq. 

Powers (1780-1801), Vol. ix. Chap. 

II, section 1, passim; 295 sq. See also 
Eussia, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia 

Sea, struggle for supremacy in, n 

228 ; corn and timber trade in, iii 631 ; 
Imperial schemes as to, iv 193 ; United 
Provinces and, v 146 sq. ; Eussia and, 
343, 494, 520 ; Poland and, 344 ; Peter 
the Great and, 526, 528; English fleet 
in (1715-26), 551, 611, vi 24, 37, 59, 
207; Sweden and, v 562 sq., 607; 615; 
634; 638; trade in, vi 24, 28; 35; 57; 
Eussia and, 304, 694, 733 ; non-inter- 
vention in, by England, 408 sq. ; 754; 
British trade with, vii 1, 4; British 
operations in (1800-1), ix 51 sq.; results 
of control of, by Napoleon, 241 sq. ; British 
fleet in (1854), xi 317; 346; Germany 
and, XII 171 ; 348 

Baltimore, expedition against (1814) (later 
abandoned), vii 344, 352 ; Union Manu- 
facturing Co. of Maryland organised at, 
353 ; emigration from, 359 ; Lincoln in, 
449; fighting in (1861), 453 sq., 464, 
469 ; Eepublican Convention at (1864), 
599 ; railway from the Ohio to, 694 

(Co. Cork), Spanish ships at, in 532 

]3enedict Calvert, 4th Baron, vii 34 

Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron, vii 31, 

33 

Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron, vii 34 

George Calvert, 1st Baron, founds 

Maryland, iv 747 ; patent of, 748 ; vii 
31, 52, 74 

Baltimore, U.S.S., affair of the, vii 666 
Baltinglas, James Eustace, 3rd Viscount, iii 

598 
Baltringen, beginning of the Peasants' War 

at, II 179 
Baltzer, Johann Baptista, philosopher, xi 

712 
Baluchistan, the Emperor Humayun in, 

VI 511 ; XI 731 ; 736 ; 753 ; xii 458 ; 485 ; 

491 
Balue, Cardinal Jean de La, Minister of 

Louis XI, I 403, 415 
Balzac, Honor6 de, vi 833; x 102; 516; 

XI 427 ; 509 ; 516 ; novels of, 521 sq. 

Jean-Louis-Guez, Seigneur de, in 72 ; 

Member of French Academy, iv 156; v 70 

Bamberg, see of, in 709, vi 704 ; Bavaria 
insists on restoration of, iv 210 ; captured 
by Horn, 213 ; Maximilian I at, ix 253 ; 
273 



Bamberg, Johann Georg Fuchs von Darn- 
heim. Bishop of, and Gustavus Adolphus, 
IV 207 

Bamian, Moorcroft at, xn 800 

Bancroft, George, xii 680; History of the 
United States, 841 

Eichard, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

in 60, 343, 554, 563 sq. 

Banda Islands, spices of, rv 734 ; Anglo- 
Dutch struggle in, 735 ; agreement of 
June 1619 and, 737; 738; captured by 
the English, viii 484, ix 750; restored 
to the Dutch (1814), 755 

Neira, the Dutch and, rv 735 sq. ; 

742; captured (1810), ix 240 

Oriental (Uruguay), Portugal and, y 

456, 680 ; X 281 ; 286 ; independence of, 
300 sq. ; forms the Provincia Gisplatina, 
316 ; XII 674 ; 680 ; Anglo-French action 
in, 681; 690 

Bandello, Matteo, Bishop of Agen. See 

Agen 
Bandiera, Attilio and Emilio, x 122 sq. ; xi 

65, 67 
Bandon, Tyrone and O'Donnell at, in 608 
Bandula, Burmese general, xi 727 sq. 
Ban^r, Gustaf, flight and death of, rv 172 sq. 

Johann, Swedish Field-Marshal, iv 

185 ; occupies Magdeburg, 207 ; holds Ba- 
varia, 216 sq. ; in Silesia, 247 ; ordered to 
invade Bohemia, 252 ; at Magdeburg, 255 ; 
German War and, 366 sqq, ; at Eisenach, 
372; falls back upon Torgau, 373; on 
the Oder, 374; 378; 379; 383; death 
of, 385; 390; Oxenstierna and, 569 

Sten, flight and death of, rv 172 sq. 

Banffy, Baron, Hungarian statesman, xn 

199 ; 203 sq. 

Banfy, George, in 98 

Bangkok, British envoy at, xn 535 ; 536 

Bangweolo, Lake, xu 663 ; Livingstone at, 
809 

Bankaert, Adrian van, Dutch naval com- 
mander, V 195 sq. 

Baukes, Sir John, and the ship-money case, 

IV 283 

Bankhem, Jan van, and the murder of the 

de Witts, v 159 
Banks' Peninsula, purchased by a French 

company, xi 793 
Banks, the Bank of England, established, 

V 266 sqq.; vi 45; action of (1793-7), ix 
675 sq. ; xi 5, 537; Banks of Amsterdam, 
Genoa, and Venice, v 266, 268, 270; the 
Caisse d'Escompte, viii 86, 96 sq., 694 sq. ; 
Bank of France, created, ix 27; x 746; 
the Land Bank of Poland, 455 sq. ; 
Continental, in general, 746 sq. ; the 
Banca Eomana and politics, xn 218; 
the Eussian Peasants' Bank, 317 sq. ; 
Eussian Gentry Bank, 318; Hong Kong 
and Shanghai Banking Corporation, 513. 
See also Coinage and Currency, etc. 

Sir Joseph, and New South Wales, 

IX 736 ; xn 805 sq. 



General Index, 



237 



Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss, American gen- 
eral, VII 477, 603, 506, 514; the Red 
Eiver expedition (1864) under, 620 

Bantam, Dutch trade at, in 638; James 
Lancaster at, iv 731 ; Edmund Scott at, 
734 ; 735 ; English and Dutch ships 
before, 736 ; English factory re-estab- 
lished at, 740, V 697 

Bantry Bay, French fleet in, viii 476 sq., 
IX 700 

Baour-Lormian, Pierre-M.-F.-L., French 
poet, VI 830 ; x 88 

Bar, Duke of Lorraine does homage for, iv 
142 ; recovery of Condi's fortresses in, 
613 sq. ; Treaty of Pyrenees and, 620 ; 
ceded to France, v 33 ; vi 165 ; Con- 
federation of, 355, 668, 673, 730 

Barailh, Admiral de, vi 110 

Baraillon, Jean-Francois, French politician, 
vm 678 

Barajas, Francisco Zapata de Cisneros, 
Count of, ni 618 

Barante, Aimable-Guillaume-Prosper Bru- 
giSre, Baron de, x 48 ; 51 ; and the Doc- 
trinaires, 52-5 ; created a peer, 58 ; 67 ; 
resigns office, 68; action of, in the 
Chamber of Peers, 81 ; opposes the " law 
of sacrilege," 87 ; 602 ; xii 830 

Baratieri, General, Governor of Erythrea, 
xn 240 sq. 

Barbaczy, Joseph, commander of Skekler 
hussars, vm 655 sq. 

Barbados, Dutch forbidden to trade in, it 
470 ; settlement of, 766 ; constitution of, 
757 ; V 110 ; de Ruyter at, 179 ; 284 ; 
286 sq. ; English government in, 689 sq., 
VI 186 ; 454 ; colonists from, in Carolina, 
VII 34, 36 ; English colony in, 78 ; 87 ; 
slaves in, 102 ; Nelson in, ix 224 ; govern- 
ment in, 750, X 587 ; missionaries attacked 
in, 658 ; XI 767 ; negroes in, xn 663 ; 
654; 656; government of, 657 

Barbantane-Pujet, Paul-F.-H.-B., Marquis 
de, French commander, viii 439 

Barbara, Queen of Poland, consort of 
Sigismund IIL See Radzivil 

of Braganza, Queen of Spain, consort 

of Ferdinand VI, vi 166 ; 361 sqq. ; 
death of, 366 

Barbaresques. See Barbary pirates 
Barbaro, Ermalao, humanist, i 657, 681 

Marco Antonio, in 137 sq. 

Barbarossa I (Horush), ii 68 

II (Khair Eddin), n 68 sqq., 75 sqq., 

390; HI 105, 109; seizes Tunis, 110, 
driven from it by Charles V, 111 ; 
exploits of, 112 sq. ; gains victory near 
Actium (1538), 114 ; takes islands from 
Venice, 116 sq. ; 119; death of (1546), 
120 

Barbaroux, Charles- J.-M. , vin 231, 249 sq., 

260, 357 
Barbary, Moriscos deported to, in 543 ; 

French Consul established in, 694; French 

trade with, vi 173 j 350 



Barbary pirates, Spanish attacks on (1605- 
10), I 365 sq.; expeditions against, ii 
68 sq., 75 sq. ; and Italy, m 391, 399, 
410 ; defeated by Fajardo, 540 sq. ; v 179 ; 

X 19 sq. 

Barbauld, Mrs (Anna Letitia Aikin), vm 764 
Barb^-Marbois, Franpois de, Count and 

Marquis of, French chargS d'affaires in 

America, vi 462 ; vm 488, 607 ; ix 9 ; 116, 

117; X 47; 49 
Barberet, French labour politician, xn 94 
Barberini, enrichment of the, by Urban 

VIII, IV 684 ; and the quarrel with Parma, 

685 sqq. 

Cardinal Maffeo. See Urban VIII 

Barb^s, Armand, French socialist, x 511; 

XI 104 sq.; 108 sq. 

Barbesieux, French commander against 
Naples, II 69 

Barbier, Edmond- Jean-Francois, diarist, 
VIII 9, 12 

Barbin, Claude, French statesman. Ministry 
of, IV 122 sqq. 

Barbo, Pietro. See Paul II, Pope 

Barbon, Nicolas, Discourse of Trade, x 
770 

Barbosa, Arias, Portuguese Hellenist, i 379, 
578 

Barcelona, Treaty of (1529), n 25, 203; 
Charles V sets sail from (1535), iii 111; 
embarkation of Duke and Duchess of 
Savoy at, 613; captured (1651), rv 618; 
Philip IV and Olivares at, 647 ; revolt of, 
648 sq.; 652; entry of La Motte into, 
653 ; capitulation of (1652), 661 ; v 61 ; 
taken by the French (1696), 62 ; 413 ; by 
Peterborough (1705), 416 ; 432 ; siege of 
(1713), 446; vi 29; 31 sq. ; Navarro's 
squadron at, 236 ; trade of, vii 327 ; 
British squadron at, ix 46 ; Duhesme 
seizes (1808), 430 ; French forces at, 435, 
436, 439; Gouvion Saint-Cyr at, 448; 
Carbonaro agent sent to, x 213; revolts 
in (1820), 216, 223, (1840), 241 sq., xi 
660 ; XII 260 ; socialism in, 268 

(Venezuela), Bolivar's flight to, 

X 289 

Barcelonnette, capture of, ni 416 
Barclay, Robert Heriot, British naval com- 
mander, VII 340 

de Tolly, Michel, Prince, and the 

invasion of 1812, ix 489 sqq. ; at Bautzen, 
618 ; 519 ; replaces Wittgenstein, 520 ; 
at Leipzig, 635 ; 538 

Barcoo river, exploration of, xi 795 ; 798 
Barcsay, Abraham, Hungarian writer, xi 

422 
Barczai, Achatius, Prince of Transylvania. 

See Transylvania 
Bard, fortress of, ix 60 
Bardeleben, Karl Alexander von, one of the 

founders of the Tugendbund (1808), ix 328 
Bardo, Treaty of, xn 129, 239 
Bareilly, revolt at, xi 746 
Barendsz. See Barents 



C. M. H. 



15 



238 



General Index, 



Barentin, Charles-L.-F. de Paule de, Keeper 

of the Seals, viii 145, 156 
Barents, William, Dutch explorer, iii 632, 

XII 795 
Bar^re de Vieuzac, Bertrand, French 

politician, viii 153, 249 ; at the King's 

trial, 258, 262; on the Comite de Salut 

Public, 269, 274, 343, 347, 362, 364 sq. ; 

and the fall of Robespierre, 369, 375 ; 

charges brought against, 380, 384 
Barham, Admiral Sir Charles Middleton, 

1st Baron, appointed First Lord of the 

Admiralty, ix 224 
Bari, the Viceroy Visconti at, vi 153 ; and 

the Apulian aqueduct, xii 238 

Duke of (Ludovico il Moro). See 

Milan, Dukes of 

Bariatinskii, Prince, ix 35 

Barileff, Russian naval commander, xi 

843 sq. 
Barillon, Paul, Marquis de Branges, French 

ambassador in England, v 219; 222; 227; 

and James II, 231 sq., 235, 247 
Baring, the financial house of, x 743; xi 

10, XII 48 
• Alexander. See Ashburton, Lord 

Sir Evelyn. See Cromer, Earl 

Sir Francis Thornhill, Lord North- 
brook, XI 3 

Walter, reports on the Bulgarian 

massacres, xii 384 

Barkul, Russian traveller at, xn 799; 802 
Barlaam, Bernard, Greek scholar and 

ambassador to Italy, i 540 
Barlaeus, Caspar, iv 717 
Barlaymont, Baron Charles, afterwards 
Count of, adviser of Granvelle, ni 188, 
191, 194; 198; taunts the Gueux, 203 sq.; 
214; alienated by Alva, 216 sq., 226, 
245 
Bar-le-Duc, meeting of Francis I and Philip 
of Hesse at (1534), n 220; the Old Pre- 
tender at, VI 96, 98 
Barlow, Captain Arthur, in Virginia, vii 3 

Sir George Hilaro, in India, ix 730-1 

William, consecrates Parker, ii 571 

sq. 
Barnabites, Order of the, founded, n 648 
Barnabotti, Venetian party, i 282 
Barnard, Sir Henry William, Lieutenant- 

General, at Delhi, xi 746 
Barnave, Antoine-P,-J.-M., member of the 
National Assembly, viii 174, 182, 186 sqq., 
200 sq., 213 ; and the Court, 216 ; executed 
(1793), 357 
"Barnburners," The, vn 399 
Barnes, Dr Robert, executed, ii 451 

Thomas, editor of The Times, x 667 

Barnet, Curtis, Commodore, in the East 

Indies, vi 535 
Barneveldt, Johan van Olden. See Olden- 

barneveldt 
Barnwell, Robert Woodward, Confederate 

Senator, vn 605 
Bare river, Marchand on, xu 813 



Baroche, Pierre-Jules, French Minister of 

the Interior, xi 131 sqq.; 294 
Bar6czy, Alexander, Hungarian writer, xi 

422 
Baroda, captured by Wellesley, ix 726 ; 

State of, XI 727 
Malhar Rao, Gaekwar of, deposed, 

xn 462 
Barodet, D6sir6, French politician, xn 107 
Baron, Pierre, of Cambridge, Protestant 

refugee, ii 597 
Baronets, Order of, creation of the, in 

571 
Baronius, Cardinal Caesar, ecclesiastical 

historian, i 568, 609; the Armales Ec- 

clesiastici of, iii 444; xn 816 
Baross, G. de, Hungarian Minister, xn 

198 
Barrackpur, mutiny at, xi 729 
Barradas, or Baradat, Franpois de, Seigneur 

de Damery, favourite of Louis XIII, 

driven from Court, iv 131 
Barras, Count Louis de, French naval 

officer, VI 453 

Paul-F.-J.-Nicolas de, vin 249, 349, 

352; and the fall of Robespierre, 366, 
369; 378; and the insurrection of Ven- 
deraiaire, 396; member of the Directory, 
489 sqq., 494, 496, 503; and the Babeuf 
conspiracy, 504 sq. ; 507, 563 sq., 669 sq. ; 
and Brumaire, 675 sqq., 679 

Barrault, seized by Lesdiguidres, ni 417 

Barraux, fort at, in 417 

Barr6, Isaac, Colonel, vi 425; 432; pensioned, 

459 
Barrier Fortresses, the, Joseph II razes, viii 

277, 281 
. Treaties (1709-15), v 424, 439 sq., 

448, 456 sqq.; vi 13, 23, 470; from 1715 

to 1782, 640 sqq. 
Barrington, Jonah, and the Union with 

Ireland, ix 703 

William Wildman Barrington, 2nd 

Viscount, VI 406; 424 sq.; 427; 450; 
VII 142 

Samuel, Admiral, vi 451 

Barron, James, American commodore, vn 

329 sq. 
Barrot, Camille-Hyacinthe-Odilon, x 507 
sqq. ; XI 30; 32; and Thiers, 36 sq., 40; 
42 ; 96 ; and the Revolution (1848), 99 sq., 
102; 108; and the Republican constitu- 
tion, 115 sq. ; appointed Premier, 118; 
119; and Pius IX, 121; 126; declines 
office, 128 sq. ; Louis-Napoleon and, 133 

Ferdinand, French statesman, xi 127; 

129 
Barrow, Henry, in 343, 345 
Barruel, industrial experiments of, ix 376 
Barry, Garret, in Munster, rv 525 
Bar-sur-Aube, indecisive battle at (1814), 

IX 545; Oudinot defeated at, 550 
Bart, Jean, French seaman, v 59; 162 
Bartenstein, Convention of (1807), ix 287, 
289, 296 



General Index, 



289 



Bartenstein, Baron Johann Christoph von, 
Austrian statesman, vi 204; 626 

Baxth, Heinrich, in Africa, xii 810 sqq. 

Barth61emy, Francois, Marquis de, and the 
Peace of Basel, viii 381, 383, 441 ; Director, 
606; arrested (1797), 509 sqq.; trans- 
ported, 612 ; ambassador to Switzerland, 
639, 781; x 58 

St Hilaire, Jules, French politician, 

XI 118 

Barthels, Jean Theodore, Belgian journal- 
ist, X 532 

Bartholdi, Friedrich Christian von, Bran- 
denburg Minister at Vienna, v 664 

Bartolucci, Vincent, x 138 

Bartolus (Bartolus Severus de Alphanis, 
d. 1355i, III 749 

Barton, Andrew, taken at sea by Lord 
Thomas Howard (1511), i 479 

Elisabeth (the Holy Maid of Kent), 

trial and execution of, n 441 

Barwell, Richard, member of the Indian 
Council, VI 571 sq. 

Baryatinski, Eussian Field- Marshal, xii 139 

Barzizza, Gasparino da. See Gasparino 

Baschi, Perron de, French envoy to Rome, 

I 110 

Basedow, Johann Berend, German edu- 
cational reformer, viu 772 

Basel, Council of (1431-49), i 293, 385, 
599, 623, 655, 668; Peace of (1499), 307; 
joins Swiss Confederacy (1501), 308 ; 
Greek books at, 599 ; the Reformation at, 

II 328, 355; Evangelic Diet of (1530), 
335; Conference of Swiss Reformers at, 
339; Calvin and Erasmus at, 355; offer 
of, for Saluzzo, iii 408; Compactates 
of, 703; VI 616; 623; 625; Treaty of 
(1795), vni 289, 381, 383, 386, 413, 422, 
441, 651; IX 249, 592, 608; bishopric of, 
96, 104, 601; and the Swiss Confedera- 
tion, 105 ; manufactures of, 425 ; xi 234 ; 
reaction in, 238; insurrections in, 241 sq.; 
division of, 245 sq. ; 248 ; silk- weaving in, 
259; 491; Nihilist Congress at, 629; 
Labour Legislation Union at, xii 747 

Christopher von Uttenheim, Bishop 

of, n 324 

Eugene Lachat, Bishop of, xi 258 

Baselga, Gaspar, Swiss Catholic leader, iv 

44 
Bashkirs, rising of, vi 681 
Bashmakoff, and Poland, xii 378 
Basil n. Emperor of the East, v 483 

Tsar (Vasili Shuiski). See Vasili IV 

Basilicata, condition of the, xii 236 sqq. 
Basing House, attempt of Waller to cap- 
ture, IV 315 ; Charles I and, 324 ; taken 
by Cromwell, 333 

Basque provinces, in the Middle Ages, 
I 352; occupied by the Carlists, x 236, 
239; emigration from, to Spanish America, 
276; XII 268; Carlist forces in, 260 

Roads, Willaumez anchors in the, ix 

238 



Bass, George, explorations of, ix 740 
Bassano, Hughes-Bernard Maret, Due de, 

IX 10; receives the duchy of Bassano, 

111; 141, 145; disaffection of, 572; 

becomes Secretary of State, 616 ; x 494 
Bassein (India), Treaty of (1802), ix 725, 

727 

(Burma), capture of, xi 742 

Bassermann, Friedrich Daniel, Baden poli- 
tician, XI 61 sqq. ; 146 ; 198 ; at the 
Gotha meeting, 221 

Basseville, Nicolas-Jean-Hugon de. Secre- 
tary of the French legation, viii 581, 
778 

Bassewitz, Henning Friedrich von, Hol- 
stein Minister, v 609 

Colonel Adolphus Frederick von, 

Hanoverian envoy at Stockholm, vi 36 

Bassi, Antonietta, Countess Pasolini, xi 
72 

Matteo de*, founder of the Capu- 
chins, II 647 

Bassignano, Sardinians defeated at, vi 
243 

Basso, Protestant preacher in Tirano, death 
of, IV 49 

Bassompierre, Baron Francois de, Marquis 
d'Harouel, Marshal of France, embassy 
of, to Madrid, iv 50, 63; dix-sept sei- 
gneurs and, 166 ; ambassador in England, 
266 

Bastia, captured by a British squadron, 
vra 468 

Bastide, Jules, French politician, xi 99; 
118; 124 

Bastille, fall of the, viii 164, 167, 191, 
715, 755 

Bastogi, Count Pietro, Italian statesman, 
XI 638 

Bast wick, John, punishment of, iv 280; 
release of, 291 

Basutoland, xi 783 ; annexed to Cape 
Colony, 787; government of, xii 645 

Basutos, and the Boers, xi 782 ; 783 sqq. ; 
and the Orange Free State, 787 

Batak, massacre at, xii 384 

Batang, travellers at, xn 796 sq., 803 sq. 

Batarnay, Ymbert de, i 403 

Batavia, capital of the Dutch East Indies, 
IV 710 sqq. ; foundation of, 736 ; power 
of the Dutch at, 738; 740 

Batavian Republic, existence of, recognised 
by Holland, ix 78 ; 208 ; changes effected 
by Bonaparte in, 88 sqq.; Napoleon's 
dealings with, 416-7. See also Holland 

Batbie, Anselme-Polycarpe, French poli- 
tician, XII 108 

Bate, John, his case, ni 557, 748 

Batenburg, Dutch commander, relieves 
Haarlem, rn 236 

Bates, Edward, vii 445; Attorney-general, 
460 

William, Presbyterian divine, vi 803 

Bath , John Bour chier, 4th Baron Fitzwarine, 

2nd Earl of, supporter of Mary, n 514 

16—2 



240 



General Index. 



Bath, Sir John Grenville, let Earl of 
(2nd cr.), Monck and, iv 656 sq. ; 558 

William Pulteney, Earl of, vi 47; 

66; 71; enters the Cabinet, 73; 74; 84 

Thomas Thynne, l«t Marquis of 

(Viscount Weymouth), vi 376 ; 424; 439 ; 
resigns, 443; 447; 450 

BAthory {or Batori), Andrew, Cardinal, iii 
103 

Christopher, in 97 

Gabriel, Prince of Transylvania. 

See Transylvania 

Sophia, V 352 

Stephen, Judex Curiae of Hungary 

(1491), I 339 

Stephen, King of Poland. /See Stephen 

B^thory 
Bathurst, xi 790 ; discovery of gold at, 795 

Henry Bathurst, 2nd Earl, Lord 

Chancellor, vi 443; 450 

Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl, vu 

363 sq. 

Kichard, President of Trinity College, 

Oxford, VI 791 

Batififol, Pierre, French scholar, xii 848 
Baton Rouge, arsenal at, vii 492 
Batori, See Bathory 
Battaglia, Francesco, Venetian senator, 

VIII 685 
Battambang, ceded to France, xn 536 
Batten, Sir William, admiral, succeeded 

by Rainborow, iv 347; with the fleet, 

350 
Battenberg, Prince Alexander of, xii 341 
Batthyany, Balthasar, Minister of Matthias 

Corvinus, i 343 

Count Casimir, xi 212 sq. ; at Wid- 

din, 215 

Count Karl Joseph von, Austrian 

general, vi 241 sq. 

Count Ludwig, xi 155 sq. ; 172 ; 180 

sqq.; forms a new Ministry, 183; 184; 
arrest of, 203 ; 205 ; execution of, 214 

Batuecas, Ostolaza imprisoned at, x 209 
Batum, XII 33 ; ceded to Russia, 342, 398 ; 

392 sq. ; 399 
Baturin, destruction of (1708), v 600 
Batz, Baron Jean de, viii 261 
Batzlow, Prussian army at, vi 281 
Bau, Danish victory at, xi 161, 695 
Baudelaire, Charles-Pierre, French poet, 

XI 511; 613 sq. 
Baudin, Jean-B.-A.-V., French politician, 

XI 136; 488 

des Ardennes, Pierre-Charles-Louis, 

member of the Legislative Assembly, viii 
386, 394 

Nicolas, French captain, in Aus- 
tralia, IX 738-9 

Baudissin, W. H. von, Swedish Field- 
marshal, IV 220 

Baudoin, French admiral, ix 239 

Baudot, Marc-Antoine, member of the 
National Convention, vm 427 sq. 

Bauer, George (Georgius Agricola), v 738 



Bauernfeld, Eduard von, Austrian dramatic 

poet, XI 414 sqq. 
Bauhin, Jean, naturalist, v 734 
Baumann, Governor of Posen, x 464 
Baumbach, Moritz von, Hesse -Cassel 

Minister, xi 232 
Baumgartner, Hieronymus, iii 169 
Baune, Eugene, French politician, xi 136 
Baur, Ferdinand Christian von, historian, 

X 382; xii 847 
Bausch, Johann Lorenz, and the Academia 

naturae curiosorum, v 741 
Bautzen, Prussian retreat near, vi 290; 

battle of (1813), ix 519 
Bava-Beccaris, General, xii 220 
Bavaria, and the Reformation, n 169; 
papal concessions to, ib.; persecution of 
Lutherans in, 202; supports Charles V 
(1545), 251; religious attitude of, iii 169 
sqq., 173, 702 ; Treaty of Barwalde and, 
IV 198; 208; policy of, 211; Tilly driven 
into, 213 ; 214 ; Gusta vus Adolphus in, 
215; Ban^r in, 216; 219; sufferings of, 
during the war, 417 sq. ; cloth of, 421 ; 
campaigns in (1646-8), 391 sqq., 597; 
alliance of, with France, v 42, 47, 404; 
407 ; and the Spanish Netherlands, 447 ; 
451 ; and the Pragmatic Sanction, vi 202 
sq. ; and the War of the Austrian Succes- 
sion, 299 sqq.; 275; Austria and, 630 sq., 
633; projected exchange of, 644 sqq., vin 
277, 281 sqq., 310, 312 sq., 533 sqq., 543; 
VI 677; Frederick the Great and, 703 sq.; 
707; Austro-Russian designs on (1795), 
VIII 441, 549 ; 634 ; French revolutionary 
ideas in, 776; Moreau marches into, ix 
64 ; French acquisitions in, 68 ; 78 ; and 
the Imperial Recess of 1803, 94 ; reform 
of the Church in, 201 ; 202 ; joins France, 
253; 262; receives Ansbach, 267; arrange- 
ments for invasion of, 346 ; crux of the 
war of 1809, 347 ; proposals of Metternich 
to, 507; treaty with (1813), 633 ; territorial 
changes in, 691; 592, 597; and the Con- 
gress of Vienna, 609 sqq. ; and the Federal 
Act, 660 ; ambition of, 658 ; disputes of, 
with Austria, discussed by the Allied 
Powers, X 19; 22; 32; ecclesiastical 
affairs in, 146 sq. ; and German unity, 
342 sq. ; and the Germanic Confedera- 
tion, 343 sq.; disputes of, with Austria 
and Baden, 346, 361 sq. ; Montgelas' rule 
in, 359; Constitution of (1818), 359 sq. 
363; and the Carlsbad meeting, 366 
and the Vienna Conference (1819), 368 
and the Triasidee, 369; 370; Liberal 
measures by Ludwig I, 371 sq. ; and the 
customs treaties, 372 sq., 378 sq. ; 374; 
380; banking in, 746; 751; industries 
in, 753 sq. ; xi 60 sq. ; the revolutionary 
movement in, 146 ; 167 ; and the Frank- 
fort Constitution, 218; and the Berlin 
Conference, 220; 222 sq.; andtheHesse- 
Cassel crisis, 229 ; 408 ; and the Austro- 
Prussian War, 457 ; and the Zollverein, 



General Index. 



241 



462 ; and the North German Confedera- 
tion, 460 sq., 464 sq. ; and the G-erman 
Empire, 465 sq.; and the Franco-German 
War, 464; and the Austro-German alli- 
ance, XII 145 ; 148 ; 747 ; Eiezler's history 
of, 829 
Bavaria, Dukes of: — 

Albert V, n 681; iii 159-61, 172, 

180 

Maximilian I, afterwards Elector. 

See under Electors 

WiUiam IV, ii 172, 221, 224, 232 ; 

and the League of Niirnberg, 235, 264 

William V, iii 706 ; 709 sq. 

Bavaria, Electors of : — 

Charles Albert. See Charles VII, 

Emperor 

Charles Theodore, vi 647; 703; 707; 

vin 281, 312, ix 40 

Ferdinand Maria, and the Imperial 

succession, iv 426, 430, v 41, 47 

Maximilian I, in 573 ; 687 sq. ; 709 ; 

718 sqq. ; a possible candidate for the 
Imperial throne, iv 1; Jesuit influence 
upon, 5 ; and the Catholic League, 12 ; and 
the Imperial succession, 17; 22; 27; and 
Ferdinand II's policy, 32 ; and the Pro- 
testant Union, 33 ; empowered to occupy 
Upper Austria, 34 ; at Linz, 64 ; 65 sq. ; 
68; 69; counsels of, 73; 75; renounces 
hold upon Upper Austria, 76; 77; con- 
quers the Upper Palatinate, 78; 81; Tilly 
and, 82; 83; Elector, 84; 88; 92; 93; 
96; 100; 108; claims of, 109; Spiritual 
Electors and, 110; self-confidence of, 111; 
112; supports Elector of Saxony, 113; head 
of the Moderate Party, 114; rift between 
Ferdinand II and, 115; 116; scheme of 
Bichelieu concerning, 129; 135; 141 
orders Tilly to besiege Magdeburg, 199 
203; on right bank of Danube, 208 
Bichelieu and, 210; 213; at Donau 
worth, 214; palace at Munich of, 215 
with Wallenstein, 216 ; in Bohemia, 227 
Emperor and, 231 ; 232 ; 237 ; correspond 
ence between Bichelieu and, 238; 246 
peace negotiations and, 252; 254; and 
the Imperial succession, 373; 376; and 
the truce of Ulm, 391; and France, 392; 
at Salzburg, 393; 398; 401; Sabl^ and, 
402 ; retains Upper Palatinate, 409 ; 
French campaigns in Bavaria and, 597 ; 
Mazarinand,602; 673; 677 ; Ferdinand II 
and, 679; at Eatisbon, 680; Urban VIII 
and, 683 

Maximilian Emanuel, v 52 sq. ; 359 ; 

366 sq. ; commander of the Imperial army, 
368 ; marriage of, 377 ; and the Spanish 
Succession, 384, 386, 388; alliance of, 
with France, 404, 406 sqq.; at Donau- 
worth, 409 ; at Blenheim, 410 ; 411 ; re- 
storation of, 436; 438; 447; 450; 452; 
and the Peace of Baden, 455 

Maximilian (III) Joseph, vi 241 sq. ; 

630 sq.; 703; 707 



Bavaria, Electors of, contd. : — 

Maximilian Joseph. See Maximi- 
lian I, King of Bavaria 

Bavaria, Anna of Austria, Duchess of, 
consort of Albert V, in 159 

Ernest of. Archbishop of Cologne. 

See Cologne 

Ferdinand of, in 708 

Joseph Ferdinand, Electoral Prince 

of, and the Spanish Succession, v 377, 
382, 384 sq.; death of, 385; 386 sqq.; 
659; 664 

Lewis, Crown Prince of, at Vienna, 

IX 582 

Maria Antonia, Electress of, v 52; 

377 

Bavaria-Landshut, George the Eich, Duke 
of, I 315 

Ludwig, Duke of (d. 1543), ii 172, 

251 

Bavaria-Munich, Albert IV, Duke of, i 295 
sqq., 299 

Albert and Wolfgang, Dukes of, the 

Landshut succession and, i 315 

Bavarian Academy, Historical Commission 

of, xii 827 
Baxter, Eichard, New Model army and, iv 

329 ; V 96 ; at the Savoy Conference, 97 ; 

100; 201; imprisoned, 231; 238; and 

Cromwell, 328; 329 sq.; 332; and James 

II, 335 ; VI 799 ; Holy Commonwealth of, 

801; 807 
Bay Islands, xn 685; ceded to Honduras, 

686 
Bay of Islands, mission at, xi 793 
Bayane, Alphonse Hubert de Latier, Comte 

de. Cardinal, Papal plenipotentiary at 

Paris, IX 195 
Bayard, Pierre de Terrail, Seigneur de, i 

133, 412, 481; ii 43; death of (1624), 48 

Thomas Francis, vii 653 ; Secretary 

of State, 662 

Bayard -Chamberlain Treaty (1888), vii 

659 
Bayazid, demanded by Eussia, xn 392; 

retained by Porte, 398 

I, Ottoman Sultan, war of, with 

Venice, i 259, 278 

II, Ottoman Sultan, i 82, 85-90, 

114, 224, 229 

younger son of Solyman II, in 124 

Bayer, Chancellor to John Frederick of 
Saxony, ii 211 

Joseph, Hungarian officer, xi 214 

Bayeux, surrenders to Henry IV (1589), 

III 48 
Bayham, riot at (1525), ii 434 
Bayle, Pierre, pupil of Chouet, iv 791; 

VIII 4; Dictionary ^ 6; 32 

Baylen, capitulation of Dupont at (1808), 

IX 137; 315 sqq., 326, 437 sqq., 565 

Francis Xavier de Castanos, Duke 

of. See Castanos 

Bayol, African explorer, xn 129 
Bayonne, Conference at (1566), in 7, 8, 



242 



General Index, 



20, 271, 282, 489 ; French force at, ix 
301 sqq. ; 304 ; Napoleon at, 313 ; 316 ; 
322 ; constitution issued by Joseph from, 
406; Murat summoned to, 410; Dupont's 
army at, 430 ; Ferdinand VII abdicates 
at, 432; 433; Joseph Napoleon, pro- 
claimed King at (1808), 434; Soult and 
Wellington at (1813), 480 sqq. ; Narvaez 
at, XI 559; harbour of, xii 102 

Bayonne, Jean de Moustiers de Froissao, 
Bishop of, II 270 

Baza, capture of (1489), i 358 

Bazaine, Francois - Achille, Marshal of 
France, xi 479; leaves Mexico, 484; 
496 ; 498 ; 583 ; 586 sq. ; takes over the 
command, 588; conduct of the war by, 
589 sqq.; capitulates at Metz, 603 sq.; 
611 

Bazard, Amand, x 485 

Bazeilles, fight at, xi 598 

Bazire, Claude, viii 249, 340, 363 

Beachy Head, battle of (1690), v 69, 258, 
261, 263, 315 

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl 
of, X 669; the novels of, 724, xi 357; 
11; and Protection, 20; Chancellor of 
tbe Exchequer, 21, 328; 309 sq.; 330; 
and the Reform Bill of 1867, 341 sq.; 
rivalry of, with Gladstone, 342 sq. ; and 
Irish Disestablishment, 344; resigns, 
345 sq. ; and Portugal, 574; and the 
Suez Canal, 638, xii 433; xi 757; xii 14; 
resigns, 23; refuses office, 29; Ministry 
of (1874-80), 30 sqq.; and Gladstone, 
30 ; created Earl, 33 ; resigns, 36 ; 37 sq. ; 
40 ; 46 ; 72 ; and Irish education, 75 ; 
and the Berlin Congress, 142, 394, 399 ; 
383; and the Russo-Turkish War, 389; 
and Greece, 402 ; and Cyprus, 415 ; and 
Lord Mayo, 458, 463 ; and Afghanistan, 
465 sq.; 468; 472; 474; 774 

Beales, Edmond, political agitation of, 
XI 340 

Beard, John, and the East India Company, 
v700 

Bdarn, offered to Henry of Navarre, in 
510; Perez escapes to, 516; restoration 
of the Catholic religion in, 668, 681 ; 
restoration of ecclesiastical property in, 
IV 125 ; Louis XIII and, 126 sq. ; perse- 
cution of Protestants in, v 24; and the 
Provincial Assemblies, viii 111 ; and the 
States General, 128 

Beattie, James, poet, vi 830 

Beauchamp, Edward Seymour, Lord, in 
361, 534 

Joseph, mission of, to Constanti- 
nople, VIII 608 

Beaufort (N. Carolina), captured (1862), 
vn 552 

(S. Carolina), British detachment at, 

VII 219 

Franpois de Vendome, Duke of, and 

let ImportantSy iv 596; escape of, from 
Yincennes, 609 ; joins rebels, 611 sq. ; 



made Governor of Paris, 617; kills 
Nemours, ib.; Admiral (1666), v 182 
sq., 187 
Beaufort, Henry, Cardinal, ii 531 

Louis de, historian, xn 817 

Beaugency, Peace of (1485), i 393; Cond^ 

at, III 2; de Coligny at, 5; French 
troops at, XI 605 sq. 
Beauharnais, Alexandre, Vicomte de, vni 
179, 339 ; commands the army of the 
Bhine, 424; ix 107 

Augustus, Duke of Leuchtenberg. 

See Leuchtenberg 

Eugene de, Duke of Leuchtenberg, 

Prince of Eichstadt, inEgypt, viii 606, 616; 
IX 107 ; 195 ; Napoleon's Arch-Chancellor 
of State, 110; 139; Viceroy of the Italian 
Kingdom, 247; 355; 394; wedding of, 
265; Napoleon's advice to, 395; rule of, 
396 sq. ; advised by Napoleon to annex 
March of Ancona, 400 ; and the Russian 
campaign, 488 sqq.; replaces Murat at 
Posen, 511; forced to evacuate Posen, 
512 ; reaches Frankfort, 513-4 ; at Nedlitz, 
515; and the French throne, 555; at 
Congress of Vienna, 583; x 338 

Hortense de, ix 107; 139 

Josephine de {nee Tascher de la 

Pagerie). See Josephine, Empress of 
France 

Stephanie, marries Hereditary Prince 

of Baden, ix 265, x 361 
Beaujeu. See Bourbon 
Beaujolais, The, customs of, v 13 

Mademoiselle de, vi 126; 139 sq. 

Beaujon, Nicolas, farmer-general, viii 71 
Beaulieu, Baron Jean-Pierre de, Austrian 

commander, viii 420, 435; in Italy, 558, 

565 sqq., 572 
Beaulieu-Marconnay, Baron Karl von, 

Oldenburg Minister, xi 151 
Beaumarchais, Pierre-Augustin Caron de, 

French dramatist, vi 359, 823; vn 210; 

viii 725 
Beaumont, engagement at, xi 596 

C. de, Archbishop of Paris. See 

Paris 

Francis, dramatist, in 381 ; iv 760 

Sir Lewis, Arctic expedition of, xii 

815 

Mme de, ix 24 

Beaune, revolt of (1595), in 667 

la Rolande, German victory at, xi 

604 sq. 

Florimond de, v 711 

Jacques de. See Semblan<?ay 

Beauregard, Pierre- Gustave Toutant, Con- 
federate general, vii 465 sq. ; at Richmond, 
478; evacuates Corinth, 499; succeeded 
by Bragg, 606; in Tennessee, 524; and 
peace negotiations, 542; 665 

Sylvain Costa de, x 114 

Beausse, de, in Madagascar, v 703 
Beauvais, Auguste Potier, Bishop of, and 

Mazarin, iv 596 



General Index, 



243 



Beauvais de Pr6aux, Charles-Nicolas, French 
deputy, VIII 247 

Beaver Dam, American force captured at 
(1813), VII 341 

Bebel, Ferdinand August, Socialist poli- 
tician, XII 153 

Heinrich, German humanist, ii 152 

Beccadelli, Antonio (Panormita), his Her- 

maphroditus, ii 3 ; in 470 
Beccaria, Cesare Bonesana, Marquis di, 

Italian economist, vi 602; 687; viii 13, 

743 sq., 748 sqq., 777; ix 169 
Beccatello, Lodovico, ii 398 
Becher, Johann Joachim, chemist, v 731 
Bechtold, Baron Philipp, Hungarian 

general, xi 182 
Bechuana tribes, and the Boers, xi 782 
Bechuanaland, xi 761; 789; xii 3; annexed 

to the Cape, 638 
Beck, Baron John de. General, in Flanders, 

IV 598; death of, 599 

Baron Wladimir von, Austrian 

statesman, xii 203; Ministry of, 207 
sq.; fall of, 209; 210 

Beckenried, Catholic League of (1524), ii 

325 
Becker, Nicolaus, German poet, xi 49 ; 412 
Beckerath, Hermann von, German Liberal 

leader, xi 53; 58; 166; 199; at the 

Gotha meeting, 221 
Beckford, William, x 698; 709; 716 
Becquerel, Henri, physicist, xii 789 
Beda, Noel, doctor of the Sorbonne, n 285 
Bedchamber Plot, The, x 678 
Bedeau, Marie-Alphonse, French general, 

XI 100; 104; 113; imprisoned, 136 
Bedford, Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of, n 

567; in 280 
Francis Russell, 5th Duke of, viii 

760 

John Russell, 1st Earl of, n 475. 

495, 499, 517 

John Russell, 4th Duke of, vi 424 

sqq.; at Paris, 346, 428; 430; and the 
Regency Act, 434; 439; 489 

John Russell, 6th Duke of, becomes 

Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, ix 707 

Gunning, Governor of Delaware, vii 

246, 261 

Bedingfield, Sir Henry, supporter of Queen 

Mary, custodian of Princess Elizabeth, 

II 514, 529, 635 
Bedloe, William, and Titus Gates, v 222; 

334 
Bedmar, Alonso de la Cueva, Marquis of, 

cooperates with Osuna against Venice, 

IV 632 sq. ; and the Spanish plot against 

Venice, 671 
Bednore, taken by Tipu Sultan, vi 469 
Beele, Sloet van de. Governor- General of 

the Dutch East Indies, xi 668 
Beeli, George, Swiss Catholic leader, iv 44 
Beer, Adolf, historian, xii 829 
Beernaert, Auguste, Belgian statesman, xu 

251; 253 



Beets, Nicolaes, Dutch writer, xi 676 
Beg, Jakub, ruler of Kashgar, xi 632 
"Beggars of the Sea." See Guevx de Mer 
Behar, vi 556; Clive and, 564; famine in, 

XII 464 
Behic, Armand, French Minister of Public 

Works, XI 476 
Behlol, Sultan, founds his dynasty, vi 608 
Behmaru hills, British defeat at, xi 733 
Behn, Aphra, v 129; 136 
Behr, Johann August Heinrich von, Saxon 

Minister, xi 220 
Behring, Vitus, rediscovers Behring Strait, 

xn 794 

Sea, the sealing question in, vii 

666 ; XII 617 ; arbitration, 720 sq. 

Strait, XII 794; explorers in, 814 sq. 

Beilan, pass of, Ibrahim defeats Hussein 

at (1832), X 550 

Beilul, Italian occupation of, xn 240 

Beira (Mozambique), railway from, to Salis- 
bury, XII 639 

(Portugal) ,Mass6na's advance through, 

1x460 

Beirout, bombarded (1840), x 569, 571 

Beja, occupied by Mollelos, x 333 

Bek, Anthony, Bishop of Durham, i 301 

Bekbulatovich, Simeon, of Kazan, v 492; 
497 

Bekk, Johann Baptist, Baden statesman, 
XI 61 

Bekker, Immanuel, writings of, xn 821 

Bekos, Russian force at, x 553 

Belasi, Johann Jacob Kuen von. Arch- 
bishop of Salzburg. See Salzburg 

Belcher, Jonathan, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, VII 65 

Belchite, Suchet's victory at (1809), ii 454 

Belcredi, Count Richard, Austrian Minister 
of State, XII 183 sq. 

Beldenak (Jens Andersen). See Odense, 
Bishops of 

Belem, flight of Portuguese royal family 
from, IX 304 

Belemzada, Portuguese plot, x 338 

Belfast, taken by Schomberg (1689), v 312 ; 
volunteer defence corps in, vi 496 ; Society 
of United Irishmen at, ix 694; volunteers 
of, 695; prosperity of, 708; Queen's 
College, XII 29, 71 sq. 

Belfort, revolt in, iv 43 sq. ; military arrests 
at, X 76 ; rising at, 492 ; French force at, 
XI 582, 584 ; 694 ; siege of, 604, 606, 608 
sq. ; 612 ; the Peace of Frankfort and, 
xn 95 

Belgiojoso, Christina, Princess of, xi 85 

Count, VI 651 

Belgium. {See also Netherlands, seventeen 
provinces of the, Spanish and Austrian, 
and Kingdom of the.) France and, v 58; 
the Grand Alliance (1701) and, 398 ; and 
the Barrier Treaty, 424; vi 237; 273; 
Dutch garrisons in, 640 sq. ; plans of 
Joseph II as to, viii 277, 281, 293, 317 
sq.; rebellion in (1787), 318 sqq., (1789), 



244 



General Index, 



827 sqq. ; Bepublio of, vi 653, viii 331 sq.; 
mission of Dumouriez to, 224 ; Leopold II 
and, VI 655 sq., vin 335 sq. ; invaded and 
occupied by the French (1792), 415 sqq.; 
evacuated by the French (1793), 421 ; 
incorporated into the French Eepublic 
(1795), 496 sq. ; conscription in, 519 ; 
influence of the French Bevolution in, 
786 sq. ; ceded to France, ix 69 ; French 
troops in, 208 ; proposal to unite with 
Holland, 259 ; Napoleon resolves not to 
cede, 549 ; French driven out of, 550 ; 
campaign of 1815 in, 622 sqq. ; the 
Btumbling-block of Europe, 653 ; incorpo- 
rated with Holland in the Kingdom of 
the Netherlands, 605 sq., 654 sq. ; 668, 
670; Vol. X, Chap, xvi 'pasiim\ 39; 
and Ehenish Prussia, 381 ; revolt (1830) 
in, 480 ; France and, 482 sqq. ; Casimir 
Perier and, 487 sq. ; 489 ; French inter- 
vention in, 490; independence of, 505 sq.; 
industries in, 744, 753 sq., 755 sqq. ; 
roads, canals, and railways in, 744 sqq. ; 
joint-stock companies in, 747 ; the com- 
mon lands of, 749 ; the customs tariff in, 
752; 762 

Belgium, modern kingdom of (1839-70), Vol. 
XI, Chap. XXIII (2) ; 9 ; 28 ; the Jesuits in, 
67 ; the Risquons Tout in, 106 ; French 
exiles in, 140 ; 308 ; 447 ; France and, 462 ; 
Napoleon III and, 483, 496; neutrality 
of, 577 sq. ; literature in, 676 ; and China, 
819 ; affairs in (1870-1909), xii 250 sqq. ; 
3 ; 11 ; Great Britain and, 28 ; and 
Japan, 644 ; 621 ; 658 ; and the Congo 
State, 662 sq. ; and the partition of Africa, 
665 ; local government in, 734 ; factory 
legislation in, 747 ; social movements in, 
755, 762 sq. ; 842 

Belgrade, siege of (1456) by the Turks, 1 69; 
capture of (1521) by the Turks, 93, 337, 
n 151 ; Solyman II at, iii 107, 118, 125; 
Turkish army at, 122 ; taken by the 
Emperor (1688), v 56, 368 ; recaptured by 
the Turks (1690), 61, 369; 346; 359; 
Kara Mustafa at, 363 sq. ; 367, 370; 
VI 29 ; 32 ; 198 ; 203 ; captured by Laudon, 
648, VIII 292, 326; Peace of (1739), vi 
308, 674 ; viii 324 ; Janissaries at, ix 
387; evacuated by the Turks, xi 634; 
647; XII 386; 392; 407; 412; revolution 
in, 413 

Belgrano, and the revolution in Buenos 
Ayres, x 278 

Beliardi, Abb6, Agent-general in Spain, vi 351 

Belin, Jean-Franpois de Faudoas, Comte de, 
Governor of Paris, iii 662 

Belize, the United States and, xii 685 

river, the English on, v 687 

Bell, Dr Andrew, and elementary education, 
1x692 

Archibald, Lieutenant, in Australia, 

XI 791 

John, American politician, vn 439 sq., 

445 



Bell, Mark, travels of, in Asia, xii 802 

Bell, The, Eussian journal. See Kolokol 

Bellamy, French political agent, vn 321 

Bellarmin, Eoberto, Cardinal, Jesuit theo- 
logian, I 611; controversies of, in 744, 
749, 752; on the State, 757-9; iv 4; and 
ultramontanism v 75 ; vi 805 

Bellasis, John Bellasis, 1st Lord, v 220 

Bellay. See Du Bellay 

Belleau, Eemy, in 55 

Belleek, battle at, ni 604 

Belief onds, Bernardin Gigault, Marquis de. 
Marshal of France, v 59 

Bellegarde, Comte Henri de. General, ix 
65; 68, 347, 349 

Koger de Saint Lary de. Marshal of 

France, Governor of Saluzzo, in 408 

Eoger de Saint Lary et de Termes, 

Duke of. III 47 

Belle Isle, French fleet at, v 183 ; vi 426 ; 

ceded to France, 428 ; Portuguese vessels 

at, X 326 sq. 
Belleisle, Charles-L.-A. Fouquet, Duke of, 

Marshal of France, vi 230 sqq. ; retreats 

from Prague, 236 ; 239 ; in Italy, 245 ; 

339; 362 
Bellenden, Sir William, dismissed, v 284 
Bellew, Sir Edward, x 634 
Belliard, Count Augustin Daniel, French 

general, vm 603, 614, 617 sq. 
Bellin, Christian von, iv 89 sq. 
Bellings, Sir Eichard, v 204 
Bellini, Gentile, paints the portrait of 

Mohammad II, i 85; 284 

Laurentio, anatomist, v 729 

Vincenzo, the music of, x 129 sq. 

Bellinzona, given to the Swiss by Louis XH, 

n 308 
Bello, Francesco, " the Blind Man of 

Ferrara," in 461 
Bellomont, Eichard Coote, Earl of, Governor 

of Massachusetts, and of New York, vii 

64 
Belloy, Pierre-Laurent-Buyrette de, French 

writer, vi 831 
Belluno, Austrian occupation of, xi 86 

Claude Perrin, alias Victor, Due de. 

See Victor 

Belmont (Cape Colony), Boers defeated at, 
XII 642 

(on the Mississippi), indecisive en- 
gagement at (1861), VII 494 

Belmonte, Prince of, arrested (July 19, 1811) , 
IX 383 ; resigns office, 384 

Beloch, Julius, historian, xii 845 

Below, Frau von, vi 217 

Belturbet, captured by Col. Wolseley (1689), 
v313 

Bern, Joseph, Polish exile and Hungarian 
general, at the defence of Vienna, xi 188; 
in Transylvania, 204 sqq. ; 209 ; defeat 
of, at Temesvdr, 211 ; 213 ; at Widdin, 
215 

Bembo, Pietro, Cardinal, Bishop of Ber- 
gamo, Italian Latinist, i 56, 545, 560, 



General Index. 



245 



664; 11 16-20, 30, 118; the Oratory of 

Divine Love and, 379 ; iii 458 sqq. 
Benares, Warren Hastings and, vi 578 sqq., 

582, 584 
Benavente, Paget defeats the French at 

(1808), n 445 
Benbow, John, Admiral, x 272 
Benburb, victory of Owen O'Neill at, rv 

530 
Benckendorff, General Count Alexander 

von, and the Eussian secret societies, 

X 439 ; 443 ; chief of Russian Secret Police, 

XI 263 

Bender, Eussian capture of, vi 673 
Bendereff, Bulgarian Minister of War, xii 

408 
Bendigo, gold in, xi 796 
Benecke, Georg Friedrich, xn 823 
Benedek, Field- Marshal Ludwig von, xi 46; 

452 sq. 
Benedetti, Francesco, the Cola di Rienzo, 

X 125 

Count Vincent, French diplomatist, 

XI 313; 388; and Bismarck, 454; 457; 
and the King of Prussia, 463, 578 ; 483 ; 
495 ; Minister at Turin, 531 ; 577 

Benedetto, Fr^, and Savonarola, i 188 

of Mantua, the Beneficio della morte 

di Gristo, ii 389 

Benedict, St, i 534 

XIII (Pietro Francesco Orsini) , Pope, 

VI 140; 587; 589 

XIV (Prosper© Lambertini), Pope, 

VI 228; Concordat of, with Spain, 365; 
384 ; and the Jesuits, 386, 592 ; 689 sq. ; 
and France, 691 ; 601 ; xi 706 

Benedictines, guardians of books in the 
Middle Ages, i 534 ; literary enterprise of, 
592 ; at Oxford and Cambridge, 643 sq. ; 
Spanish, 651. See also Eeligious Orders, 
St Maur, etc. 

Benedictus Deus, the Bull (1564), confirms 
decrees of the Council of Trent, n 686 

Benedix, Eoderich, German dramatist, xi 
414 sqq. 

Benevento, trade of, iii 438 ; vi 694 ; re- 
stored to the Papacy, 595 ; occupied by 
Naples, VIII 650; declared to belong to 
the Church, ix 189 ; granted to Talleyrand, 
194; 268; no longer held by Talleyrand, 
684 ; claimed by Naples, x 132 ; rising in, 
160 

Giovanni Della Casa, Archbishop of, 

II 384; III 466; 474 

Benevolences, under James I (1614), in 661, 

574; asked for by Charles I (1626), iv 

265 
B6n6zech, Pierre, Minister of the Interior 

under Directory, vni 490, 508 
Benfeld, Swedes at, iv 381 
Benfield, Paul, servant of East India 

Company, vi 576 
Bengal, English settlements on the coast 

of, IV 742; the Dutch in, v 695, 697; 698; 

defeat of the English in, 699; French 



factory in, 703 ; 704 sq. ; Vol. vi, Chap 
XV passim; 429; government of, 445 ; 464; 
Permanent Settlement of (1793), ix 711 
sqq., 732; 722; 728; xi 727; Dalhousie 
and, 744 ; 751 ; military system of, 752 sq.; 
famine in, xn 464; Tenancy Act in, 480; 
partition of, 494 sqq. 
Bengal, Nawab Nazim of, legal rights of, 

IX 711 
Benguela, Cameron at, xn 810 
Benivieni, Girolamo, poet, n 702 
Benjamin, Judah Philip, Confederate Secre- 
tary of State, vn 578, 604 
Bennet, Henry, Earl of Arlington. See 

Arlington 
Bennett, C, and photography, xn 783 

Eichard, and O'Connell, x 630 

Bennigsen, Comte Levin Auguste Th6ophile 

de, Eussian general, ix 49 ; 60, 251, 
259, 261; occupies Warsaw, 283-4; 
commander-in-chief, 285; retreats to 
Konigsberg, 286; at Friedland, 290; 
desires peace, 291; at Tilsit, 297; and 
the invasion of 1812, 489 sqq.; in Bo- 
hemia, 531; 533, 537; at Leipzig, 638 

Count Alexander Levin von, xi 

148 

Eudolf von, Hanoverian statesman, 

XI 407; xn 146; 151 

Bennington, victory of Starke at (1777), 

vn 215 
Benoit, French socialist, xn 123 
Benon, captured by La Noue, m 27 
Bentham, Jeremy, vi 814; 821; vin 748, 
755, 769; Treatise on Legislation, ix 
175; and Parliamentary reform, 688; in- 
fluence of, X 4; and the American re- 
publics, 38; 229; and the Tsar, 418; 585; 
achievements and political views of, 
694 sqq. ; and parliamentary reform, 602 ; 
609; 661; and James Mill, 778; and 
Eobert Owen, 780; and William Thompson, 
ib.; XI 756 sq.; colonial views of, 765 sq.; 
xn 734 
Bentinck, William, Earl of Portland. See 
Portland 

Lord George, attacks Sir Eobert Peel, 

XI 11; 16; death of, 20 

Lord William Cavendish, British 

commander in Sicily, ix 383; insists on 
removal of Queen of Naples, 384 ; super- 
sedes Murray, 479; 699; in India, 731; 
Governor- General of India, xi 724; 
729 sqq. 

Bentivegna, Francesco, Baron, xi 380 
Bentivoglio, Giovanni, 1 112, 123 ; Julius II 

and, 128, 245 
Bentley, Eichard, English scholar, i 582 ; 

V 125 ; and the Epistles of Phalaris, xn 

816 
Bentonville, Slocum attacked at (1865), vn 

630 
Benue river, xn 130; 659 sq.; explorers on, 

807 sq., 810 sq. 
Benvenuti, Cardinal, taken prisoner, z 165 



246 



General Index, 



BeobachteTf Oesterrischischer, x 367; 365 

Stuttgart, suppressed, x 369 

B^ranger, Pierre- Jean de, x 88 ; and the fall 

of MoU, 510; XI 24 
Berar, cession of, xi 743 

Kajah of, hostility of, ix 722; 726; 

XI 725 sqq. 

Berard (Berardus Bonjoannes, Bishop of 

Gamerino), nuncio in Poland, in 81-2 
Berard, Auguste-Simon-Louis, French poli- 
tician, X 477 sq. 
Beraun Valley, Belleisle in, vi 236 
Berber, taken by the Mahdi, xn 442; 443; 

448; travellers at, 805 sq. 
Berbers, of Africa, iii 682 
Berbice, Dutch colony of, iv 709; occupa- 
tion of (1796), IX 750, 753, 755; ceded to 
Great Britain (1814), x 620; xi 667 

river, the Dutch on, vi 186 

Berchet, Giovanni, x 124; 126 
Berchtold, Count Frederick, xi 654 
Berdayeff, Eussian Liberal, xii 333 
Berenger, E6n6, French politician, xn 

107 
Beresford, Lord George, and the Waterford 
election, x 644 
John, dismissal of, ix 698 sqq. 

William Carr Beresford, Viscount 

(general), sent to reorganise the Portuguese 
army,ix448; withWellesley, 451; marches 
into Spanish Estremadura, 462-3 ; Wel- 
lington joins, 466; at Albuera, 467; 468; 
marches on Bordeaux, 481; in Buenos 
Ayres, 753, x 281 ; in Portugal, 312 

Berezina river, Charles XII crosses, v 598; 
Napoleon's crossing of, ix 501 sqq. 

Berezoflf, Menshikoff banished to, v 654; 
iron-works at, xi 618; founded by Cos- 
sacks, xn 794 

Berezowski, attempts to assassinate the 
Tsar, XI 484 

Berg, secured by Neuburg at the Treaty of 
Cleves, IV 409 ; duchy of, v 350 ; 627 sq. ; 
643 ; VI 226 ; 231 ; grand duchy of, granted 
to Murat, ix 267, 409-10 ; and the Central 
Administration, 587; cession of, to Prussia, 
692, 657; regiment of, 623 

Duke of (1423), invested with Gelders, 

1424 
William IV, Duke of. See Julich-Berg 

Grand Duke of. See Murat 

See also Jiilich-Cleves-Berg 

Kristen, Danish politician, xn 292 

Bergaigne, Joseph de, Archbishop of Cam- 
bray. See Cambray 
Bergamo, acquired by Venice, i 280; demo- 
cratic revolt at, viii 584 sq. 

Nicholas Lippomano, Bishop of, n 

30 

Vittorio Soranzo, Bishop of, Italian 

reformer, n 390, 398 
Bergasse, Nicolas, member of the National 

Assembly, vni 173, 178, 183 
Bergedorf, meeting of Hanse Towns at, iv 
92 



Bergen, spoliation of the Church at, n 618 ; 
naval battle off (1665), v 110; 182; port 
of, VI 737 

Olaf Thorkildsson, Bishop of, n 

618 

Gebel Pedersson, Bishop-elect of, n 

620 

Bergen-op-Zoom, Conference at (1600), m 
534 ; Twelve Years' Truce signed at (1609), 
540; besieged by Spinola, 655, rv 81; 
taken by the French (1747), vi 248, 331; 
Pichegru captures, vin 436; fight at 
(1799), 662 ; occupied by Napoleon (1810), 
IX 370 

Jan van Glimes, Marquis of, m 

194-5, 201, 206, 207, 227-8 

Bergenroth, Gustav Adolf, and Kanke, xn 

827 
Berger, Jean- Jacques, Prefect of the Seine, 

XI 119; 303 

Johann Nepomuk, Austrian states- 
man, xn 187 

See Lund, Archbishops of 

Bergerac, Treaty of (1577), m 32 
Bergeyek, Count, Spanish diplomatist, v 

420 
Bergh or Berg, Herman, Count van den 
(son of Count William), in 626 

Henry, Count van den (son of Count 

William), at Hertogenbosch, rv 693 

William (IV), Count van den, m 

217, 222, 257 

Berghausen, Austria and, vi 633 
Berghen, Marquis of. See Bergen-op- 
Zoom 

of, IV 41; Synod at 



Imperial envoy to 
Colonel, VI 749; 



Bergiin, importance 

(1618), 46 sq. 
Bergues, Sieur de, 

England, i 477 
Beringskjold, Magni 

751 
Berkeley, George, Bishop of Cloyne, vi 40 ; 

54 sq. ; 77 sqq. ; 806 ; vn 58 

George Cranfield, British vice-ad- 
miral, VII 329 sqq. 

Sir Eobert, judge, IV 283; committed 

to custody, 287 

Sir Wilham (d. 1677), Governor of 

Virginia, vn 8 sq. ; 34, 59 

Sir William (d. 1666), vice-admiral, 

V 184 

of Stratton, John, 1st Baron, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland, v 305 

of Stratton, John, 3rd Baron, pro- 
prietary of New Jersey, vn 41, 47 

Berks, Bavarian Minister of the Interior, 

XI 146 
Berkshire, Parliament and, iv 549 
Berleburg, Count Casimir von, v 761 
Berlichingen, Gotz von, the Peasants' Eising 
and, n 182 sq., 187 sq.; deserts the peas- 
ants, 189 
Berlier, Comte Th^ophile, member of the 
National Convention, vin 386 ; ix 151 ; 
163 



General Index, 



247 



Berlin, German Calvinists in, iv 5 ; 199 ; 
Gustavus Adolphus and George William 
at, 200; march of Gustavus Adolphus 
upon, 203 ; Saxon and Imperialist troops 
in, 367; Cartesian philosophy in, 786; 
V 594; 618; foundation of, 620; 625; 
639 ; 645 ; French colony at, 646, 670 ; 
669 ; VI 217 sq. ; Government depart- 
ments at, 222 ; Eussian Company in, 
224; 240; 244; 253; 265; 267 sq. ; 
287 sq.; 292 sq.; occupied by Eussian 
and Austrian troops, 296, 326 ; 297 sq.; 
316 ; 327 ; Nivernais at, 334 ; 713 ; 718 ; 
factories in, 719 ; Reichsbank at, 721 ; 
Kolych6ff despatched to, ix 36; nego- 
tiations between France and Eussia 
centred in, 41 ; anti-French feeling at 
Court of, 249; 250; Treaty of Paris 
ratified at, 266 ; British Minister recalled 
from, ih.; popular excitement in, 272; 
Napoleon marches on, 274, 277; French 
enter (1806), 279; Davout at, 278; 
Napoleon at, 281 ; Fichte at, 326 ; Uni- 
versity established at, 327 sq. ; Stein 
at, 329; Militdrische Gesellschaft at, 332; 
return of King and Queen to (1809), 334, 
336 ; Schill departs from, 357 ; Turkish 
embassy established at, 386 ; Grenier 
at, 512 ; Frederick William leaves, ib. ; 
Tettenbom in, 514 ; guarded by Biilow, 
518 ; Oudinot marches on, 620, 523, 
525; retreats from, 526; importance of, 
X 349; 363; relations between Eome 
and, 381 ; literary circle in, 404 ; secret 
societies in, 453 ; industrial undertakings 
in, 732, 744, 754, 757 sq. ; the open 
plough-fields of , 749 ; Gewerbeinstitut at, 
752; XI 52; 54; insurrection in, 151; 
the revolutionary movement in, 156 sqq. ; 
the "March Days" in, 157 sqq.; 188; the 
"National Assembly" at, 192 sq. ; dis- 
turbance in, 218; and the Hesse-Cassel 
crisis, 229 sq. ; 450; xn 12; Tsar Alex- 
ander II in, 97; meeting of the Emperors 
at, 139 ; 150 ; African Conference at, 659 ; 
University of, 820 ; 821 ; 824 

Peace of (1742), vi 235, 240, (1850), 

XI 225; Alliance of (1788), vi 709; Decree 
(1806), vn 330 sq., 333, 353, ix 283, 361, 
364 sq., 378; Convention of (1833), x 39, 
376; Conference of (1849), xi 220, (1866), 
458, (1880), xn402 8q.; (1884-5), 3, 130, 
256, 662 sq.; (1889), vii 663; Congress 
(1878), xn 33; 98; 124 sq. ; 153; Italy 
and, 158, 239; 192; the Armenians and, 
416 ; and Eussia, 341 sq.; 394 sqq.; 408; 
414; 428; 468 sq.; Treaty of, 37; 305 

Academy, v 670, xi 49, xn 823, 843 

Berlinghieri, Commander of the Order of 

St John, at the Congress of Vienna, ix 

604 
Bermuda Hundred, Grant and Butler at, 

vn 520 
Bermudas, The, settlement of, iv 756; failure 

of Berkeley's scheme in, vi 54 sq.; 184; 



Somers and Gates wrecked on, vn 5; 
552 ; government of, xii 657 

Bermudez, confessor of Philip V, vi 137; 
145 

Bern, n 325, 328 ; the Eeformation in, 
327 sq. ; aggression of, m 405 sqq. ; and 
the Spanish alliance, rv 45 ; Bund appeals 
for help to, 50 ; 52 ; and Erlach, 375 ; 
and Neuchatel, v 449 ; vi 613 sqq. ; 619 ; 
622 ; and Austria, 623 ; the patriciate of, 
624; 625; French occupation of (1798), 
vni 596 sq., 782 ; plundered, ix 96 ; coups 
d'etat at (1800-1), 97 sqq.; Federalists at, 
100 ; and the Swiss Confederation, 105 ; 
Napoleon confiscates stores of merchan- 
dise at, 373 ; and the Congress of Vienna, 
600-1; 671; xi234; government of , 235 ; 
236 sq. ; reaction in, 238 ; 240 ; joins the 
Siebnerkonkordat, 242 ; University of, 
241; 246 sq.; Federal Diet at, 248, 250; 
249 ; 253 ; constituted the capital, 254 ; 
259 

Bemadotte, the House of, xi 677 

General, Jean-Baptiste-Jules. See 

Charles (XIV) John, King of Sweden 

Bemaldez, Andr6, Spanish historian, i 381 
Bernard, Aristide- Martin (Martin-Bernard), 

French politician, x 511 ; xi 104 ; 126 ; 

132 

Sir Francis, colonial governor, vn 

152 sq. 

Nathaniel, imprisonment of, rv 279 

Simon, trial of, xi 328 sq. 

of Chartres, medieval Latinist, i 536 

of Weimar. See Saxe- Weimar, Duke 

Bernard of 

Bernardine army (Bernardines), iv 382 sqq. 
Bernardino, St, of Feltre, i 147, 167, 
647 

St, of Siena, i 144, 151, 163, 186, 

189 

Bernardo, Antonio di, Medicean partisan, 
hanged (1494), i 156 

Secretary to Cosimo I, in 388 

Bernburg. See Anhalt-Bemburg 
Berners, Sir John Bourchier, Lord, m 365 
Bemetti, Tommaso, Cardinal, papal secre- 
tary of State, X 154 ; 155 ; 156 

Berni, Francesco, the Orlando Innamorato, 

n 395; iii 457, sqq. 
Bernier, Abb6 Etienne- Alexandre -Jean - 

Baptiste-Marie, Vendean leader, vm 382 ; 

IX 14 ; 182, 184, 188 
FranQois, French historian, vi 620; 

523; 525 
Bernis, Francois- Joachim de Pierre de, 

Cardinal, French statesman, vi 254; at 

Venice, 335 ; 337 sq.; fall of, 341 sq.; 400 ; 

and the Bull UnigenituSy 591 ; created 

Cardinal, 594 ; 595 ; writings of, 827 
Bernoulli, Daniel, xi 260 

Jacob (James), v 718; xi 260 

Johann, v 718; xi 260 

Bamstorff, Count Albert, Prussian Foreign 

Minister, xi 407 



248 



General Index. 



Bemstorff, Andreas Gottlieb von, Hanoverian 
statesman, vi 4; 10; 13 sqq. ; 20; in- 
fluence of, in England, 22 ; and the war 
with Sweden, 26; 35; 39 

Count Andreas Peter von, Danish 

statesman, vi 741 ; 753 ; dismissal of, 
754; administration of, 765 sqq.; vin 
279 sq., 788 ; ix 43 sq. 

Christian Giinther, Count, at the 

Congress of Vienna, ix 686 ; at the Con- 
ference of Aix-la-Chapelle, x 14 ; 366 ; 
Metternich and, 372 ; succeeded by An- 
cillon, 376 

Joachim Frederick, Count, at the 

Congress of Vienna, ix 586 

Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count von, 

Danish statesman, vi 735 ; 740 sqq. ; fall 
of, 746 ; 749 ; 761 ; 753 ; 755 

Beroaldo, Filippo, the younger (Beroaldus), 

Tacitus' Annals edited by, i 566, n 8, 15 ; 

16 
Berovich, Georgi, Governor of Crete, xn 

419 
Berquin, Louis de, French reformer, n 

283 sq., 346 
Berre, surrender of, in 418 ' 
Berrugete, Alonso de, Spanish sculptor, 

I 382 
Berry, Huguenot levy on, ni 30; Cond^ 

Governor of, iv 608, 614; customs of, 

V 13 ; provincial assembly at, vm 91 

Caroline de Bourbon, Duchess of, 

X 286 ; 288 sq. ; imprisonment of, 490 ; 
495; 499 

Charles, Duke of (grandson of Louis 

XIV), death of, v 30 sq., 441 ; 393 

Charles-Ferdinand d'Artois, Due de, 

and the Ministry of Louis XVIH, ix 566 ; 
568; assassination of, x 23, 63, 71, 438 

Lieutenant, American explorer, xn 

795 

Berryer, Pierre- Antoine, x 508 sq.; xi 109 ; 

133; 136; 475 
Berstett, Baron W. L. L. R. von, Baden 

minister, x 362; 372 
Bert, Paul, French politician, xn 105 ; 114 
Bertaut, Jean, Bishop of S^ez. See S^ez 
Bertendona, Martin de, iii 307 
Bertheaume Bay, French fleet in, ix 223 
Berthelier, PhiHbert, of Geneva, ii 362 
Berthereau, French jurist, ix 166 
Berthier, Louis-Alexandre, Prince of 
Wagram and Neuchatel, Marshal of 
France, vm 564, 568 sq., 616, 637 sqq., 
674, and Brumaire, 679, 683 ; ix 1 ; 10, 
59, 107; Napoleon's Vice-Constable, 110; 
136 ; Grand Huntsman, 111 ; receives 
Neuchatel, ib.; Prince of Wagram, 112; 
Prince of Neuchatel, 267; Napoleon's 
instructions to, 273 ; 347-8 ; riunoured 
project of Napoleon concerning, 425 ; 
Chief of the Staff, 489 ; refuses to join 
Napoleon, 621 

de Sauvigny, Louis-B^nigne-Fran- 

<jois, murdered, vm 168 



Berthold of Mainz. See Mainz 
BerthoUet, Comte Claude-Louis, French 

chemist, vm 606, 616, 674 
Bertin, Henri-L.-J.-B., French Controller- 
general, VI 356 

de Vaux, Louis-Fran9ois, x 91 

Bertoldi, Giuseppe, poet, xi 645 

Berton, Jean-Baptiste, French general, x 76 

Bertrand, Comte Henri-Gratien, French 

general, vm 602, 606 ; at Memel, ix 
287; 620; at Dennewitz, 529; 530; at 
Wartenburg, 531 ; 532 ; at Lindenau, 
535 ; despatched to Saale, 537 ; taken 
prisoner, 640; at St Helena, 757; 761, 
769 

de MoUeville, Antoine-Fran^ois, 

Marquis de, vm 89, 112, 148, 216; 
policy of, 222 

Bertz, Secretary of Margaret of Parma, in 
213 

B6rulle, Pierre, Cardinal, French states- 
man, and Mary de' Medici, iv 137 ; founds 
the Oratory, 156 ; v 78 

Berwick, Treaty of (1560), u 576, (1639), 
IV 284, 502 sq., 520 

James Fitzjames, Duke of. Marshal 

of France, v 262 ; 315 ; 405 ; in Spain, 
416, 419, 446; 421 sq. ; Marlborough 
and, 461 ; vi 14 sq. ; 34 ; 97 sq. ; 102 

Berzelius, Baron Jons Jacob, Swedish 

chemist, xi 686 

Berzsenyi, Daniel, Hungarian poet, xi 424 

Besan^on, Parlement of, v 4, vm 47, 95, 

745 ; V 48 ; XI 601 sq. ; French troops at, 

604, 609; 610 

Besborodko, Alexander, Russian statesman, 

VI 678; 682; 697; 783 
Beseler, Wilhelm Hartwig, Schleswig poli- 
tical leader, xi 161 
Besenval, Baron Pierre-Victor de, vm 163 
Beshir, Emir, chief of the Lebanon, x 650 ; 

XI 276 

Besika Bay, British fleet at, xn 387, 390 

Beslay, Charles, French politician, xi 602 

Bessarabia, vi 674 ; annexed to Russia, x 

413, XI 485 ; 323 ; 633 ; the Treaty of 

Paris and, 643 ; Russia and, xii 305, 

339; 354; 392 sq.; the Treaty of Berlin 

and, 397 

Bessarion, John, Cardinal, i 80, 284; the 

Platonists and, ii 4; 16; v 482 
Bessborough, Brabazon Ponsonby, 1st 
Earl of, VI 431 ; 489 

John William Ponsonby (Lord Dun- 
cannon), 4th Earl of, x 603; 610: 655; 
669 

Bessenyei, George, Hungarian writer, xi 

421 sq., 431 
Bessey, Antoine de, raises Swiss troops for 

Charles VIH, i 112, 117, 122 
Bessi^res, Jean-Baptiste, Duke of Istria, 

French marshal, vm 616; ix 111; 351; 

crosses the Bidassoa, 430; troops of, 

435; 436; and Mass^na, 465-6; and the 

Russian campaign, 488; 497 



General Index, 



249 



Bessi^res, Jorje, x 221 ; in Spain, 223, 227, 

230 
BestuzhefE, Alexander (•• Marlinski "), x 

427; 431 
Alexis, Grand Chancellor of Kussia, 

VI 252; 313 sqq. ; fall of, 322; 340; 

Catharine II and, 660, 663; 679 

Michael Petrovich, Eussian diplo- 
matist, V 551; Minister at Stockholm, 
VI 309; 315; at Paris, 322 sqq. 

Count Peter, vi 301 

Bestuzheff-Eiumin, Michael, x 442 sq. ; 454 
Bethlen Gabor, Prince of Transylvania. 

See Transylvania 
Bethmann-Hollweg, Moritz August von, 
German politician, xi 192; 396 

Theobald von, Chancellor of the 

German Empire, xii 166 

Bethmont, Eugene, French Minister of 
Commerce, xi 104 

B^thune, occupied by French, iv 598 ; 599 ; 
captured by the Allies (1710), v 429 

Maximilien-Alpin, Marquis of, French 

envoy in Poland, v 354 ; 356 ; 566 

Beton, David, Cardinal, Archbishop of 
St Andrews, ii 449, 456, 457 sq. ; mur- 
dered, 461 sq., 655 sq., iii 262; and the 
English alliance, 261 

James, Archbishop of St Andrews, 

II 453 sq. ; m 270, 274, 288 

Betterton, Thomas, actor, v 130 

Betzki, Count, vi 692 

Beuckelssen (Bockelsohn), Jan. Bee John 
of Leyden 

Beuermann, Moriz von, African explorer, 
XII 811 

Beugnot, Jacques-Claude, Comte, appointed 
Imperial Commissioner in the Duchy of 
Berg, IX 410; government of, 411; 660; 
ordinance signed by, 569 ; x 44 ; and the 
Doctrinaires, 52 ; 55 ; 63 

Beul6, Charles-Ernest, French politician, 
XII 108 

Beuningen, Conrad van, v 145; Dutch am- 
bassador at Paris, 152 sq. ; in England, 
154, 217 ; and de Witt, 154, 156 ; 164 

Beurnonville, Pierre de Euel, Marquis de, 
French Minister of War, vm 263, 269, 
415, 417, 421 ; 679 sq. 

Beust, Count Ferdinand Friedrich von, xi 
142; Saxon Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
149; 219; at the Confederation con- 
ferences, 220, 232; 397; 408; 496; and 
the Vatican Council, 721 ; and Hungary, 
XII 182 sqq. ; 186 sqq.; and Prussia, 191 ; 
fall of, 192; 402 

Bevan, Edwyn Eobert, historian, xn 845 

Beverley, Eobert, vii 60 

Bevem. See Brunswick-Bevern 

Beverningh, Hieronymus van, Dutch envoy 
to England, v 141 sqq.; resigns, 154 ; 160; 
164 sq. 

Bevilacqua press. The, in 412 

Beyle, Marie-Henri (Stendhal), x 101 sq.; 
XI 520 



Beyme, K. F. von, Prussian statesman and 
jurist, IX 264 ; unpopularity of, 272 ; 282 ; 
x349; 351; 366 

Beza, Theodore, Berquin and, ii 284; in- 
tercedes against persecution, 293; 298; 
at Poissy, 302-3; 360; meets Calvin, 
352; 363; at Geneva, 373; 681; epigram 
on Eabelais by, 711 ; 717 sq. ; iii 5, 743, 
755 

Bezborodko, Count Alexander Alexandro- 
wieh, IX 35 

B^ziers, Cardinal Consalvi at, x 133; Be- 
publican attack on, xi 137 

Bezobrazoff, Eussian speculator in Korea, 
XII 676 

Bezuidenhout, Frederick, xi 779 

Jan, XI 779 

Bhamo, British mission at, xn 500; 793; 

796 
Bharatpur, xi 727; capture of, 729 

Eajah of, treaty with, ix 728 

Bhonsla, and Indian politics, ix 717 ; 725, 

726 

Bhopal, XI 725; the East India Company 
and, 726 

Bhotans, The, Formosan tribe, xn 656 

Bhutan, military operations in, xi 752 

Biala, Bennigsen at, ix 285 

Bialystok, annexed to Eussia (1807), ix 293, 
337, X 413; incorporated in province of 
Grodno (1842), 420; 427; Eussian ad- 
ministration of, 459; 469 

Bi4na, battle at, vi 509 

Biarritz, Napoleon and Bismarck at, xi 
447, 479 

Biban (the Iron Gates), occupied by the 
French, x 504 

Bibbiena, Cardinal (Bernardo di Dovizi), 
n 8 ; La Calandria, 11 ; 15 sq. 

Piero da, in 388 

Biberach, engagement at (1800), ix 58 
Bibesco, George, Hospodar of Wallachia, 

XI 283 
Bibikoff, Dmitri Gavrilovich, Eussian 

Minister of the Interior, xi 614 

Eussian general, puts down Puga- 

chefE's rising (1773-5), vi 680 ; 687 

Bible, The, medieval knowledge of, early 
commentaries, translations, etc., i 685 
sqq.; printed in the original (the Com- 
plutensian Polyglot, Eoman edition of 
the Septuagint, etc.), 602 sqq., 639 sq. ; 
versions of, Latin, ib. ; vernacular, ib. ; 
general j survey of Latin and vernacular, 
639 sqq! ; German, French, Italian, etc., 
ib. ; English, 640 sqq. ; dissemination of, 
684 sqq. ; the Biblia Hebraica of Sebas- 
tian Munster, n 355. Versions of: 
German (by Luther), 164; French (by 
Lef^vre d'Etaples and by Jean de E^ly), 
283; Italian (by Brucioli), 383; Slavonic, 
395; Spanish, 402, 406, 411; English 
(authorised), 453, 464 sqq.; English, 
various, 464 sq.; Danish, 617; Icelandic, 
621; Swedish, 624; The Bishops' Bible, 



250 



General Index, 



III 377 ; Sixtus Vs, published by Clement 
VIII (1592), 445; the Berleburg Bible, v 
761. See also New Testament 

Bibliography, classical, Vol. i. Chap, xvi 
passim; Christian, Chap, xvii passim, 
especially 610 sqq. ; but see also Libra- 
ries, Bible, etc. 

Bibliotheca Palatina, given by Maximilian 
to Pope Gregory XV, iv 83. See also 
Libraries 

Bibliothecae Patrum, early (printed) editions 
of the, I 617 sq. 

Bibliotheque Gatholique, Eoyalist journal, 
X 72 

Bichat, Marie-Fran^ois-Xavier, ix 133 

Bicker, Andries, iv 726 

Cornells, uncle of the wife of John 

de Witt, IV 726; v 145 

Wendela, wife of John de Witt, v 

144 

Bicocca, battle of the (1522), n 45 
Bidassoa river, Junot crosses, ix 303 ; 

Dupont ordered to cross, 430; lines of, 

480 
Biddle, John, Unitarian, persecuted by 

Parliament, iv 454; v 327 
Biegeleben, Freiherr Ludwig Maximilian 

von, Austrian Privy Councillor, xi 444 
Biel, ceded to Bern, ix 601 

Gabriel, last of medieval schoolmen, 

I 637; at Erfurt, ii 111 

Bielany, secret society founded at, x 453 
Bielaya Krinitza, bishopric at, xi 266 
Bielefeld, taxation in, vi 221 
Bielinski, Count Peter, x 457 

Vissarion, Kussian writer, xi 614, 

649 

Bielke, Gunilla, marries John III of 
Sweden, iv 167 

Hogenskild, beheaded, iv 174 

Nils, Swedish statesman, v 673 

Steno, Swedish diplomatist, iv 373 

Ture, imprisonment of, iv 169 ; flight 

of, to Denmark, 172; beheaded, 173 

Bielopolye, Austria and, xii 396 
Bielowice, Charles XII at, v 592 
Bielski, Bogdan Jakowlewitsch', candidate 
for Russian crown, v 497 

Marcin, Polish chronicler, iii 88 

Bienerth, Baron Richard von, Austrian 

statesman, xii 209 
Bienhoa, ceded to France, xii 524 
Bienvenu Martin, Jean-Baptiste, French 

Minister of Public Worship, xii 122 
Bienville, Celeron de, explores Ohio, vii 

119 

Jean Baptiste Lemoine {or Le 

Moyne), Sieur de, vn 88 

Biez. See Du Biez 

Biffen, Rowland, agricultural scientist, xii 

777 
Big Bethel, Federal defeat at (1861), vn 

464 
Big Black River, Confederates driven from 

(1863), vn 604 



Biggar, Joseph Gillis, Irish politician, xii 
74 

Bigge, John Thomas, mission of, to Aus- 
tralia, XI 789 sq. 

Bigi, Medicean party in Florence, i 157, 
175 

Eigne, Marguerin de La, editor of Bibliotheca 
Veterum Patrum, i ,618 sq. 

Bignon, Louis-Pierre-Edouard, x 91 

Bigod, Sir Francis, in the Pilgrimage of 
Grace, ii 447 

Bigot, Charles, French writer, xii 94 

FranQois, Intendant of New France, 

vii 95, 143 

de Pr^ameneu, Felix- Julien- Jean, 

VIII 213, 742; Minister of Public Wor- 
ship, IX 136; 160 

Bih6, Cameron at, xii 810 

Bijapur, war of, with Aurungzeb, v 698; 

besieged by Shah Jehan, vi 517 sq.; 619 

sqq.; surrenders to Aurungzeb, 622 
Bilad Ghana. See Guinea 
Bilbao, captured by the French, viii 441 ; 

besieged (1835), x 235, (1836), 238, (1874), 

XII 262 
Bilbassoff, B. von, Russian historian, xii 

842 
Bilde, Marshal Anders, reconquers Bremen 

and Verden, iv 684 ; mortally wounded at 

Frederiksodde, 585 

Eske, Kirkebryder, ii 618 

Ove. See Aarhuus, Bishop of 

Bilderdyck, William, Dutch poet, vni 788; 

XI 675 

Bilderling, Russian general, in the Russo- 
Japanese War, XII 591, 593, 597 sq. 

Bilders, Albert, Dutch painter, xii 249 

Bilek, Montenegro and, xii 392 

Bill of Rights, character of the, v 251 sq., 
277 

Bill, Dr William, Dean of Westminster, 
II 565 

Billaud-Varennes, Jean-Nicolas, viii 234, 
239, 246 sq., 339; on the Comite de 
Salut Public, 344, 349 sqq., 358 sq., 362; 
and the fall of Robespierre, 364 sqq., 369; 
374 sq., 377; charges against, 380, 384; 
deported, 385 

Billault, Auguste-Adolphe-Marie, French 
statesman, xi 294; 297; 477 

Billicanus, German Reformer, ii 160 

Billick, Eberhard, Catholic divine, ii 251 

Billingsley, Captain, iv 290 

Billioray, Alfred-Edouard, French politi- 
cian, XI 502 

Billot, Jean-Baptiste, French Minister of 
War, XII 96 

Bilma, British explorers at, xii 807 

Biloxi, fort at, vii 88, 362 

Bilsen, Marlborough at, v 415 

Binch, restored to Spain, v 45 

Binder, Baron, Austrian diplomatist, at the 
Congress of Vienna, ix 583 

Binger, Louis, African explorer, xii 129; 
812 



General Index. 



251 



Bingham, Sir Kichard, President of Con- 
naught, III 604 

Binnenhof, The (at the Hague), Remon- 
strants imprisoned in, in 652; Olden- 
barneveldt sentenced in, 654 

Biondo. See Blondus 

Bir, Ottoman army at (1839), x 561 

Birago, Een6 de, afterwards Cardinal, 
Chancellor of France, ra 19, 27, 33 

Biran, Maine de, ix 133 

Birch, John, Colonel, v 216 

British Resident at Perak, xii 532 

Biren, Ernst Johann, Duke of Courland, 

Grand Chamberlain of Russia, vi 301; 

proclaimed Regent, 309 ; 312 sq. ; 665 sq. 
Birkenfeld, Christian, Count Palatine of, 

victory of, in the Palatinate, iv 229; 

defeats Charles of Lorraine, 230 
Birmingham, parliamentary representation 

of, X 601 sq., 613; Political Union, 612, 

615, 683; the metal trades in, 737; 

bombs made in, xi 327; xii 44; Uni- 
versity of, 763 
League, and the Education Act, 

XII 25 
Bimey, James Gillespie, abolitionist, vii 

387 sq., 390, 393 
Biron, Baron Armand de Gontaut of, 

Marshal of France, in 14, 20 sq., 33, 

40, 44; 47; 334; 658; 661; 679; death 

of, 52 

Armand-Louis de Gontaut, Due de 

Lauzun and Due de, vin 339, 346 ; exe- 
cuted (1793), 357; commands the Army 
of the Rhine (1792), 407, 413; and the 
war with Sardinia, 437 

Charles de Gontaut, Duke of, in 

667; 672 sq. ; 677; conspiracy and 
execution of, 679 sq. ; 683 

Birse, Peter the Great and Augustus II at, 

V 590 
Bisamberg, Archduke Charles on, ix 350 
Biscay, occupied by Marshal Moncey, ix 

430; Blake's advance into, 442; Liberal 

discontent in, xii 260; 263; 268 
Bay of, VI 248; 344; Admiral Keppel 

in, 450 
Bischoff, Mount, tin discovered at, xii 619 
BischofEswerder, Johann Rudolph von. 

Adjutant- General of Frederick William II 

of Prussia, vi 726; viii 629 sq. 
Biseglia, Alfonso de, third husband of 

Lucrezia Borgia, i 236, 239 
Biserta, French expedition against, vi 350 
Bishops' Bible, The, ni 377 
Bishops' Book, The, or The Institution of 

a Christian Man, ii 448 
Bishops' Wars, The First and Second (1639- 

40), iv501sqq. 
Bismarck archipelago, xii 668 

Herbert, Prince von, mission of, to 

England, xii 161 

Bismarck-Schonliausen, Otto Eduard Leo- 
pold, Prince von, vii 661 sqq. ; Ministry 
of (1862-71), Vol. XI, Chap, xvi; 58; 160; 



192; and German Unity, 220, 223, 408, 
677; and the Hesse-Cassel crisis, 231; 
305 ; and the Schleswig-Holstein question, 
338; 394; 396; and Austria, 402 sq.; 
406; 410 sq.; at Biarritz, 447, 479; and 
the Luxemburg question, 483 ; policy of, 
towards France, 494 sq., 576 sqq. ; and 
the peace negotiations with France, 497 
sqq., 600, 611 sq. ; and the alliance with 
Italy, 539 sq. ; and the Spanish succes- 
sion, 571; and army reform, 679; and 
the Vatican Council, 719 ; and the German 
Empire, Vol. xii, Chap, yi passim; 8 sq.; 
14 sq.; 28; and France, 95, 97 sq., 107, 
114; and Tunis, 239; and the Triple 
Alliance, 240; and the Caroline Islands 
dispute, 264; 275; at the Congress of 
Berlin, 394 ; and the Armenian question, 
416; and Egyptian affairs, 435; and 
colonisation, 528, 658; and colonisation 
in Africa, 658; 828; 844 

Bissolati-Bergamaschi, Leonida, editor of 
VAvanti, xu 231 

Bisticci, Vespasiano da. See Vespasiano 

Bitonto, Spanish victory at, vi 153 

Bitsch, VIII 407, defences of, 423 ; occupied 
by the Prussians (1793), 425 

Bitzius, Albert (*«Jeremias Gotthelf "), 
Swiss writer, xi 261; 417 sq. 

Biveroni, Jakob, iv 36 

Biville, Gadoudal lands at, ix 29; Savary 
at, 30 

Bixio, Jacques-Alexandre, French deputy, 
XI 113; 118 

Bizen, Japanese noble, xi 850 

Bjerregaard, Henrik Anker, Norwegian 
poet, XI 700 

Bjornson, Bjornstjerne, Norwegian novelist 
and dramatist, xi 701 sq. ; xii 281 

Blacas, Pierre-Louis-Jean-Casimir, Due de, 
and the Ministry of Louis XVIII, ix 565 ; 
advice of, 574 ; x 44 sq. ; mission of, to 
Rome, 143 

Black, David, preacher, m 551 

James Robert, and the Working 

Man's Association, x 682 

Death, effects of, i 426, 500 

Forest, distress of peasantry of, i 

299 ; French army in, v 406 sqq. ; ix 
67 sq., 253 

Sea, Poland and, in 73; Russian 

designs on, v 370, 494, 526, 603, vi 304, 
630, 633 sq., 648; Russian expedition to 
(1770), 673; Treaty of Kutchuk-Kainardji 
and, 674; 676, 695; Russian claims on, 
X 170, 173, 175 ; Russia commands (1829), 
202, 646 sq., xi 274; Russian fleet in 
(1833), X 655; British and French fleets 
in, XI 316, 572 ; the Powers and, 321 sq. ; 
neutralisation of, 323 sq. ; 577 ; abroga- 
tion of the Treaty of Paris clauses, 611, 
614, 633 sq., 639; the Powers and, xn 
28; Russia and, 298, 382; 388; 395; 398 

Blackburn, riots at, xi 2 

Blackbume, Robert, Auctarium^ vi 791 



262 



General Index, 



Blackford, burning of, vi 102 
Blaokfriars, the trial of the Divorce question 
at, II 431 

Blackheath, fight at (1497), i 469 
Blackmore, Eichard D., novelist, xi 859 
Blackness Castle, vi 92 
Blackstone, Sir William, judge, vi 811 
Blackwater, fort at the, iii 605-7 
Blackwell, Elizabeth, medical practitioner, 
XII 763 

George, in 353 

Blackwood's Magazine, xi 362 

BlaQons, Henri-F.-L. d'Armand de Forest, 
Marquis de, deputy of the National 
Assembly, viii 166 

Bladensburg, British victory at (1814), vii 
344 

Blagaj, Turks repulsed at, i 73 

Blagoveschensk, founded, xi 273; and the 
Boxer movement, xii 521 

Blaine, James Gillespie, Eepublican 
Speaker, vii 644 sq. ; Secretary of State, 
649, 652 sq., 660, 664 sqq. ; xii 699 

Blainville, Marquis of, French ambassa- 
dor, Charles I demands recall of, iv 
263 

Blair Castle, siege of, vi 116 

Francis Preston, and peace negotia- 
tions, VII 535 sq. 

James, in Virginia, vii 59 

Montgomery, Postmaster-General, vii 

450, 592 

Eobert, poet, vi 828 

Blake, Joachim, Spanish general, com- 
mands Spanish army in Galicia, ix 438 ; 
advances into Biscay, 442; defeated by 
Marshal Lefebvre, 443 ; sent to Valencia, 
448; defeated before Saragossa, 454; 
aids Beresford, 466; regiments of, give 
way, 467; at Seville, 468; raises siege 
of Sagunto, 470 

Eobert, admiral and general, at 

Taunton, iv 328 sq. ; victory of, off the 
Kentish Knock, 436, 473; captures the 
Spanish Plate fleet (1656), 440; one 
of the "generals at sea," 460; off the 
coast of Ireland, 463; off Portugal, 
464; and Eupert, 464 sqq.; Tromp and, 
471; in the North Sea, 472; defeated off 
Dungeness, 474; victorious off Portland, 
475 ; 477 sqq. ; tactics of, 480 ; expedi- 
tion of, to the Mediterranean, 482 sq. ; 
victory and death of, off Santa Cruz, 484 
sq., 440, 660; v 105; 139; 372 

William, poet, vi 824 

Blakiston, Thomas, surveys the Yang-tsze- 

kiang, xii 796 

Blanc, Louis, x 485; 499; 509; 573; xi 
24 sq. ; 39; 97; and the Eevolution 
of 1848, 99, 101, 103 sq.; and the 
Lamartine Ministry, 105 sq. ; and the 
elections, 107; 109 sqq. ; 114; edits the 
Rappel, XII 94; 106; 758; 833 

Blanchard, French ofl&cer, commander of 
the guard of the Councils, viii 677 



Blanco, Cape, v 691; France and, xii 
660; 806 

Guzm&n, President of Venezuela, 

HI 673; 687 

y Arenas, Eamon, Marquis de Pena 

Plata, Governor- General of Cuba, vii 
675 

Blandford, Marquis of. See Marlborough 
Blandrata, Giorgio, Italian doctor and 
sectary, ii 393; leader of Polish Uni- 
tarians, 637; m 80; 94 sq. 
Blankenfeld, fight at (1813), ix 626 
Blanqui, Louis-Auguste, French revolu- 
tionary, X 611 ; XI 104 sq. ; 107 ; 109 ; 
290; 474; editor of Gandide, 486; 
attempts to establish a Eepublic, 496; 
497 sq. 
Blarer, Ambrose, Zwinglian Eeformer, ii 
161, 216, 234; driven into exile, 265, 328 
Blasco Ibanez, Vicente, Spanish novelist, 

XII 257; 269 
Blaser, Anselmo, Spanish general, xi 560 
Blasere, Dutch councillor, in 216 
Blasi, di, advocate of Palermo, viii 556 
Blavet, Spanish raids from, in 321 ; seizure 
of, by Spain, 521 ; surrender of, by Spain, 
523 ; Spanish evacuation of, 674-5 ; 
captured by Huguenots, rv 130 
Blaxland, Gregory, Australian explorer, xi 

790 sq. 
Bleddin, fight at (1813), ix 531-2 
Bleking, Treaty of Eoeskilde and, iv 586 
Bleneau, victory of Cond6 at, iv 616 
Blenheim, battle of (1704), v 410 sq., 463, 

668 
Bles, Dutch painter, xii 249 
Blicher, Steen Steensen, Danish writer, xi 

698 
Bligh, William, Governor of New South 

Wales, IX 739 
Blignieres, Minister in Egypt, xii 434 
Blindheim, French army crosses the Danube 

near, ix 64 
Blittersdorff, Baron Friedrich Landolin 

Karl von, Baden Minister, xi 145 
Bloemfontein, British garrison at, xi 783; 
784; XII 641 sq. ; Union convention at, 
646 
Blois, Treaties of (1504-5), i 127, (1572), ni 
283 sq.; Coligny at, 17 ; States General at, 
31; Duke of Guise murdered at (1588), 
415 ; Eichelieu and the Queen-Mother at, 
IV 124 sqq.; residence of Madame de 
Stael near, ix 131 

WiUiam de. Lord of Treslong, in 

^29-30 

Blok, Petrus Johannes, Dutch historian, 
xn 842 

Blomberg, Barbara, in 18 

Blomfield, Charles James, Bishop of Lon- 
don, X 660; 673; 679 

Blommers, Bernardus J., Dutch painter, 
xn 249 

Blondus (Flavio Biondo), works of, i 547 

Blood river, Zulus defeated at, xi 782 



General Index, 



253 



Blood, Sir Bindon, general, xii 488 
"Bloody Angle," at Spotsylvania, vii 518 
"Bloody Assizes," of Judge Jeffreys, v 

232 
"BioodyDiet" (1547), in 147 
Blount, Charles, Earl of Devonshire and 

8th Baron Mountjoy. See Mountjoy 
Bludoff, Count Demetri, xi 614 
Bliicher, Gebhard Lebrecht, Prince von, 
Prussian Field-Marshal, surrender of Lii- 
beck by, ix 280; 328; commands in 
Silesia, 514 ; occupies Dresden, 515 ; at 
Gross-Gorschen, 517 ; 518 ; at Bautzen, 
519 ; in Silesia, 523 sq. ; on the middle 
Elbe, 530 ; decisive action of, 531 ; 532 
sq. ; at Mockem, 536-7 ; at Leipzig, 638 ; 
542-3; advance of, 544; 545-7; retreat 
of, 548 ; crosses the Marne, 550 ; at Laon, 
551; defeats Marmont, 552; illness of, 
553; army of, 623; and the Belgian 
campaign, 625 ; at Ligny, 627 sqq. ; de- 
cision of, 631; at Waterloo, 632 sqq.; 
marches on Paris, 643 ; x 349 
Blum, Eobert, German politician, xi 59; 
149; vice-president of the Vorparlament, 
163; 165; 168; at the defence of Vienna, 
188; execution of, 189 
Blumenthal, Leonard von, Prussian general, 

XI 456 

Board of Trade, the English, constituted 

with permanent staff, v 264. See also 

Trade and Industry 
Boavista (Cape Verde Islands), discovered, 

I 15 
Bobadilla, Nicholas, Jesuit, ii 652, 656 
Bobovac, captured by the Turks, i 73 
B6brikoff, General, Governor-general of 

Finland, xii 335; 377 
Bobrinsky, Count V., Zemstvo President, 

XII 315; 333; 372; at the Prague Con- 
gress, 378 

Bobruisk, mutiny at, xn 362 

Bocage. See Du Bocage 

Boccaccio, Giovanni di Certaldo, i 541, 549 ; 

III 368, 468 
Bochard, Jean, Bishop of Avranches. See 

Avranches 
Bocher, Joan, execution of, ii 501, 538 
Bocskai, Stephen, Prince of Transylvania, 

King of Hungary. See Stephen Bocskai 
Bodelschwingh, Ernst von, Prussian 

Minister of the Interior, xi 56; 58; 

157 sq. 
Boden, fortresses at, xii 277 
Bodenstein, Andrew, of Carlstadt. See 

Carlstadt 
Bodin, Jean, in 62, 747-9, 753-4, 762-3 ; 

VI 786; 803 
Bodkin, Christopher, Archbishop of Tuam, 

III 593 
Bodley, Sir Thomas, iii 44 ; 710 ; v 747 
Bodmer, Johann Jakob, Swiss writer, vi 

625 ; X 384 sqq. 
Boeblingen, defeat of Peasants' Rising at 

(1525), II 189 

0. M. H. 



Bockh, August, historian, xn 820 sqq. ; 

824; 844 
Bocklin, Arnold, painter, xi 261 
Bodtcher, Ludvig Adolph, Danish poet, xi 

699 
Bolieim, Hans, German sectary, i 674 sq. 
Bohl de Faber, J. N., x 210 
Bohler, Peter, Moravian preacher, vi 82 
Boehme, Jakob, ii 690, 714 sq. ; iv 425; 

V 758 sqq. 
Bohmer, Johann Friedrich, German his- 
torian, XII 823 
Boer Wars (1880-1), xii 39, 245, 637, 
(1899-1900), ib. 31, 53 sqq., 57, 69, 
247, 641 sqq. 
Borne, Ludwig, x 376, 410 sq. 
Boers, in South Africa, vi 189; Vol. xi, 
Chap. XXVII (3) passim ; xii 3 ; 35 ; and 
the Sand Kiver Convention, 41 ; the 
German Emperor and, 171 sq. ; 636 sqq. 
Boetius (Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severi- 

nus), influence of, i 534 
Botticher, Karl Heinrich von, Prussian 

Minister, xii 156 
Botzow on the Havel. See Oranienburg 
Bogaers, Adrianus, Dutch poet, xi 676 
Bogatzky, Karl Heinrich von, v 762 
Bogbinder. See Metzenheim, Hans 
Bogdan6vich, Russian revolutionary, xii310 
Bogerman, Joannes, in 653 
Bogle, George, visits Tibet, xn 798 
Bogolyepoff, Russian official, xn 316 
Bogolyiiboff, Russian revolutionary, xii 305 
Bogomils, Greek sect in Bosnia, i 71 
Bogosloff district, industrial depression in, 

XI 618 
Bogota, government of, x 285, 288, 290; 
captured by Bolivar (1815), 290, (1819), 
294; 296 
Bogue forts, capture of, xi 815 
Bohemia, under George Podiebrad, i 293, 
331 ; internal decay of, 329 ; acquired by 
the Habsburgs, 329 sq., 340; comparison 
of, with Hungary, 330 sq., 341 sqq. ; 
religious troubles in, 331, 338, 340; 
geographical and political structure of, 
331, 334; class wars in, 338; disputed 
claims to the crown of, ii 198 sq. ; con- 
stitutional liberties of, destroyed by 
Ferdinand I, 262; King of, not in- 
cluded in Reichsdeputati onstage, iii 143; 
under Ferdinand I, 147-8; religious 
questions in, 147, 180, 703, 719 ; revolution 
in (1618), 568 ; Frederick V driven out of, 
569 ; German appointments in, 696 ; 
Estates of, 721 sqq., 726 sq.; Anhalt's 
intrigues in, 725 ; the crown of, ceded to 
Matthias (1611), 734; and the opening of 
the Thirty Years' War, Vol. rv. Chap, i 
passim] and the War in 1620-3, 64-84; 
Habsburg dominion in, 206; Saxons in, 
209 ; 212 ; debt of, to Wallenstein, 213; 
215; 219; Wallenstein and, 232 sqq.; 
242 sqq.; Ban^r and, 252; Swedish 
troops in, 370, 392 ; peace proclaimed in, 

16 



264 



General Index. 



394 ; part of, held by Sweden at the close 
of the War, 403; effects of War upon, 
417 sq. , 421 ; 634 ; 640 ; subdued by the 
Emperor, 641; and the Habsburgs, v 339; 
351 ; Brandenburg and, 621, 624; and the 
War of the Austrian Succession, vi 210, 
231 sqq., 240, 242 sq., 250; Frederick the 
Great and, 251 ; 254 ; the Seven Years' 
War in, 255 sqq. ; Prussian evacuation 
of, 262 ; 275 ; 277 ; Prussian army again 
in (1758), 279; 289; 291; Austrian army 
in, 294 ; 317 ; Joseph II in, 626 sq. ; 
Frederick II in, 632 ; 638 ; and the War 
of the Bavarian Succession, 704 sqq. j 
Austrian defence in (1790), viii 293; 
influence of the French Kevolution in, 
777 ; IX 41 ; Austrian and Russian troops 
in, 257 ; 346 ; army of Allies in, 523, 529, 
631 ; the Liberal movement in, xi 45 sq. ; 
and the National Assembly, 164, 170 ; the 
national party in, 171 ; 173 ; 176 sqq. ; 
216; Austrian troops in (1850), 230; 
399; 402; the Austro-Prussian War in, 
452 ; 563 ; literature in, 653 sqq. ; xn 11 ; 
and Hungary, 177 ; 181 ; political claims 
of, 186; 187 sq. ; 194 sq. ; success of 
the Young Cechs in, 196; 200; Germans 
and fiechs in, 201 ; 209; historical research 
in, 842 

Bohemian Brethren, probable origin of, 
II 160 ; expulsion of, 635 sq. ; in Poland, 
636, in 75; 79; in Bohemia itself, 147; 
180; under Eudolf II, 703 

Boialva, Mass^na takes the road through, 
IX 461 

Boiardo, Matteo Maria (Count of Scan- 
diano), in 458; the Orlando Innamorato, 
459-61 

Boiars, in the early Muscovite State, v 484 
sqq., 488 sqq., 501; the shaving of, by 
Peter the Great, 524 

Boigne, Benoit le Borne, Comte de, and 
Sindhia, ix 718; 720 

Boileau-Despr^aux, Nicolas, v 65; 67; 70; 
VI 822; 829; x 384; xi 508 

Boinvilliers, Eloi-Ernest Forestier de, 
French politician, xi 127 

Boisdauphin, Marshal de, iv 121 

Boisdeffre, Eaoul-F.-C. Le Mouton de, 
French Chief of the Staff, xii 120 

Boisgelin, J.-de-Dieu-R. de Cuc6 de. See 
Aix, Archbishop of 

Boisguillebert, Pierre le Pesant, Sieur de, 
V 8; 29 

Boishardi, Charles de, Chouan leader, vin 
379 

Boislisle, Arthur Michel de, xii 834 

Boisot, Charles, Governor of Zeeland, iii 
242 

Louis, admiral, relieves Ley den, 

m 239-40; death of, 244 

Boisselot, Major-General, at the defence of 
Limerick, v 316 

Boisser^e, Johann Sulpice, and medieval 
art, xii 818 



Boissise, French envoy to the Protestant 

Union, iii 689 
Boissy d'Anglas, Comte Francois- Antoine 
de, viii 249, 339 sq., 380 sqq. ; on the 
Committee of XI, 386, 388; proposals of, 
for a new Constitution, 392; 488, 506 
Bokhara, Russia and, v 544; xi 631; ab- 
sorbed by Russia, xii 460; 461; 491; 
caravan route through, 793; travellers at, 
800 sq. ; 803 
Bolan Pass, British troops in, xi 732 
Boldili, Venetian envoy in Savoy, in 409 
Boleyn, Anne. See Anne (Boleyn), Queen 
of England 

George. See Rochford, Viscount 

Sir Thomas. See Wiltshire, Earl 

of 

Bolingbroke, Henry St John, 1st Viscount, 
V 70; 271; 337; 430; and the Peace of 
Utrecht, 434, 440, 446, 450; 461; and 
party government, 463 ; Secretary at War, 
464; 465 sq.; 469; Secretary of State, 
470 ; 471 ; and the Stewart cause, 472 sq. ; 
473 ; and the Schism Act, 474 sq. ; and 
the fall of Oxford, 475 ; 476 ; and Russia, 
608; and the succession, vi 11 sq. ; 14 
sqq.; dismissed, 18; 42 sq. ; 71 sq.; 77; 
89 ; and the Old Pretender, 96 sq. ; 98 ; 
394; 817 sqq.; vm 15 

Bolivar y Ponte, Simon, in Venezuela, x 
288 sqq., 293 sq. ; personal characteristics 
of, 289; in New Granada, 290, 294; 291; 
and the Republic of Colombia, 294, 296; 
in Peru, 294 sqq. ; and the Republic of 
Bolivia, 296; returns to Colombia, ib.; 
death of, ib. ; estimate of, 297 ; policy 
of consolidation of , 298 ; 300; 302; 306; 
XII 673; 680; 696 

Bolivia, native insurrection in (1780-3), 
X 267; revolution in (1809), 284, 286; 
294; Upper Peru forms Republic of, 296 
sq.; xii 672; Chili and, 677; 678 sq. ; 
690; 696 

Bologna, taken by Julius II (1506), i 128, 
245; surrenders to France (1511), 249, 
479 ; compact of Charles V and Clement 
VII at (1530), 567, 578; coronation 
of Charles V at, ii 25, 60 sq., 143; 
Council of Trent transferred to, 26, 81, 
263 sq., 669 sq. ; 84; threatened by the 
Farnesi, 86; Concordat of, between 
Francis I and Leo X (1516), 32, 281; 
Conference of, between Charles V and 
Clement VII (1530), 60, 63; (1532-3), 25, 
67, 439 ; execution of Giovanni Pepoli at, 
in 431 ; University of, 447, ix 86, x 137; 
botanic gardens at, v 734; Jacobin plot 
at, VIII 556; Legation of, held by the 
French (1796), 573; 583, 588; Veronese 
prefect sent to, ix 394; academy of art 
created at, 396; Carbonari meeting at 
(1819), X 21; Raggi in, 111; revolt at 
(1830), 120, 154; rebellion at (1831), 
155 ; XI 71 ; Neapolitan troops at, 85 ; 89 ; 
and union with Piedmont, 386 ; Austriana 



General Index, 



255 



driven from, 384; socialist congress at, 

xii 231; 235 
Bolotnikoff, Ivan, Kussian revolutionist, 

V 500 
Bolsec, Jerome Hermes, ii 364, 375, 717 
Bolton, petitions for peace from, ix 369; 

conditions of labour in, xii 730 sq., 744, 

765 

Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of. See 

Winchester, 7th Marquis of 

Charles Paulet, 3rd Duke of, vi 70 

Thomas Orde, Lord, chief Secretary 

for Ireland, vi 503 sq. 

Boltwood, Bertram Borden, and radio- 
activity, XII 790 
Boma, Governor-General of the Congo at, 

XII 662; 663 
Bombasius, Greek scholar, teaches Greek to 

Zwingli, II 308 
Bombay, ceded to England, v 105, 107; 

698 ; VI 445 ; 529 ; and the decline of the 

Moghul empire, 531; 684; 537; 582; 

Lord Momington and, ix 722; expedition 

from, 734; xi 724; Presidency of, 727; 

High Court of, 751 ; military system of, 

752 ; frontier of, xii 485 ; bubonic plague 

in, 487; 496 sq. 
Bombelli, Kaffaelle, mathematician, v 710 
Bomfim, Jos6 Luis Travassos Valdes, Count 

of, Portuguese statesman, x 339 
Bompard, J. B. F., French commodore, 

VIII 476 
Bon, Louis-Andr6, French general, viii 599, 

601 sqq., 608, 611; killed, 613 
Bon Sens, Le, French journal, x 499 
Bona, garrisoned by Charles V, iii 111; 

burnt by Tuscan squadron, 399 
Bona Sforza, Queen consort of Sigismund I 

of Poland, iii 76 sq. 
Bonald, Louis-Gabriel-Ambroise, Vicomte 

de, IX 133; x 43; 47; 94; political 

theories of, IGl; 162 
Bonaparte, Caroline. See Murat 

Elise, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, 

receives Lucca, ix 247; 267, 398, 603; 
question of indemnity for, 652 

Jerome, King of Westphalia, ix 53; 

107; marriage of, 193; 265; in Silesia, 
281; at Dresden, 279; kingdom of West- 
phalia formed for, 293; government of, 
in Westphalia, 336-7, 356; forced to 
retreat from Dresden, 357; Pius VII 
refuses to sanction the divorce of, 401 ; 
appointed King of Westphalia, 411 ; 413 ; 
connives at contraband trade, 474; mili- 
tary mishap of, 490 ; at Montmartre, 553 ; 
XI 119; 293; 385 

Joseph, King of Spain, vii 366; viii 

636 sq., 675; ix 66; 76, 103, 107; Grand 
Elector of the Empire, 110; King of 
Naples and Sicily, 111; Kegency of 
France vested in, 147; plenipotentiary 
for the Concordat, 184; King of Naples, 
194; declines kingship of Italy, 247; 
267, 270, 271, 315, 324; efforts of, to 



gain Sicily, 381; crown of Italy offered 
to, 394; King of Naples, 403; character 
of, 404; caution to, 405; ordered to 
exchange Naples for Spain, 406; pro- 
claimed King of Spain, 434; evacuates 
Madrid, 438; 441; unable to reinforce 
Victor, 450; Soult's letter to, 453; de- 
feats Venegas at Almonacid, 454; defeats 
Areizaga, 455; at Madrid, 472; retreat 
of the army of, 473; at Valencia, 474; 
retreat of, 477; recalled to France, 478; 
at Montmartre, 553; x 210; 282 sq.; 
285 
Bonaparte, Louis, ix 107; Napoleon's 
Constable, 110; 139; declines kingship 
of Italy, 247 ; King of Holland, 267 ; at 
Wesel, 274; 278; Holland assigned to 
(1806), 369; 370; 416; flight of, 371; 
crown of Italy offered to, 394; letter of 
Napoleon to, 407; expulsion of, 417; 
and the crown of Spain, 432; and 
Napoleon, 758 

Lucien, viii 673 sqq., 680 sqq.; 

becomes Minister of the Interior, ix 9; 
63, 72, 107; discarded by Napoleon, 267; 
suggested as President of the Chamber 
(1815), 620; xi 119 

Marie-Pauline, wife of Prince Camillo 

Borghese, ix 110 ; receives Guastalla, 111 ; 
267, 421 

Mathilde, Princess, xi 293 

Napoleon. See Napoleon I 

Napoleon-Charles, death of 

IX 139 

Napoleon-J.-C.-P. (Prince Napoleon), 

XI 293; 376; at Turin, 381; 386; 484 

Pierre, Prince, xi 491 sq. 

Bonaventura, Saint, and Indulgences, ii 

125, 127; works of, printed, iii 445 
Boncerf, Pierre-Francois, writer, viii 87, 

714, 744 
Bonchamps, Charles-M.-Artus de, Vendean 

leader, viii 266, 354 

Christian de, African traveller, xii 813 

Bonde, Gustaf, Swedish statesman, v 566 

sq. ; 575 
Bonetti, Cardinal Michael, iii 20 
Bonfadio, Jacopo, Italian Reformer, ii 390 
Bongars, Jacques, iii 63, 671, 687 
Boniface VIII (Benedetto Gaetani), 

n 31, 127; in 737 

IX (Pietro Tomacelli), Pope, i 237; 

introduces sale of offices, 670 

St, and Fulda, i 534 

Bonifacio, Straits of, xi 346 

Bonin, Eduard von, Prussian general, xi 224 
Bonivard, Francois de, Abbot of St Victor, 

II 362 
Bonjean, Louis, French lawyer, xi 505 
Bonn, raid on Electoral Palace at, ni 707; 
surrender of (1584), 708 ; taken by Schenck 
(1587), 712; retaken by Spaniards (1588), 
ib.; taken by the Germans (1689), v 57, 
661; captured by William of Orange 
(1673), 161; captured by Marlborough 

16—2 



(1806), 



Pope, 



256 



General Index, 



(1703), 407; University of, x 355, 381, 
XI 143; Niebuhr at, xn 820 

Bonnac, French ambassador in Switzer- 
land, VI 615 sq. 

Bonne Anse, the Young Pretender sails 
from, VI 111 

Bonner, Edmund, Bishop of London, n 
440, 467, 481, 484 sq. ; imprisonment of, 
under Somerset, 486, 497; deprivation of 
(1550), 501; restoration (1553), 521, 533, 
638; dispute of, with Home, 586; in 
344 

Bonnet, French general, ix 351 

Bonnier, Colonel, occupies Timbuktu, xn 
129 

Bonnier-d'Arco, Ange-E.-L.-A., plenipoten- 
tiary at Eastatt, vm 641 sq., 655 

Bonnivet, Guillaume Goufner de, French 
admiral, i 490; occupies Fuenterrabia 
(1521), II 44; advances on Italy (1523), 
47 sq., 97 

Bonny-sur-Loire, rising at, xi 137 

Bonstetten, Charles- Victor de (Swiss philo- 
sopher), IX 427 

Bontekoe, Willem, conquers Formosa, iv 
711 

Bonticus, Hugo, iii 237 

Bonvalot, Gabriel, traveller, xn 803 

Bonzi, Pietro, Cardinal, Archbishop of 
Naibonne, v 85 

Book of Canons, Charles Fs (1635), iv 
494 sqq. 

of Common Prayer. See Prayer 

Book 

Book of Discipline, Knox's (1560), ii 593; 
(Second) (1581), iii 550 

of Martyrs, Foxe's, ii 538 

"Books of Bank," in the early Muscovite 

State, v 485 sq. 
Boomplatz, battle of, xi 783 
Booth, Sir George, afterioards 1st Baron 

Delamere, rising of, iv 540; 545; defeat 

and imprisonment of, 541 ; 544 ; released, 

652 

John Wilkes, vii 545 sqq. 

Imperialist colonel, in Livonia, iv 

383 

Boothby, Sir Brooke, writer, viii 758 
Bopp, Franz, philologer, xii 822; 845 
Bordeaux, PrAestants massacred near, in 
30; Montaigne at, 65, 66, 69; the League 
in, 661; Jesuits in, 664; the Fronde in, 
IV 613 sqq. ; results of, 621 ; Parlement 
of, 610 sq., V 4, vni 47; in 1787-90, 
60; reaction in (1793), 340; trade of, 
486; inhabitants of, declared emigres, 
Beresford marches on, ix 481; xi 
113; 499; National Assembly at, 
611 sq., xn 91; the Pact of, 92, 



602; 
31; 
500, 
102 



Henri-Charles-Ferdinand, Due de, x 

68 

Champion de Cice, Archbishop of, 

vni 156, 178; Keeper of the Seals, 186, 
727 



Bordeaux, Henri d'Escoubleau de Sourdis, 

Archbishop of, v 755 
Bordeaux-Neufville, Antoine de, v 106 
Bordesholm, Treaty of (1522), n 607 
Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso, physicist, v 

727 sq.; 731; 733 sq.; 740 
Borgesius, Hendrik Goeman, Dutch Min- 
ister of the Interior, xn 247 sq. 
Borghese, Camillo, Due de Guastalla, ix 
110 ; Governor-General beyond the Alps, 
397 

Scipio, Cardinal, and Fra Paolo 

Sarpi, IV 671 

Borghesi, Bartolommeo, Count, archaeo- 
logist, xn 842 sq. 

Borgia, Cesare, Cardinal of Valencia, Duke 
of Valentinois, 1 114, 124, 231, 234, 672; 
character of, 235; relations of, with France, 
123, 126, 191 sq., 194, 236; made Duke 
of Valentinois, 120, 236; policy of , 193; 
Bomagna and, 193, 238-9; capture of 
Imola and Forli by, 123, 192, 238 ; capture 
of Urbino by, 194, 240; conspiracy 
against, 195; MachiaveUi and, 195, 237, 
240, 242; fall of, 126, 128, 195, 242, 245; 
prisoner in Spain, 128; death of, 126, 
196, 242; n 1 

Gasparo, Cardinal, Archbishop of 

Seville and Toledo, and the Catalan re- 
volt, IV 648 ; protests against papal policy, 
680 

Lucrezia, i 227, 234, 236, 239 

Kodrigo. See Alexander VI, Pope 

Borgo, Act of Guarantee issued at (1809), 

IX 314; Diet at (1809), x 433 
Borgo, Count Pozzo di. See Pozzo di 

Borgo 
Borgoforte, Austrian force at, vi 153; 154 
Borgomainero, Charles Emmanuel d'Este, 

Marquis of, Spanish ambassador at Vienna, 

V 358; 364 

Boris, Prince, of Bulgaria, xn 342; 410 sq. 

Godunoff, Tsar, Regent of Eussia, 

V 495 sq. ; elected Tsar, 497; death of, 
498; 516; 522; 524 

Borissoff, French retreat to, ix 601; 502 

Borkelo, the Bishop of Miinster and, v 
150 sq. 

Borku, explorer at, xn 811 

Borlase, Sir John, appointed Lord Justice, 
IV 521 

Bormida, plain of the, ix 62; 63 

Bormio, early history of , rv 35 sqq. ; 41 ; the 
Grisons and, 50 sqq. ; only the Catholic 
faith permitted in, 58; Jenatsch des- 
patched to, 61; Fernamond defeated at, 
62; sovereignty of the Grisons in, 63; 
Austria gains, ix 660 

Borne, Prussian advance on, vi 275 

Bornemann, Wilhelm, Prussian politician, 
XI 159 

Borneo, Dutch trade in, iv 711 ; Dutch and 
English in, xn 669 

Bornholm, victory of Danes over Liibeck 
near (1535), n 280, 615; Danes defeated 



General Index, 



257 



off (1563), IV 163; 661; captured by 
Wrangel, 572; Treaty of Koeskilde and, 
586 ; Swedes expelled from, 588 ; restored 
to Denmark, 591 

Bomhoved, Danish defeat at (1226), v 620 

Bornier, Philippe, ix 165 

Borodino, battle of (1812), ix 495 sqq. 

Borough, William, Vice- Admiral, iii 306 

Borovsk, Napoleon's retreat by, ix 499 

Borromean League, founded (1586), n 341 

Borromeo, Saints Carlo and Federigo. See 
Milan, Archbishops of 

Borselen, Jan Willem van, Dutch painter, 
XII 249 

Borsieri, Pietro, x 119 

Borstell, retreat of, before Eugene Beau- 
harnais, ix 515; at Dennewitz, 530 

Borston Well, Prjevalsky at, xn 798; 802 

Bosanquet, Charles, Eicardo's controversy 
with, X 772 

Bosboom, Johannes, Dutch painter, xn 
249 

Boscawen, Edward, Admiral, vi 333 ; 342a 
sqq. (in Vol. xiii) ; 537 sq.; vn 133 

Bosch, Johannes van den. Governor- General 
of the Dutch East Indies, xi 667 

Boselli, Paolo, Italian statesman, xn 227 

Bosi, Carlo Alberto, poet, xi 545 

Bosio, Antonio, work of, on the Catacombs, 
I 610 

Bosna valley, fighting in, xn 400 

Bosnia, dissensions in, i 71 sq. ; conquered 
by the Turks, 72 sqq.; sends reinforce- 
ments to Solyman II, m 107; v 366; 
Prince Eugene in, 370; vi 648;' 675; 
suggested occupation of, by France, ix 
308; 312; unrest in, x 549, xi 533; xn 
3; 9; rising in, 32; 172; annexed by 
Austria, 175 sq., 192, 211 sq., 378, 427 sq. ; 
198; Austrian rule in, 199 sq. ; 382 sq. ; 
385 sqq.; Austria and, 389, 394; 390; 
the Treaty of San Stefano and, 392 ; the 
Treaty of Berlin and, 396, 399; 400 

Bosporus, The, passage of, vi 673 sq. ; 
Eussian rights in, x 170, 203, 444; 
Eussian squadron in (1833), 552 sq., 
558; Great Britain and, 562; closed to 
war-ships, 564, 572; the Sultan's rights 
in, XI 634 

Bosse, Pieter Philip van, Dutch statesman, 
XI 667 

Prussian official, xii 155 

Bossu, or Bossut, Maximilian de Hennin, 
lord of, General of the States, in 250 

Count, Spanish admiral, in 236-7 

Bossuet, Jacques-B^nigne. See Meaux, 

Bishop of 
Boston (Mass.), settlement of, vn 16; 
Quakers at, 25; ship-building at, 56; 
literature in, 60; disaffection in, 146, 
149, 151 sqq. ; and the tea riot, vi 446 
sq., vn 158 sqq.; evacuated by the British 
(1776), 171 ; and writs of assistance, 177 
sqq. ; legislation in, 187 ; 268 ; merchants 
of, 310 sq., 319; 321; action ol the 



Shannon and the Chesapeake off, 342; 
communication with, 351, 694; imports 
of, 355; emigration from, 359; woollen 
manufacturers at, 376; Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety in, 387 ; orators of, 743 sq. 
Boston Bay, settlements in, vn 16, 18, 21 

Athenaeum, The, vn 744 

"Boston Massacre, The," vn 153 sq. 
Boston, John, monk qf Bury, Catalogue 

Scriptorum, i 592, 611 
Bostrom, Erik Gustaf, Swedish statesman, 

XII 277 
Boswell, Sir William, advice given to 

English traders by, iv 749 
Bosworth, battle of (1485), i 463 sq. 
Botany, history of. See Science 

Bay, convicts at, ix 737 

Both, Governor- General Pieter, Dutch trade 

with Japan and, iv 712 
Botha, Louis, Boer general, xn 643 
Bothmer, Count Johann (Hans) Caspar von, 

Hanoverian envoy in London, v 476, vi 

12 sqq. , 16, in London, 17 sqq. ; death 

of, 13 
Bothnia, East, peasant risings in, iv 172 

Gulf of, v 610; Eussian fleet in, vi 

779 

Bothniensis, Nicolaus, at the Upsala Mote, 

n 632 
Bothvid. See Strengnaes, Bishop of 
Bothwell Bridge, battle of (1679), v 225, 

285 sq. 
James Hepburn, 4tli Earl of, n 575, 

595; ni268; 270 sqq.; 529 
Bott, mutineer at Cadiz, vin 630 
Botta, Carlo G. G., Italian historian, xn 

842 

Paul-Emile, Assyriologist, xn 845 

Marquis de, Austrian ambassador in 

Eussia, VI 315 sqq. 

Botticella, Alessandro, scholar, ii 16 

Botticelli, Alessandro Filipepi, Florentine 
painter, i 147 

Bottot, Secretary to Barras, viii 679 

Bou Amena, revolt of, xn 129 

Bouchain, taken by the French (1676), v 
44, (1712), 434; 45; captured by Marl- 
borough (1711), 431 

Bouch^-Leclercq, Auguste, historian, xn 
845 

Boucher, Jean, Sermons de la simuUe Con- 
version, ni 764 ; the Be Justa Abdicatione 
Henrici Tertii, ib. 

de Perthes, Jacques, archaeologist, 

xn 850 

Saint- Sauveur, Antoine, Paris deputy 

to the National Convention, vm 247 
Benches de Meuse, department of, ix 417 
Bouchotte, J.-B.-Noel, French Minister of 

War, vni 339, 343, 362, 424, 429 sq. 
Bouet-Willaumez, Comte Louis-Edouard, 

French vice-admiral, xi 582 
Boufflers, Louis-Francois de Boufflers, Duke 

of, Marshal of France, v 405 sq.; 421; 

425 sq. 



258 



General Index, 



Bougainville, Louis-Antoine de, vii 126, 
137, 139 sqq., 143 

Bouille,Fran9oi8-C. -A. , Marquis of , Governor 
of the Antilles, vi 451; 453; commands 
the Army of the East, vin 192, 403 sq. 

Bouillon, duchy of, returned to Bishop 
of Li^ge, n 94 ; and Luxemburg, ix 655 ; 
separation of, from France, 664; added 
to the Netherlands (1815), x 524 

Fr^d^ric- Maurice de La Tour 

d'Auvergne, Duke of, rallies to the 
Crown (1652), iv610; joins rebels, 611; 
withdraws to Bordeaux, 613; at court, 
616; death of, 618 

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke 

of (1614), IV 119 sq.; marches to Poitou, 
121; 122; gains of, 124; 126; conspiracies 
of, 150 sq. 

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte 

de Turenne, Duke of, in 22 ; 27 ; 35 ; 50 ; 
acquires Bouillon (1591), 665; 418, 669 
Bqq.; 711; quarrels with Henry IV, 722 

• Henri-Eobert, Duke of, iii 25 

Boulainvilliers, Comte Henri de, viii 14, 16 
Boulanger , Georges - Ernest- Jean - Marie , 
French Minister of War, xii 96; 112; 
162 
Boulay, French army corps at, xi 586 

de la Meurthe, Antoine- J.-C- J., 

Comte de, vm 509 sq.; 516; 517; 677; 
686; IX 151 

Boulogne, siege and capture of, by Henry 
VIII (1544), II 78, 245, 459; French siege 
of (1549), 460, 493; given up to France 
by Warwick (1550), 86, 268, 499; pro- 
jected seizure of, in 42; conference at 
(1600), 534, 536; Elizabeth claims, 670; 
Napoleon's projected invasion of England 
and, IX 28, 212-5, 237, 244, 252 ; British 
attack on flotilla at, 215-6; French army 
moved from, 234; Italian troops in 
manoeuvres at, 396 

Boulogneberg, evacuated by the English 
(1549), II 493 

Boulonnais, The, v 4; rising in, 9 

Boulter, Hugh, Archbishop of Armagh, vi 
486 sq. ; death of, 488 

Boulton, Matthew, mechanician, vm 765; 
X 734 

Bounty Act, English (1689), v 264 ; extended, 
VI 49 

Bouquet, Henry, Swiss officer in the English 
service, vn 97, 136 

Bourbaki, Charles- Denis -Sauter, French 
general, xi 257; 607 sq. ; retreats into 
Switzerland, 609 ; 610 sq. 

Bourbon, !le de (Reunion), and the Revo- 
lution, viii 194; reduced (1810), ix 240, 
731-2, 754; 390 

House of, IX 70 ; French clergy work 

for return of the, 206 ; 315, 331 ; restora- 
tion of the, 555 sqq. 

Anne of Beaujeu, Duchess of, i 109, 

393, 397; Regent of France, 445; n 37; 
the Duchy of Bourbon and, 46 



Bourbon, Antony, Duke of, King-consort of 
Navarre, joins the Reformers, n 295; 
vacillation of, 297 sqq., 303; 667; death 
of. III 6 

Charles, Cardinal de, Archbishop of 

Rouen, in 30 sqq., 45-6; proclaimed 
Charles X, 48; dies (1590), 49; 415; 
451 sqq.; 660 

Charles II, Cardinal de, 1590 (the 

younger), previously Cardinal de Ven- 
dome. Archbishop of Rouen, in 49 ; 62 

Charles, Count of Montpensier and 

Duke of, Constable of France, i 397; ii 
24, 46 sq., 49 sqq., 53 sqq., 421, 423 

Charlotte de, 3rd wife of William of 

Orange. See Orange 

Henry de, of Navarre. See Henry IV 

of France 

Jean II, Duke of, i 393 

Juan de, xii 258; 260 

Louis, Bastard of, sent to occupy 

the Somme towns, i 438 

Louis of. Bishop of Liege. See 

Liege 

Louis-Henri I, Duke of, vi 134 ; 138 ; 

140; fall of, 143 sq.; 146; 163 

Louis-Henri II, Duke of, emigrates 

(1789), vm 165 

Peter, Duke of, Regent of France, 

I 115 sq., 394 

Siisanue, Duchess of, ii 46 

Bourbonnais, The, customs of, v 13 
Bourbotte, Pierre, member of the Con- 
vention, vm 388 

Bourboulon, French Minister in China, 

XI 817 sq. 
Bourcet, Pierre- Joseph, French engineer, 

Napoleon's indebtedness to, vm 578 
Bourdaloue, le p^re Louis, Jesuit, oratory 

of, II 373 ; V 65 ; as a preacher, 80 
Bourdeilles, Pierre de, Abb6 de Brantome. 

See Brantome 
Bourdelot, Queen Christina's French phy- 
sician, IV 576 
Bourdon de la Crosni^re, Leonard J. J., 

deputy to the National Convention, vm 

234, 366, 385 

de I'Oise, Francois-Louis, deputy to 

the National Convention, vm 361, 366,512 

Bourg, fortification of, in 410; siege of 
(1600), 418, 677 

St Pierre, ix 59-60 

Anne du. See Du Bourg 

Antoine du. See Du Bourg 

Bourges, Council of (1438), i 386, 671; 

Andrea Alciati at, m 58; Pragmatic 
Sanction of, 659 ; submits to Henry IV, 
662 ; abdication of Don Carlos at, xi 
653 ; arsenal of, 607 ; 608 sq. 
- — Renaud de Beaume, Archbishop of, 
in 45, 52 

J.-M. Cliquet de Fontenay, Arch- 
bishop of, X 85 

Bourget {or Le Bourget), abandoned by the 
French, xi 498; 607 



General Index, 



259 



Bourgoing, conferences at, iii 417 
Bourignon, Antoinette de, pietist, v 762 
Bourke, John, commands army in Con- 
naught, IV 525 ; Galway Castle capitulates 
to, 526 

Sir Richard, Governor of New South 

Wales, XI 792 

Bourlamaque, Chevalier de, French lieu- 
tenant, VII 126, 135, 143 

Bourmont, Louis-Auguste- Victor, Comte de 
Chaisne de. Marshal of France, ix 2; 14, 
17; x97; in Portugal, 335 ; 486; 488 

Bourne, Gilbert, Bishop of Bath, ii 531 

Rear- Admiral John, appointment of, 

IV 478; Government and, 540 

Major Nehemiah, Richard Crom- 
well's fall and, iv 450 sq. 

William Sturges-, x 660 

Bourn on ville. Count, Imperial commander, 

v651 
Bourquin, French commander, defeat of, 

IX 726 
Bourr^, Jean, Minister of Louis XI, i 403, 

409 
Bourr^e, Fr^d^ric-Albert, French Minister 

at Peking, xii 525 
Bourrienne, L.-A. Fauvelet de, French 

diplomatist, viii 616, 683; Minister at 

Hamburg, i?; 378; advice of, 574 
Bouteville, Francois de Montmorency, 

Seigneur de, iv 155 
Bouthillier, family of, Richelieu and, iv 

123; 164; Mazarin and, 593, 596. See 

also Chavigny 

Claude Le, Sieur de Fouilletourte, 

member of Council, rv 593 ; driven from 
Council by les Importants, 596 

L^09 Le. See Chavigny 

Boutmy, Emile, and French educational 

reform, xii 114 
Bouvet, Francois-Joseph, Baron, French 

admiral, viii 474 sq. 
Bouvines, captured by the French (1554), 

II 89; restored to Li6ge (1559), 94 
Bover, Peter Turner, naval lieutenant, viii 

478 
Boves, Tomas, x 289 sq.; 293 
Bovey Tracey, Parliamentary victory at, 

IV 334 
Bovillus, Carolus, French philosopher, i 

415 
Bowdich, Thomas, mission of, to Kumassi, 

XII 807 
Bower, Hamilton, in Tibet, xii 803 
Bowes, Sir Robert, ii 446; invasion of 

Teviotdale by (1542), 455 
Bowling Green (Kentucky), Buckner at 

(1861), VII 462 sq., 493 sq.; evacuated, 

559 
Bowring, Sir John, x 755; Governor of 

Hongkong, xi 325; 815; 831; mission 

of, to Siam, xii 535 
Bowyer, Ludowic, punishment of, iv 279 
Boxall, John, ii 501 
Boxer movement, The, xii 617 sqq.; 575 



Boyaca, victory of Bolivar at (1819), x 
294 

Boycott, Captain Charles Cunningham, xii 
38; 78 

Boyen, Hermann von, Prussian Adjutant- 
general, IX 332; XI 456 

L. H. L. von, Prussian Minister, 

X 365 sq. ; XI 49 ; 66 

Boyle, Henry. See Shannon, Earl of 

Robert, physicist, v 715; 722; 728; 

and modern chemistry, 730 sq. ; 732 

Roger, Earl of Orrery. See Orrery 

Boyne, battle of the (1690), v 58, 261, 314 
Boyneburg, John Christian von, policy of, 

IV 431 
Boyve, French socialist, xii 124 
Bozius, Franciscus (of Gubbio), iii 744; 

757 
Brabant, acquired by Philip of Burgundy 
(1430), I 419 ; devastated by Van Rossem, 
II 76; influence of William of Orange 
in, III 248; Maurice of Nassau's army 
threatens, 519; Parma conquers, 618; 
North, raided (1590), 626; freed from 
Spaniards, 629; Spanish influence in, 
630; V 153; Marlborough in, 416; 426; 

VI 248; and the Barrier Treaty, 640; 
frontiers of, 645 sq. ; Estates of, 650 
sqq.; discontent in (1787-8), viii 817 
sq., 320, 327 sq.; rebels in, 329; agri- 
culture in, X 731, 750; xi 670; anti- 
French feeling in, 673 

Anthony, Duke of, i 418, 421 

John II, Duke of, i 419 

Philip, Duke of, i 419 

Bracamonte, Gasparo de, at Miinster, iv 

401 
Bracciano, Castle of, iii 428-9 
Bracton, Henry, in 748 
Braddock, Edward, Commander-in-chief in 

North America, vi 333 ; 413 ; vii 123 sqq. 
Bradford, and the yarn trade, x 736 

John, Protestant martyr, ii 161, 

521, 538 sqq. 

William, Governor of New Ply- 
mouth, VII 12, 14 

Bradlaugh, Charles, and the parliamentary 

oath, XII 37 sq. 
Bradleigh, Sir Thomas, in 284 
Bradley, Humphry, engineer, i 526 

James, astronomer royal, v 721 

Bradock Down, Royalist victory of, rv 

308 
Bradshaw, John, at trial of Charles I, rv 

355; elected President of the Council, 

434 
Bradstreet, John, American major-general, 

VII 135 

Simon, Commissioner of the New 

England Confederation, vii 23 

Braemar, Earl of Mar in, vi 98 
Bragadin, Venetian envoy to Spain, vi 137 
Braganza, captured by the Spaniards, vi 

369; base of Wellington's operations, ix 

476 



260 



General Index, 



Braganza, House of, the colonies and, r? 
714; IX 315; 428 

Duke of. Hee John IV, King of 

Portugal 

Bragg, Braxton, Confederate general, vn 

506 sqq. ; evacuates Chattanooga, 509; 

611; defeated at Chattanooga, 513 
Bragge-Bathurst, Charles, pamphlet of, ix 

682 
Brahe, Ebba, and Gustavus Adolphus, iv 

178 

Magnus, Count, xi 685 

Per, Swedish statesman, Oxenstierna 

and, IV 569 ; defends the Swedish penin- 
sula, 584; 590; v 564 sq.; 568 

Tycho, III 697 ; claim of, to distinc- 
tion, IV 562; V 709; 713 

Brailoff, Kussian capture of (1770), vi 

673, (1809), IX 485 
Braithwaite, General, defeated by Tipu, 

VI 577 
Bramah, Joseph, and the planing-machine, 

X 734 
Bramahof, French troops in, vi 235 
Bramante, Donato Lazzari (of Urbino), 

II 5, 12 sqq.; iii 439, 444 
Bramhall, John, Archbishop of Armagh, 

IV 520; V 321 

Brand, Henry B. W. See Hampden, Vis- 
count 
Brandan, St, Irish missionary, i 19, 50 
Brandaris, destroyed by the English (1666), 

V 187 

Brandeis, Bauer's success near, iv 379; 
Prussian force at, vi 257 sq. 

German trader in Samoa, vii 662 

Brandenburg (for later history of Branden- 
burg-Prussia see also Prussia), virtual 
defection of, from Protestant Union, 
IV 12; 83; 85; 92; 95; representatives 
of, at Brunswick, 96; inroads into, 100 
sq.; 103; Pomeranian succession secured 
to, 104; Gustavus Adolphus and, 191 sqq.; 
compensation suggested for, 218; 219; 
invaded by Wallenstein, 237; secures 
Cleves, Mark, and Eavensburg, 409; 
jealous of Sweden, 416; Thirty Years' 
War in, 418; agricultural conditions in, 
419 ; native industries in, 421 ; disputes 
between Sweden and, 426 ; and Charles X, 
427; and Great Poland, 428; Sweden 
and, 429; Mazarin supported by, 430; 
allied with Austria, 431; and Peace of 
Oliva, 433 ; Estates of, 254 ; Oxenstierna 
and, 255; vi 34; taxation in, 221; cloth 
manufacture in, 224 sq. ; 269; 277; 279; 
288; and Poland, 664 sq., 667, viii 522; 
levy on, ix 307; Prussian National As- 
sembly at, XI 193 ; 198 ; growth and 
development of, to 1640, Vol. v. Chap. 
XX ; under Electors Frederick William 
and Frederick III (1640-1713), Chap, xxi; 
25; and France, 33, 38; and United 
Provinces, 37, 157, 161, 164, 166; 39 sq.; 
and Sweden, 45; 55; 414; 568; 586 



Brandenburg, the Mark, vi265sq.; Russian 
army in, 277, 282, 287 sqq., 291 sq.; 295, 
716 ; the Kurmark of, v 618, vi 716, 718 ; 
the Middle Mark of, v 618; the New 
Mark of, 618, 621, 624, 632, 634 ; Russian 
army in, vi 279 sq., 287, 296; the North- 
ern Mark of, v 617 sq., 620 ; the Old 
Mark of, 618 sq., 621, 625, ix 656; the 
Vormark (Priegnitz) of, v 618; the Uker- 
mark of, 618, 620; Swedish army in, vi 
280, 296 

Brandenburg, House of, ix 592 

Electors of : — 

Albert Achilles, i 81; 297; 691; v 

624 sq. 

Frederick I, i 297 ; v 622 sq. 

Frederick H, i 297; v 620; 623 sq.; 

634 

Frederick III. See Frederick I, King 

of Prussia 

Frederick William (the *• Great Elec- 
tor"), succeeds, iv 384 ; Ferdinand III and, 
393 ; futile mediation of, in the Thirty 
Years' War, 396; 401; 404; Swedish 
"satisfaction" and, 407; 412; "Jiilich 
War" and, 426; Charles X and, 427 sq. 
allied with Austria and Poland, 429 
negotiates with France, 430 ; 431 ; Rhein 
bund and, 432; Charles X and, 580 sq. 
John Casimir of Poland and, 583 ; Treaty 
of Wehlau and, 585 sq.; invades Jutland, 
588; Treaty of Oliva and, 433, 590; and 
the persecution of French Protestants, v 
22, 25; and Louis XIV, 41 sq., 47; and 
United Provinces, 37, 42; and Emperor 
Leopold I, 43 ; at Colmar, 44 ; at Fehr- 
bellin, ife.; treaty of, with Sweden, 45; 
and William of Orange, 52, 107, 244 ; and 
the Dutch war with England, 109 ; joins 
Quadruple Alliance, ib. ; and the Swedish- 
Dutch War, 146; 344; and Emperor 
Leopold, 353, 359, 671; 354; and Sweden, 
663, 568 sqq.; 617; youth and accession 
of, 639 sq.; foreign policy of, 640 sq.; 
marriage of, 641 ; administrative reforms 
by, 642 ; and the army, 642 sq. ; and the 
Empire, 643; and the duchy of Prussia, 
643 sq. ; and the Rhenish duchies, 645 ; 
encourages immigration and industries, 
645 sq. ; colonial and naval policy of, 646 
sq., 691; religious toleration by, 647 sqq.; 
and the Bishop of Munster, 649; and 
England, 649 sq., 653; and France, 
649 sq. ; and the war with Sweden, 
651 sq.; and the treaties of Nymegen 
and St Germain, 652; and the Emperor 
Leopold, 652 sqq. ; alliance of, with 
France, 653; with the United Provinces, 
654; and the expedition of William of 
Orange, 655; second marriage of, ib.', 
death of, 54, 655; successive wills of, 
656; character of, i6.; significance of this 
rule, 657; 660 sq.; 743; vi 4; postal 
system of, 205 ; 206 ; 208 ; 213 ; and the 
nobUity, 217; 221; 227; 664 



General Index, 



261 



Brandenburg, Electors of, contd. : — 

George William, iii 722 ; iv 17 ; 25 ; 

68 ; 88 ; mission to Copenhagen from, 89 ; 
concludes treaty with Christian IV, 90; 
92 ; 97 ; allies himself with Bethlen Gabor, 
91, 100; declares for Emperor, 100 sq. ; 
104; and the Edict of Kestitution, 111, 
114, 117 ; 184 ; ruler of East Prussia, 185 ; 
policy of, 186; compensated in West 
Prussia, 187; policy of, 194; Gustavus 
and, 197 sq. ; delivers Spandau to Gus- 
tavus, 200; at Berlin, ib.; 202; 204; 
John George and, 211 ; Oxenstierna and, 
224 ; 225 ; Heilbronn Alliance and, 226 ; 
peace negotiations with, 233 ; 235 ; Arnim 
and, 236; Wallenstein and, 237; 244; 
Peace of Prague and, 254 sq. ; desire of, 
for settlement, 366 sq. ; lays claim to 
Pomerania, 373; concludes treaty with 
Poland (1638), 378; death of, 384; v 637 
sq. ; 640 sqq. 

Joachim I, i 316; at the Diet of 

Nurnberg, ii 170; 195, 198; attitude of, 
to Lutheranism, 201, 215, 220; death of, 
237; V 624 sqq. 

Joachim II, becomes Lutheran, ii 

237; 238 sq., 241 sq., 251; persuades 
Philip of Hesse to surrender, 261; the 
Interim and, 264 ; in 152 sq. ; 168 ; 176 ; 

V 624; 626 sq.; 636 

Joachim Frederick, administrator 

of Magdeburg, in 153, 706, 710, 714 
sqq.; 722 sqq.; iv 22; v 627 sq.; 
636 

John Cicero, v 624 

John George, in 704 sqq.; 711 sq.; 

V 624; 627; 636 

John Sigismund, Duke of Prussia, 

claim of, to Jiilich-Cleves, in 642, 687 
sq., 716, 729; and the Protestant Union, 
725 ; and Maurice of Nassau, 733 ; adopts 
Calvinism, 723, iv 3, 10 ; and the Imperial 
succession, 17; and the Elector Pala- 
tine, 25, 27 sqq., 33; v 627 sq.; 636 sq.; 
743 

Sigismund. See Sigismund, Em- 
peror 

Brandenburg, Albert the Bear, Margrave 

of, V 618 sq.; 624 

Albert II, Margrave of, v 620 

Albert of Brandenburg- Ansbach, 1st 

Duke of Prussia. See Prussia 
Albrecht (Albert) of. Archbishop 

Elector of Mainz. See Mainz 

Anna, Electress of, consort of John 

Sigismund, in 716 

Charles Emil, Electoral Prince of, 

V 651 

Christian William of, Administrator 

of Magdeburg and Bishop of Halberstadt, 
IV 91 ; 94 ; supports Gustavus Adolphus, 
195 ; captured at Magdeburg, 202 ; Peace 
of Prague and, 253 

Dorothea (of Holstein-Glucksburg), 

Electress of, v 665 sq. ; 658 



Brandenburg, Elizabeth of Denmark, Elec- 
tress of, II 202 

Elizabeth Charlotte, Electress of, 

Princess Palatine, consort of George 
William, m 722, iv 17; 25 

Margrave Ernest of, in 730 

Count Friedrich Wilhelm, Prussian 

Prime Minister, xi 193, 218; and the 
Hesse -Cassel question, 229; death of, 
230 

Margrave George of. See Branden- 

burg-Ansbach 

Margrave John George of. Prince of 

Jagerndorf, under the ban (1620), iv 68; 
71; 75; v 653 

Louisa Dorothea Sophia, daughter 

of Elector Frederick III, Princess of, v 
661 

Louisa Henrietta (of Orange), Elec- 
tress of, consort of Frederick William I, 

V 622 w., 641; 655 sq.; 668 

Matthias von Jagow, Bishop of, ii 

237 

Otto II, Margrave of, v 620 

Waldemar, the False, claiming to be 

Margrave of, v 621 

Waldemar the Great, Margrave of, 

V 620; 631 

See also Charles IV, Emperor ; John 

of Luxemburg ; Moravia, Jodocus of 

Brandenburg- Ansbach, House of, Protes- 
tant, III 704, 724 sq. 

Albert, Margrave of. See Prussia 

George, Margrave of (Prince of 

Jagerndorf, the Pious), i 337; and the 
Peasants' Eising, n 191 ; the Protest 
signed by, 205 ; and Schmalkaldic League, 
215 ; condemned by Kammergerichty 221 ; 
and Jagerndorf, v 625 sq. ; 635 

George Frederick, Margrave of, ni 

714; 716; death of (1603), 722; v 
636 

Joachim Ernest, Margrave of, iii 

725 ; 732 ; 735 ; IV 1 ; advises Frederick V 
to accept Bohemian throne, 29; 67; 
agrees to abandon Frederick, 69; in 
touch with him, 80 

Brandenburg- Ansbach and Baireuth, Sophia 
(of Poland) , Margravine of, v 635 

Brandenburg - Baireuth (and Culmbach), 
Margrave Casimir of, i 312; adopts 
Lutheranism, n 169, 195 ; the Peasants' 
Rising and, 188, 190 

Charles Ernest, Margrave of, v 418 

Christian, Margrave of {earlier M. of 

Culmbach), m 725 

John (the Alchemist), Margrave of, 

V 623 

Margravine Wilhelmina of, vi 19; 

210; 253 

Brandenburg-Ciistrin, John or Hans, Mar- 
grave of, and the Schmalkaldic League, 
n 238; won over by Charles V, 251, 253; 
opposition to the Interim by, 264, 270; 
refuses to join Henry II, 271 ; v 626 



262 



General Index, 



Brandenburg- Culmbaoh (Baireuth), Albert 
Alcibiades, Margrave of, allied with 
Charles V, n 87, 252 sq., 273 sq.; 259; 
allied with Francis I, 270 sq., 273; wins 
battle at Pommersfelden, 275; defeated 
by Maurice of Saxony, ih. ; ni 151 

Margrave Casimir of, i 312 

Christian, Margrave of {afterwards 

M. of Baireuth), ra 725 

Brandenburg- Schwedt, Margrave Charles of, 

VI 280 ; 288 
Brandes, Georg, Danish critic, xi 700 ; xn 292 
Brandis, Christian August, German scholar, 

XII 822 
Brandolini, Kaffaelle, lecturer at Eome, 

n 17 
Brandon, Charles. See Suffolk, Duke of 

Duke of. See Hamilton, 4th Duke of 

Brandt, Carsten, German shipmaster, in 

Eussia, V 520 

Enevold, Count, Christian VII and, 

VI 745 sq. ; 749 ; execution of, 750 ; 751 

Brandywine, battle on the (1777), vn 213 
Brankovic, George, despot of Servia, i 69 
Brant, Sebastian, The Ship of Fools, i 637 

sq., 676, 683, ii 280 
BrantSme, Pierre de Bourdeilles, Abb6 de, 

in 65 
Braschi, Giovanni Angelo. See Pius VI 
Braschi-Onesti, Eomuald, Cardinal, x 133 
Brask, John. See Linkoeping, Bishops of 
Braun, Alexander Karl Hermann, Saxon 

statesman, xi 149 
Braunau (Upper Austria), vi 236 ; fall of, 

238; Kutusoff at, ix 255; occupied by 

French troops, 269 ; French evacuation 

of, 309 

(Bohemia), Protestant action in, iv 

14 sq., 19; Abbot of, banished, 21 

Bravo, Luis Gonzalez. See Gonzalez 

Murillo, Juan, Spanish statesman, 

XI 557 sqq.; resignation of, 559; 563 

Braxfield, Eobert Macqueen, Lord, Scottish 

judge, vni 770 
Bray, John Francis, economic theories of, 

X 782 

Sir Eeginald, Minister of Henry VH, 

I 477 

Braye, fight at (1814), ix 547 

Brazil, discovery of, by Pinzon, i 34 ; race 
inhabiting, 38, 59 ; Durand's colony in, 
48 sq.; mines of, iii 499; Dutch trade 
with, 633 ; expedition of West India Com- 
pany to (1623), IV 703; Spanish fleet on 
coast of, 705; extension of Dutch dominion 
in, 708; revolt of Portuguese in (1645), 
709; Portugal, United Provinces and, 
714 ; Admiral Witte de With and, 726 ; 
Dutch West India Company in, 750 sqq.; 
lost by the Dutch (1654), 753 sqq.; 759 ; 
Portugal and, v 107, 146; Dutch abandon 
claim to, 148, 675 sq. ; slave labour in, 
676 sq.; 677 ; discovery of gold in, 678 sq.; 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies, Vol. VI, Chapter xii (3) ; progress 



of, 184; 187; independence of , 189 ; 351; 
384 ; Jesuits expelled from, 387 ; French 
ships off, IX 234; withdrawal of Portu- 
guese fleet to, 236; Prince Eegent of 
Portugal sails for, 304; 321; 363; and 
the Congress of Vienna, 584; incorpora- 
tion of, with Portugal, 669; and Portugal, 
Vol. X, Chap. X passim ; 212 ; contraband 
trade in, 257 ; trade and industries in, 
586, 761 ; Eepublic established in, xn 
270 ; 672 ; affairs in (1840-95), 674 sqq. ; 
and Uruguay, 680 ; 681 ; and Argentina, 
682; 690 sq.; 693; boundary disputes of , 
655, 722; arbitration treaties by, 727 
Brazil Company (Portuguese), v 675 

Don John of. See John, Don, of 

Brazil, Prince Eegent of Portugal 

Brazos Is., captured (1863), vii 552 
Brazza, Count Pietro Savorgnan de, African 

explorer, xii 130 ; 256 ; 658 ; 812 
Br6a, Jean-Baptiste-Fid^le, French general, 

XI 113 
Ereadalbane, John Campbell, 1st Earl of, 

VI 98 

John Campbell, 3rd Earl of, vi 435 

Br^ard, Jean- Jacques, member of the Gomit€ 

de Salut Public, vin 269, 375 

Brearly, David, New Jersey deputy at the 
Constitutional Convention, vn 246, 252 

Brechin, Jacobite rising at, vi 98 

Breckinridge, John Cabell, Confederate 
general, vii 439 sq., 445; at Chatta- 
nooga, 513 ; Secretary of War, 542 

Breda, conference at (1575), in 241, pa- 
triotism at, 248 ; siege of, 578 ; capture 
of (1590), 626; captured by Spinola 
(1624), 656, (1625), re 88, 258, 642, 691; 
Frederick Henry captures, 698, 699 ; 755 ; 
Charles II of England^t, v 148 ; Declara- 
tion of, 92 ; 94 ; 99 ; aUied forces at, vi 
246 ; Belgian exiles at, viii 328 ; captured 
by the French (1793), 419, (1794), 436; 
taken by Napoleon (1810), ix 370 

Treaty of (1667), iv 740, v 37, 112 sq., 

151, 154, 187, 189, 199, 329, vn 111 

Brederode, Francis van, defeated at Brou- 
wershaven (1490), i 449 

Henry, Lord of, in 194, 201 sqq. 

Lancelot, in 236 

Walraven, Lord of, in 640 

Brederoo, Gerbrand Adrianszoon, works of, 

IV 718 ; 721 
Bredow, General von, at Vionville, xi 691 
Bredy, Major-General, shot at Vienna, xi 

186 
Breedevoort, siege of (1597), in 629 
Bregaglia, preachers m, iv 46 ; Catholic 

commune of, 47 ; subdued by Feria, 55 ; 61 
Bregenz, conference of sovereigns at, xi 

229 
Breisach, Bernard of Weimar's siege and 

capture of, iv 148, 376 sq. ; protected 

by Gotz, 375 ; Gu^briant at, 381, 382 ; 

Treaty of, 383; 388; French claim to, 

246, 379-80, 382, 406; ceded to France, 



General Index. 



263 



406, 416 ; 602 ; seized by Harcourt, 618 ; 
V 45; 48; ceded to France, 63; 408; 
Charles of Lorraine at, vi 238 
Breisgau, The, French troops in, vi 241 ; 

ceded to Modena, viii 592, ix 94 
Breismann, John, Eeformer, ii 161 
Breitenfeld, battle of (1631), iv 205 sqq., 
209 sq., 214, 222 ; Horn and, 227 ; second 
battle of (1642), 386 
Breitinger, Johann Jakob, vi 625 ; x 384 
Bremen, joins Schmalkaldio League, ii 
215 ; resists Charles V, 262 ; and 
Hanseatic League, iv 8; port of, de- 
manded by Gustavus Adolphus, 191 ; 
Danish claims on see of, 387; taken by 
Konigsmark, 390; given to Prince Fre- 
derick of Denmark, 365 ; archbishopric 
of, claimed by Sweden at Osnabriick, 
403; ceded to Sweden, 404, 408; trade 
of, 419 sq.; duchy of, in the Hildesheim 
alliance, 425 ; quarrel of, with Oldenburg, 
427 ; England and, 429 ; Sweden signs 
Rhei7ibund for, 432; Charles X and, 578; 
580; reconquered by Bilde, 584; Carte- 
sian philosophy at, 791; purchased by 
George I, v 650; Sweden and, 562 sq., 
603; 569; 679; seized by Danes (1712), 
582, 607, 610 sq.; 613; bishopric of, 615; 
652 ; VI 21; annexed to Hanover, 23 sq.; 
28 ; Charles XII and, 34 ; 36 ; 39 ; and 
Sweden, 104; Prussian troops occupy, 
IX 48; withdraw from, 50; embarkation 
of British force at, 263 ; transferred to 
Prussia, 264 ; government of, 409 ; Van- 
damme in, 515 ; Jews of, 588 ; free city 
of, X 341; and the Customs' Union, 373 ; 
XI 54; revolutionary movement at, 161; 
and the German customs, xn 156 
Bremen, Archbishops of : — 

Christopher of Brunswick, ii 231 

George of Brunswick, iii 157 

Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg (1566-85), 

III 157 

John Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, 

IV 89; 98 
Breragarten, vi 616 

Brenkenhof, Franz Balthasar Schonberg 

von, VI 733 
Brenner Pass, Bavarian detachment at, 

V 407 

Brennier, French Commandant of Almeida, 

ix4C6 
Brent, Sir Nathaniel, Vicar-General of 

Laud, IV 279 

William, United States Minister in 

Buenos Ayres, xii 680 sq. 

Brentano, Clemens, German Komanticist, 
X 401 sq. ; 404 sqq. ; xii 818 ; 822 

Ludwig, Baden revolutionary, xi 

221 

Brentford, sacked by Eupert, iv 308 sq. 

Brenz, John (Johann Brentzen), Eeformer, 
II 160, 207, 234 ; driven into exile, 265, 
714; his principles of freedom, m 
755 



Brereton, Sir William, victory of, at 
Nantwich, iv 312; Fairfax and, 321; 
Parliamentary General in the West, 
329; surrender of Chester to, 335 
Bresca, Genoese family of, iii 443 
Bresci, assassinates King Humbert, xn 223 
Brescia, lost by Venice (1509), i 133 ; re- 
covered and lost again (1512), 136 sq.; 

V 402 ; Prince Eugene at, 414 ; Wurmser 
captures (1796), vm 574, evacuates, 575; 
revolt at (1797), 681 sq. ; xi 85 ; the 
defence of, 95 ; Garibaldian prisoners at, 
533 

Breslau, influence of Wittenberg on, ii 161 ; 
Frederick's manifesto issued from, iv 67; 
religious liberty of, 413 ; Prussia and, vi 
229 sq.; 235; 264; 273; Prussian defeat 
at, 274 sq. ; surrender of, 276; 294; 721; 
Treaty of, 231, 317, 319; siege of (1806), 
IX 281; University established at, 327; 
328; Frederick William at, 512, 613; 
French troops at, 620; Allies' troops 
near, 523; University of, x 366; tumult 
at, 364; disturbance at (1848), xi 157; 
193; 219; supports Bismarck, 451 

Martin Gerstmann, Bishop of (1574- 

85), m 93 

Bresse, given up by France (1558), ii 94; 
ceded to France, in 419 ; French in 
vasion of, 677; customs of, v 13 
Philippe de. See Savoy, Duke of 

Bresson, Count Charles, French ambassa- 
dor at Madrid, xi 17 ; 554 

Brest, relief of (1594), in 319 ; Spaniards 
driven from, 321, 521 ; development of 

V 14; 62; 187; English attack on (1694), 
261 sq., 460; expedition sails from, vi 
110; 112; 159; Eoquefeuil's fleet at, 239; 
349; naval disorders in, vin 193, 447 sq.; 
461; French fleet at, 458, 466, 470 sqq., 
480; Napoleon's projected invasion of 
England and, ix 210 sqq. ; French ships 
at, 219 ; Ganteaume blockaded at, 223 ; 
blockaded by Cornwallis, 226; Ganteaume 
sails from, 228; 237; British blockade 
dispersed, 238; blockade renewed, 240; 
French troops at, 262 

(in Eussia), Schwarzenberg retreats 

to, IX 499 

Brestel, Eudolf, Austrian Minister of 

Finance, xn 185 
Breteuil, Baron de Louis- Auguste le Tonne- 

lier, French ambassador at St Petersburg, 

VI 327 ; Minister of the Household, vin 

103, 114; Chief Minister, 163; dismissed, 

165 
Brethren of the Common Life, i 434 sq., 

461, 627 sq. 
Bretons, revolt of the, ix 564 
Brett, police- sergeant, murdered, xn 65 
Brewer, David Josiah, and the Venezuelan 

Boundary Commission, xn 721 

John Sherren, historian, xn 841 

Br^z6, Claire- Cl^mence de Maill^. See 

Cond^ 



264 



General Index, 



Br6z6, Henri-Evrard, Marquis de Dreux et 
de, Grand Master of the Ceremonies to 
Louis XVI, vra 155, 157 

Jean-Armand de Maill6, Duke of. 

Admiral of France, iv 599 ; commands 
French expedition to Italy, 600; death 
of, ih. sq., 609 

Urbain de Maill^, Marquis of, Marshal 

of France, iv 149 ; and Heidelberg, 248 ; 
sent by Louis XIII to Barcelona, 649 ; at 
Maestricht, 697 

Briand, Aristide, French Minister of Educa- 
tion, xn 113 ; 122 sq. ; 127 sq. 
Bricherasio, capture of (1594), m 417 
Bri^onnet (Brissonet), Guillaume, Cardinal 
of St Malo, I 109, 112, 177, 184, 409 

Guillaume de (son of above). See 

Meaux, Bishop of 

Pierre, financial minister of Louis XI, 

I 409 

Bridge, William, Independent, iv 359 
Bridgeman, Sir Orlando, Lord Keeper of 

the Privy Seal, v 201; 207; 334 
Bridges, Colonel John, surprises Dublin 

Castle, IV 547 
Bridgewater, taken by Fairfax, iv 331 sq. 
Bridport, Alexander Hood, Viscount, ad- 
miral, VIII 471 sq. ; and the French 
invasion (1796), 473, 475 sq. ; and the 
Spithead mutiny, 476 sqq. 
Brieg, principality of, v 652 ; 659 ; duchy 

of, VI 229 ; 230 sq. 
Brienne, battle of (1814), ix 545 
Briere de I'llle, Louis-A.-E.-G., French 

general, in Senegal, xii 129 
Briey, Austrian commander, ix 60 
Briggs, Henry, mathematician, v 709 
Bright, John, x 680 ; xi 309 ; 328 sq. ; 339 ; 
and Ireland, 343 sq. ; xn 23 ; resigns, 
40 ; 43 ; 437 ; and social reform, 745 
Brignole, Marquis de, Genoese plenipo- 
tentiary at Vienna, ix 599 
Brihuega, Allies defeated at (1710), v 428 
Brill, captured by the Gucux de Mer (1572), 
ni 229-31, 233, 284; marriage of William 
of Orange at, 241 ; held by Elizabeth, 
619, 670-1 
Brinkley, Kichard, English Hebraist, i 592 
Brinon, President of Rouen, French agent in 

London, n 423 sq. 
Brion, Philippe de. Minister of Francis I, 

n 97 
Brisbane, convicts at, xi 790 ; 794 sq. ; 798 ; 

industries of, xii 623 
Brisegna. See Manrique, Isabella 
Brisighello, Imperialist colonel, in the 

Valtelline, iv 61 
Brissac, Francois de, French general in 
Italy (1551), n 86 

Charles I de Coss6, Comte de, 

Marshal of France (Marshal Brissac, 
d. 1563), III 6 

Charles II de Coss6, Duke of. 

Marshal of France (son of Marshal 
Brissac), ni 662 



Brisson, Bamab6, civil lawyer, i 577; in 
60, 58 

Henri, French politician, xn 109; 

121 

Pierre de, captive in Africa, xii 806 ; 

808 

Brissonius. See Brisson, Bamab^ 

Brissot de Warville, Jean-Pierre, vni 
218 sq. ; foreign poHcy of, 220, 223 ; 240 ; 
arrested, 242 ; 249 ; at the King's trial, 
258 ; trial and execution of, 357 ; 747 sq. 

Brissotins, The, vin 213 sq., 220 sq. ; Minis- 
try of, summoned, 223 sq.; 227 sq., 234, 
237 sq. ; arrest of, 242, 244, 248. See 
also Girondins 

Bristol, exploring voyages from, i 20; 
Colombo at, 21 ; maritime importance 
of, 33 ; at the opening of the First Civil 
War, IV 302 ; Rupert at, 324 ; Prince of 
Wales at, 328; stormed by Parliamen- 
tarians, 332 sqq. ; Irish troops at, 527 ; 
Whitefield at, vi 83 ; Reform disturbances 
at (1831), X 613 ; xii 654 ; University of, 
763 

Augustus John Hervey, 3rd Earl of, 

VI 451 

Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th 

Earl of. Bishop of Derry, vi 601 sq. ; 
IX 693 

George Digby, 2nd Earl of (1st cr.) ; 

created Baron Digby, iv 291 ; Root-and- 
Branch petition and, 292; flight of, to 
Holland, 300; Rupert and, 319; Charles I 
and, 332 sqq. ; 338 ; leads EngUsh Catho- 
lics, V 100 sq. ; 105 ; 210 

George William Hervey, 2nd Earl of 

(2nd cr.), at Madrid, vi 368, 419, 426 ; 
431 ; 438 ; Lord Privy Seal, 439 ; 442 

John Digby, 1st Earl of, m 660; 

Buckingham and, iv 264 ; Charles I and, 
265 ; at Vienna, 77 ; 78 ; at Madrid, 82 ; 
instructions to, from James I, 625 ; 
Buckingham's Spanish mission and, 641 

Bristow, Benjamin H., American Secretary 
of the Treasury, vii 644 

Britanny, relations of, with France, i 392, 
396; and the Peace of Le Verger (1488), 
394; allied with England, 466; Duchy 
of, Philip's plan concerning, in 510, 512, 
524; Spanish base in, 521 sqq.; the 
League in, 661; English troops with- 
drawn from, 666; 672; Spanish expedi- 
tion to, 673; Henry IV's expedition to 
(1598), 674 sq. ; Vendome Governor of, 
IV 119; taxation of, 153; claims of the 
Vendome family to, 596; results of the 
Fronde in, 621; Estates of, v 4, viii 39 
sq., 128 sq. ; disturbances in, v 9 sq., 
VI 130; 356; 452; and the Provincial 
Assemblies, viii 112; disaffection in 
(1794), 379, 391, (1829), x 97 

Anne, Duchess of. See Anne, Queen 

of France 

Francis II, Duke of, leagued against 

France, i 392-4; death of, 394, 449 



General Index. 



265 



Britanny, Jean IV, Duke of, i 392 

Louis, Duke of, death of, v 434 

British Central Africa, province of, xii 3 ; 

661 

Columbia, xi 771 ; united to Canada, 

776 ; xn 604 sq. ; progress in, 608 ; 
internal affairs of, 616 ; 650 ; 814 

East Africa, xn 47 ; 660 sqq. ; 813 

East Africa Company, xn 661 

Museum, foundation of, vi 74 

North Borneo Company, xii 669 

South Africa Company, xu 49 ; 

founded, 639; 664 

Brixen, Austria receives the bishopric of, 

IX 94 
Brochero, Spanish admiral, in 532 
Brock, Sir Isaac, major-general, vii 337 sq. 

Peter, Kussian Minister of Finance, 

XI 266; 614 

Brookes, Barthold Heinrich, x 385 
Broderith, Hungarian Chancellor, i 96 
Brodrick, Alan. See Midleton, Viscount 

William St J. F. See Midleton, 

Viscount 

Broeck, Pieter van den, visit of, to Japan, 

IV 712 
Bromsebro, Peace of, signed by Christian 
IV (1645), IV 390, 572, 574; Mazarin 
and, 601 
Brofferio, Angelo, x 126; xi 645 
Broghill, Boger Boyle, Lord. See Orrery 
Broglie, Achille-L^once- Victor- Charles, Due 
de, X 52 ; 63 ; 54 ; and the electoral law, 
67, 60 sq. ; and the liberty of the press, 
68 ; and the Societe des Amis de la Presse, 
61; declines office, i6. ; 64; 65; 67; 
goes into Opposition, 68; 81; opposes 
compensation for the emigres, 86; op- 
poses the "law of sacrilege," 87; and 
the Revolution of 1830, 478; 480; 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 489 ; foreign 
policy of, 494 sq. ; fall of, 495 sq. ; and 
Algiers, 502; 503; 508; and Louis- 
Napoleon, XI 134 

Albertine - Ida - Gustavine de Stael, 

Duchesse de, x 62; 53 

Charles-Franpois, Count of, French 

ambassador in Saxony, vi 338 

Fran<jois-Marie, Duke of, Marshal of 

France, vi 233 sqq. 

Jacques-Victor-Albert, Duo de, xii 

106 sqq. ; defeated, 110 ; 111 ; 114; 116; 
historical works of, 834 

Victor-Frangois, Duke of, Marshal of 

France, vi269; viiiSl, 159, 163; Secretary 
for War, 163 ; emigrates, 165 

Victor Maurice, Count of, and the 

Camisards, v 26 

Maurice de. See Ghent, Bishop of 

Broke, Sir Philip Bowes Vere, captain of 

the Shannon, vii 342 
Broken Hill, silver discovered at, xn 619 ; 

628 sq. 
Bromberg, Treaty of (Nov. 6, 1657), iv 429 ; 

Tchitchagoff at, ix 512 



Bromley, Sir Thomas, Chief Justice, n 

475 
Bronitsi, Russians defeated at, iv 181 
Bronkhorsts, faction in Gelders, i 423 
Bronte, Charlotte, xi 359 sq. 

Emily Jane, xi 354 

Bronzell, skirmish at, xi 230 

Brook Farm, socialist experiment at, vii 
739 

Robert Greville, 2nd Baron, grants 

of land in New England to, vii 18, 21 

Brooke, Sir James, Rajah of Sarawak, xii 
635; 669 

John R., American general, vu 680 

Brooks, James, Bishop of Gloucester, ii 

631, 541 

Preston Smith, assaults Sumner, 

vn 430 

Broschi, Carlo. See Farinelli 

Brosolo, Alliance concluded at (1610), in 

690 
Brotherhood, the Evangelical (of the 

Peasants' Rising), demands of, n 180; 

Franconian nobles join the, 188 
Brottier, Andre-Charles, conspiracy of, vm 

503 sqq., 510, 512 
Brouage, siege of, in 32 
Brouckere, Henri Marie Joseph Ghislain 

de, Belgian statesman, xi 672 
Brouet, Pascal, ni 586 
Brougham, Henry Peter, Baron Brougham 

and Vaux, vn 371 ; and the Whig party, 

IX 687; and elementary education, 692; 

influence of, x 574 ; and the income tax, 

675 ; 580 ; opposes the King's divorce bill, 

683; 585; and Canning, 591; 598; 601; 

and parliamentary reform, 603 ; 604 ; 

and the Reform Bills, 610 sq., 614 sq. ; 

and the Irish Catholic Association, 642 ; 

supports the anti-slavery movement, 658, 

677; and the Poor Law, 660, 662; 663 

sq. ; Scottish political tour of, 665 ; 666 ; 

Melbourne and, 668; 673; and Thomas 

Drummond, 677; 679 
Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron, 

x580; 582; and Bentham, 598; and the 

Reform Bills, 610 sqq., 614 
Brouk^re, Charles de, Belgian deputy, x 

480; 531 
Brousse, Emile, French socialist, xn 124 

sqq. 
Broussel, Pierre, French magistrate, arrest 

of, IV 607; charge of murder against, 

612; made Provost of Merchants, 617 
Brouwer, Hendrik, Governor- General of the 

Dutch Indies, iv 711 
Brown, Benjamin Gratz, Governor of 

Missouri, vn 640 

Charles Brockden, Wieland, vn 741 

George, Canadian politician, xi 769 

sq.; 774 

John, raid of, at Harper's Ferry, 

VII 439 

Joseph Emerson, Governor of 

Georgia, vn 522, 605, 609 



266 



Geiieral Index, 



Browne, Count Georg von, Russian general, 
VI 285 

George, Archbishop of Dublin, in 

.687 

Horace, Colonel, at Bhamo, xii 

500 sq. 

John, Massachusetts settler, vii 16 

Count Maximilian Ulysses von, 

Austrian Field-Marshal, vi 254 sqq. ; 
death of, 259; 285; 362 

Richard, Major-General, the nick- 
name of ''The Rump" and, iv 649 

Robert, iii 340, 343, 756 

Samuel, Massachusetts settler, vii 

16 

Sir Samuel, in Afghanistan, xii 

470 

Sir Thomas, v 332 

Sir Thomas Gore, Governor of New 

Zealand, xi 799 

William George, in Africa, xii 805 ; 

811; 813 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, xi 352 sqq. 

Robert, xi 350; 352 sq. ; and George 

Meredith, 361 ; 364 sq. ; xii 13 

Brownists, separatism and, iii 340; char- 
acter of, in politics, v 326 

Brownrigg, Sir Robert, general, in Ceylon, 
IX 734 

Bruce, Andrew, Bishop of Dunkeld, v 290 

Clarence Dalrymple, traveller, xii 

803 

Sir Frederick W. A., British envoy 

to China, xi 817 sq. 

James, traveller, xii 805 sq. 

Brucioli, Antonio, ii 379 ; printer at Venice, 

383 

Bruck, Jellaci6 at, xi 187 

Baron Karl Ludwig von, Austrian 

Minister of Commerce, xi 190 ; 216 ; 223 ; 
394 sq.; Minister of Finance, 402; 403; 
XII 176 

Brue, Andr^, African traveller, xii 806 

Briihl, Count Heinrich von, Saxon states- 
man, VI 198 sqq. ; 346 

Briinn, besieged by Torstensson, rv 389 sq. ; 
siege of (1742), vi 233; Russian troops 
at (1798), viii 647; Napoleon at, ix 258; 
advance of Allies on (1805), 259; the 
Austrian Reichstag removed to, xi 187; 
Mendel's researches at, xii 766 

Bruern, Richard, professor of Hebrew at 
Oxford, II 541 

Brueys d'Aigalliers, Franpois-Paul, French 
admiral, viii 598, 604, 622 sqq. ; killed, 
628 

Bruges, importance and decline of, 1 425 sqq., 
452; revolt in (1488), 448 sq. ; Maxi- 
milian I in, 448; England and, 450, 
454; Treaty at, between Charles V and 
Henry VIII (1521), ii 43, 418; taken by 
Parma, iii 618, 630 ; escape of Archduke 
Albert to, 636 ; surrenders to Marlborough 
(1706), V 416; the French at, 420; 421 
sq. 



Bruges, Henri-Alphonse, Vicomte de, pro- 
posed as Grand Chancellor of the Legion 
of Honour, rx 671 

Brugghen, Justinius Jacob Leonard van 
der, Dutch statesman, xi 666 

Brugmann, Johannes, Dutch preacher, 1 435 

Brugsch, Heinrich, Egyptologist, xu 845 

Bruin, Lionardo, Florentine historian, i 
541-2 

Bruins. See Brun 

Bruix, Eustache, French admiral, vm 615, 
630 sq., 657, 680; ix 63 

Brulart, Nicholas. See Sillery 

de L6on, French envoy, at Ratisbon, 

IV 115 

Brumaire^ the coup (Vitat of, and its signifi- 
cance for the French Revolution, Vol. viii. 
Chap. XXII, 666-88 

Brun, St, v 629 

Antoine, Spanish plenipotentiary at 

Miinster, rv 401, 715 

Rudolf, of Zurich, n 312 

Brune, Guillaume-Marie-Anne, Marshal of 

France, vm 639 sq., 662, 674; ix 13; 

14, 21, 68, 89, 96, 112; signs armistice 

with Sweden, 295 ; Riigen ceded to, 300 ; 

command of, 624 ; assassinated, x 46 
Brunei, Sultan of, xn 669 
Brunet, Colonel, in Paris, xi 100 
Bruueti^re, Ferdinand, xn 119 sq. 
Brunetti, Angelo (Ciceruacchio), Roman 

tribune, xi 74 ; 76 sq. 
Brunfels, Otto, reformer, ii 161 
Bruni, Leonardo, History of Florence^ m 

471 
Brunn, Heinrich, historian, xn 845 
Brunnen League, of Swiss Cantons (1315), 

II 305 
Brunner, Heinrich, historian, xii 850 

Philip Joseph, ix 201 

Brunnow, Baron Ernst Philipp von, Rus- 
sian envoy in London, x 558; 664; xi 
632 

Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne, i 536 

Giordano, the philosophy of, n 707 

sq., 709 sq.; m 465, 466; death of, iv 
668 

Brunswick, attack on, by Schmalkaldio 
League (1542), n 243; siege of, m 644; 
IV 8 ; meeting of Lower Saxon Circle at, 
86, 92 sq.; negotiations at, 96; and 
Christian IV, 97; subjugation of, 100; 
convents restored in duchy of, 112; Con- 
gress of (1714), V 610, VI 39; comprised 
in kingdom of Westphalia, ix 336, 411 ; 
Jews in, 412; army of, 622; and the 
Germanic Confederation, x 344 ; and the 
Customs' Union, 373, xi 53, 394; re- 
volution in (1830), X 374; and Prussia, 
XI 228 

House of, and Formula Concordiae, 

m 704; ix 582 

Charles, Duke of, deposed, x 374 

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of, 

invades HoUand (1787), vm 107, 287 sq., 



General Index, 



267 



323; manifesto of, 234, 273, 409; com- 
mands the Allies (1792), 407 sqq., 414 sq., 
419, 423 ; at Kaiserslautern, 424 sq. ; 
IX 255; 264; Prussian envoy to Eussia, 
266; commander-in-chief, 273 sq. ; at 
Jena and Auerstadt, 275 sqq. ; death of, 
278 

Brunswick-Bevem, Frederick Francis, Duke 
of, Prussian general, vi 260; 264; 273 
sq. 

Brunswick-Calenberg, Elizabeth of Bran- 
denburg, Dowager-Duchess of, reforms 
Brunswick-Calenberg, n 238; 251 
Eric I, Duke of, n 220, 232, 235 

Eric n, Duke of, n 251, 253, 261 

Brunswick-Grubenhagen, Philip, Duke of, 

II 195; 216 
Brunswick-Liineburg, v 581 ; and Mecklen- 
burg-Giistrow, 663 

House of, and Gustavus Adolphus, iv 

194 ; and the Treaty of Westphalia, 408 ; 
Rheinbund signed by, 431; and France, 

V 655; and Prussia, 662; vi 2 sq.; poli- 
tical record of, 4 sq. 

Dukes of, V 37; 43; join Quadruple 

Alliance, 109; 161; 569; 571 

Brunswick-Liineburg, Dukes of: — 

Christian (d. 1633), iv 79 sq.; 91 

Christian Lewis, v 655; vi 2 

Ernest, ii 169, 195; the Protest 

of Speier signed by, 205 ; 221 

Francis, n 195 ; signs the Protest of 

Speier, 205 ; 215 sq. 

George, commander of Lower Saxon 

Circle troops, iv 86; Gustavus and, 
207; 220 sq. ; Swedish army and, 225; 
227 ; and Bernard of Weimar, 247 ; Peace 
of Prague and, 255, 365; Saxony and, 
866; neutrality of, 378; opposes the 
Emperor, 383; death of, 385; 408; vi 2 

Otto of Harburg, ii 195, 215 sq., 

270 

Brunswick - Liineburg (Celle), Frederick, 
Duke of, VI 2 

(Celle), George, Duke of, iv 194 

(Celle), George William, Duke of, and 

the Grand Alliance, v 55, 244, 403; vi 
2 sqq. ; 7 sq. ; death of, 10 ; 12 

(Hanover), Ernest Augustus, Duke of, 

and Elector of Hanover. See Hanover 

(Hanover), John Frederick, Duke of, 

V 651; 744; vi 3 sq. 

(Celle), Duchess (Eleonora of 01- 

breuse), consort of George William, 
VI 3 

Frederick Augustus, Prince of, v 662 

Maximilian William, Prince of, v 

662; VI 3 

Brunswick- Oels, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke 
of, IX 335; in Westphalia, 337; enters 
Brunswick (July 30, 1809), 357; death 
of, 629 

Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, House of, lu 156 

Princess Anna Leopoldovna of, vi 

309; 311; 315 



Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, Prince Antony 
Ulrie of, in Eussia, vi 309 

Duke Christian of. Bishop of Halber- 

stadt, IV 79 sq. ; at Hochst, 80 sq. ; joins 
Mansfeld, 85; at Stadtlohn, 86; 88; re- 
signs see of Halberstadt, 91 ; 92 ; brings 
reinforcements to Nienburg, 95 ; in Hesse- 
Cassel, 96; 97 

Dowager-Duchess Elizabeth of, con- 
sort of Henry Julius, iv 93 

Prince Ferdinand {afterwards Duke 

Charles William Ferdinand) of, vi 265 
sq. ; 268 ; 272 sq. ; 277 ; and the Army of 
Observation, 408; 426; 429 

Prince Francis of, vi 290 

Princess Sophia Charlotte of, v 638 

Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, Dukes of: — 

Antony Ulric, and the Grand Alliance, 

V 55, 403; 744 

Charles I, vi 266 

Frederick Ulric, iv 8 ; 79 ; 86 ; 91 sqq.; 

submission of, 98 

Henry IV, Italian campaign of, ii 68 ; 

suppression of Peasants' Eevolt by, 187, 
189; 195, 220, 231, 235 sq.; attack on, 
by Schmalkaldic League, 243, 251; re- 
covers duchy, 259; defeats Albert Alci- 
biades, 275; iii 157 

Henry Julius, iii 153; 156; 715; 

725 sqq, ; adherent of Eudolf II, iv 79 

Eudolf Augustus, v 55; 403 

Brus, Anton, Archbishop of Prague. See 

Prague 

Bruslart, Louis Gu^rin de, French general, 
IX 2 

Brussels, growth of, i 419; Maximilian I 
at, 449 ; Treaty of (1498), 454 ; abdication 
of Charles V at (1555), ii 90, 537, iii 182 ; 
meeting of States General at (1556), 185; 
Alva enters, 214; execution of Counts 
Egmont and Hoorn at, 219, 220; out- 
lawry of William of Orange proclaimed 
at, 221; States General at (1569), 226, 
(1576), 245-6; Don John's entry into 
(1577), 247-8, 499; triumphal entry of 
William of Orange into, 248; Archduke 
Matthias' entry into, ib. ; abdication of 
Charles V of Spanish crowns at (1556), 
477; revolt of Italian regiments in, 
519; taken by Parma, 618; entry of 
Albert and Isabel into (1599), 634 ; Dohna 
at, IV 24 ; Charles II in, 540 ; Greenville 
at, 555; siege of Hertogenbosch and, 
691, 692; the Cardinal Infante sent to, 
698; the Duke of York at, v 225; 420; 
422 ; siege of, vi 246 ; 651 sq. ; Congress 
of, 655; 656; riot in (1787), viii 319; 
320; rebellion in (1789), 329; federal 
constitution for a Eepublic drawn up at 
(1790), ib.; Austrian troops in, 336; 
Dumouriez occupies (1792), 299, 417, 420; 
evacuated by the French (1793), 421; 
Wellington in, ix 622, 626; provisional 
Government at (1814), x 520; King 
William enters (1815), 624; industrial 



268 



General Index. 



exhibition at, 533; the revolution in 
(1830), 534 sqq. ; the National Congress 
at, 538; Leopold I in, 540; xi 92; 491; 
General Prim at, 568 ; conference at (1863), 
672 ; peace conference at, xn 91 ; socialism 
at, 252 ; Geographical Congress at, 255 ; 
International Monetary Conference at, 
484; 825 

Bruyninck, secretary of William of Orange, 
in 252 

Bry, Jean de, French envoy, vra 642, 655 sq. 

Bryan, William Jennings, nominated for 
the Presidency, vn 673 

Bryant, William CuUen, vn 742 

Bryce, James, Holy Roman Empire, xn 
841 

Brydges, Sir John, Governor of the Tower, 
n 520 

Bry don, William, army surgeon, escapes 
from Cabul, xi 733 

Bryukelow, Henry, n 490 

Brzesc, Union of (1596), iv 189 

Buat, Henri de Fleury de Coulan, Sieur de, 
execution of, v 152 

Bubna, Major-general, Bohemian politician, 
at Niirnberg, iv 218; 233; Wallenstein 
and, 234 

Bubna-Littiz, Count Ferdinand von, Aus- 
trian Field-Marshal, ix 359; x 118 

Buccleuch, Walter Francis Scott, 5th Duke 
of, XI 10 

Bucer,Martin, Reformer, friend of Sickingen, 
n 155; in Strassburg, 160; 161; at 
Marburg, 207 ; 211 ; Tetrapolitana creed 
drawn up by, 212, 214, 335; Zwingli and, 
216; at the Conference of Wittenberg, 
234, 339; 239; draws up a scheme of 
comprehension at Eatisbon, 240; 244; 
Schmalkaldic League and, 252, 258; 
exiled, 265; and the French Reformers, 
283, 285 sq.; the Waldenses and, 289; 
328; 403; in England, 477, 502 sq., 508 

Buchanan, Franklin, Confederate naval 
officer, VII 554, 556 

George, Scottish Latinist, i 582 ; and 

the Portuguese Index, ii 414, 555 ; in 69 ; 
De jure regni apud Scotos, 760' 

James, vn 419; President of the 

United States, 432 sqq., 438, 446 sqq. ; 
XI 563; xn 686 

Robert, poet, xi 352 sq. ; 357 

William J., United States Minister 

in Buenos Ayres, xii 679 

Bucharest, negotiations at, vi 634; Austrian 
army captures (1789), viii 326; reduced 
by Russia (1806), ix 388 ; Treaty of (1812), 
389, 485, 487, x 169, 175, 185; xi 283; 
Russian Governor at, 643; International 
Commission at, 643 sqq. ; revolutionary 
committee at, xii 383; 414; Treaty of 
(1886), 407 

Buchez, Philippe- Joseph-Benjamin, x 485 ; 
XI 108 

Buchholtz, Colonel, expedition of, to Lake 
Yamuish, v 544 



Buchholz, Prussian envoy to Poland, vm 

524, 537 sqq. 
Buchner, Eduard, German man of science, 

xn 780 
Bucholtz, Franz B. von, historian, xn 829 
Buckingham, Edward Stafford, Duke of, 

executed, n 417 

George Nugent - Temple - Grenville, 

Marquis of (Earl Temple), Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland, vi 462 sq., 474, 601, 505; 
467 ; IX 693 

George Villiers, 1st Duke of (2nd cr.), 

in 560 sq.; 566 ; Lord High Admiral, 567 ; 

and financial struggle, 568 sqq. ; and the 
Spanish marriage, 575 sq. ; foreign policy 
of, 576 sqq. ; rv 88 ; at the Hague, 95 sq. ; 
131; at the height of power, 257; in 
Paris, 258; foreign policy and, 261 sq. ; 
Parliament and, 263 sq. ; impeachment 
of, 265; expedition of, to R6, 132, 266 
sq. ; assassination of, 133 ; 641 ; Governor 
of English Company for South America, 
755 

George Villiers, 2nd Duke of, v 95 ; 

126 ; and the French alliance, 191 ; 198 ; 
200 sq.; and the Treaty of Dover, 203 
sqq. ; 207 sqq. ; 216 ; sent to the Tower, 
218 

and Chandos, Richard P. T. N. B. C. 

Grenville, 2nd Duke of, x 614; xi 2 sq. 

Buckinghamshire, John Hobart, 2nd Earl 
of, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, vi 495 sqq. 

Buckinghamshire and Normanby, John 
Sheffield, Duke of, vi 11 

Buckle, Henry Thomas, xii 850 

Buckner, SimonBolivar, Confederate general, 
VII 462, 495 

Bucquoy, Charles-Bonaventure de Longue- 
val, Count de, Austrian general, at Linz, 
IV 11; takes command of Ferdinand's 
troops, 23 ; invades Bohemia, 25 ; routs 
Mansfeld at Zablat, 27; summoned to 
defend Austrian duchies, 31 ; 64 sqq. ; 
in Hungary, 71 sq. ; death of, 75 ; 77 

Buczacz, Treaty of (1672), v 353 

Buda. See Budapest 

Budaeus (Guillaume Bud6), French Hel- 
lenist, I 576; n 16, 287, 351; in 737 

Budapest, Diet at (1454), i 69; captured by 
Solyman (1541), n 242; Turkish Pasha 
in. III 118 sqq. ; sale of prisoners at, 123 ; 
taken by Imperialists (1686), v 52, 366; 
339; 345; Turkish army at, 346; 363; 
bridge at, x 744 ; the revolutionary move- 
ment at, XI 155 sq. ; 208; Austrian 
occupation of, 210 sq. ; 421 sq. 

Budberg, Baron (Russian Minister), ix 272; 
291; Russian Chancellor, 305 

Bud6, Guillaume. See Budaeus 

Budenz, Jozsef, Hungarian scholar, xi 
431 

Budin, Austrian magazine at, vi 257 

Budowee, Wenceslas von, m 727 

Budweis, held for the Emperor, iv 21; 
Austrians at, vi 234; 241 



General Index, 



269 



Buell, Don Carloa, American general, vii 
463, 493, 495 sq.; at Sbiloh, 497; 499 
sqq. ; proceeds to E. Tennessee, 506 sq. ; 
superseded by Bosecrans, 507; 583 

Billow, Prince Bernhard von, Chancellor of 
the German Empire, xn 166; 171; 173 

Friedrich Wilhelm, Count von Den- 

newitz, marches on Magdeburg, ix 514; 
retires before Ney, 518; at Berlin, 520; 
character of, 525; at Dennewitz, 529; 
at Leipzig, 539; in the Netherlands, 
644; 550; at Li^ge, 625; at Waterloo, 
634 sqq. 

Baron Heinrioh Wilhelm von, German 

critic, IX 266 

General von, vi 13 

Buen Ayre, the Dutch in, v 687 
Buena Vista, battle of (1847), vii 396 
Buenos Ayres, growth of, vi 183 ; 186; 391 ; 

443 ; failure of expedition of Popham to, 
IX 235, 753 ; government of, x 248 sq. ; 
trade of, 255, 275; 268; viceroyalty of, 
274; the revolution in (1810), 278, 282, 
285 sq. ; 280 ; captured by Beresford (1806), 
281; and San Martin, 291 sq.; 298; 
government of (1812), 300 sq. ; negotia- 
tions of, with Spain, 306; and Great 
Britain, 307, 309 ; and the United States, 
308; XII 679; the dictator Bosas in, 680; 
blockade of, 681; 683; 694 
Biinzli, Gregory, at Basel, ii 307 
Biiren, Ernst Johann. See Biren 
Blirger, Gottfried August, vi 830; poetry 
of, 832, vra 773, x387; 396; 710; 716; 
XI 412 sqq. ; 423 sq. 
Biirgi, Jobst, mathematician, v 709 
Buffalo, attacked by the British (1814), vn 
343 ; Anti-Slavery Convention at (1848), 
399; railway from New York to, 694 
Buffet, Louis- Joseph, French statesman, 
XI 133; 491 sq.; President of the 
Assembly, xii 107; 110; 115 
Buford, Abraham, American colonel, vii 

224 
Bug river, Turkey and, vi 305; 307 
Bugeaud de la Pioonnerie, Thomas-Bobert, 
Duo d'Isly, Marshal of France, x 496; 
503 sq.; xi 99 sq. 
Bugenhagen, Jakob, Beformer and historian, 
II 160, 162, 201, 231, 243, 250; and the 
Beformation in Denmark, 611, 616 
Bugey, ceded to France, m 419, 677 
Bugge, Elseus Sophus, Norwegian philo- 

loger, XI 701 ; xii 281 
Bukowina, The, ceded to Austria (1775), vi 

634; 648 
Bulak Museum, Cairo, xii 431 
Bulavin, Kondraty, leader of Cossack revolt, 

V 597 
Bulawayo, captured by British, xii 639 
Bulfontein, discovery of diamonds at, xi 

787 
Bulgdkoff, Bussian Liberal, xii 333 
Bulgaria, Tsar Nicholas I and, xi 312 ; 
struggle for freedom in, 634 ; the Church 

0. M. H. 



in, 638 sq. ; xn 3; 6; 10; massacres in, 
32; 33; and Bumelia, 43, 341, 406; 162; 
304 sq. ; and Bussia, 342 ; independence 
of, 378, 427 sq. ; 381 ; under Turkish rule, 
383 ; massacres in, 384 ; 387 ; and the 
Busso- Turkish War, 388 sq. ; and Treaty 
of San Stefano, 391 sqq.; and Treaty 
of Berlin, 395 sqq. ; Bussian administra- 
tion of, 403 sq. ; under Prince Alexander, 
404 sqq. ; at war with Servia, 407 ; abdi- 
cation of Prince Alexander, 408 sq. ; 416 ; 
421 ; and Macedonia, 424 sqq. 

Bulgenbach. See Miiller, Hans 

Bull Bun, battle of (1861), vii 465 sqq., 469, 
(1862), 480 

Bullarium Romanum, Cherubini's, in 445 

Buller, Charles, and Badical party, x 676; 
Secretary to Governor-General of Canada, 
XI 765 sq. 

Sir Eedvers Henry, General, in South 

Africa, xn 642 sq. 

Bullinger, Henry, Beformer, ii 234, 309; 
continues Zwingli's work, 339 sq. ; at 
Basel, 355, 696 sq.; importance of, in 
England, 597; Decades, ib., 716 

Bullock, Henry, pupil of Erasmus, i 580 

J. D., Confederate foreign agent, vn 

611 

Bulwer, William Henry Lytton Earle (Sir 
Henry Bulwer, afterwards Lord Dalling 
and Bulwer), ambassador at Washington, 
VII 434; at Madrid, xi 17; 654 sqq.; 
dismissed from Madrid, 557 

Bulwer-Lytton. See Lytton 

Bulygin, Bussian Minister, xn 350 sq. 

Bumm, English traveller at, xn 800 

Bundela Bajputs, vi 517 

Bundelkhand, disorder in, ix 731 

Bundschuh, in the Black Forest districts, 
etc., I 299; n 175 

Bunge, Nicholas de, Bussian Minister of 
Finance, xii 317 sqq.; retires, 320 

Bungo, disturbances in, xi 864 

Bunker Hill, battle of (1775), vi 447, vn 
167 sq., 170 

Bunsen, Christian Karl Josias, Baron von, 
X 360 ; 381 sq. ; xi 163 ; 166 sq. 
Frederick William IV and, 191; 197 
and the Schleswig-Holstein question, 227 
249; 254; xn 820 

Bobert Wilhelm, chemist, xn 783 

Bunyan, John, v 136; 207; 335 
Bunzelwitz, Frederick the Great at, vi 297 
Bunzlau, Bussian army at,ix 516; battle at 

(1813), 526 
Buol, Grisons leader, sent to Linsbruck. rv 

62 
Buol-Schauenstein, Count Johann Budolf 

von, president of the Federal Diet, x 344 

sqq.; 348; 367; succeeded by Miinch- 

Bellinghausen, 370 

Count Karl Ferdinand von, Austrian 

statesman, xi 232; 322; and Cavour, 372, 
374 ; succeeds Schwarzenberg, 395 ; 402 ; 
resignation of, 403 

17 



270 



General Index, 



BuonaccorBi, Biagro, riorentine historian, 

1 200 
Buonagrazia, Girolamo di Bartolommeo, 

Lutheran, n 381 
Buonarotti, Michel, President of the Club 

of the Pantheon, vin 604 sq. ; x 485 ; 

491 

Michelangelo, i 143, 147, 382, 548, 

659 ; statue of Pope Julius II of, 245, 249; 
the Sistine chapel and, ii 6, 13 sq. ; 28, 
34; reforming sympathies of, 395; in 
394, 439, 442, 457-9, 466 

Buonavita, Pietro, Italian Eeformer, ii 383 
Buoncompagni, Cardinal. See Gregory XIII, 
Pope 

Giacomo, crown of Ireland accepted 

by. III 597 

Prince Ludovisi, rights of, in Elba, 

IX 661 

B orchard. Bishop of Oberberg. See Ober- 

berg 
Burchgrave, Daniel de, in 620 
Burckhardt, Jakob, writings of, xi 261 ; xii 

849 

John, African traveller, xii 806 

Burdett, Sir Francis, attack of, on Pitt, ix 

681 ; a leader of Opposition, 687 sqq. ; x 
674 ; 599 sq. ; and the dissolution of 
Parliament (1831), 611; 613; and Catholic 
Emancipation, 642 
Buren, Maximilian d'Egmont, Count of 
(general of Charles V), ii 45, 47, 78, 256, 
422, 459; iii 190 

Philip William, Count of, kidnapped 

and conveyed to Spain (1568), in 218, 
221 

Burgau, Charles, Margrave of, husband of 

Sibylla of Julich-Cleves, in 729 
Burgdorf, school of Pestalozzi at, ix 

427 
Burgers, Thomas Francois, President of 

the Transvaal, xi 788 
Burgess, Anthony, Presbyterian leader, rv 

359 

Mark, and the Portuguese Index, 

n 414 

Burgevine, joins the ** Taiping '* rebels, 

XI 821 
Burgh, or Borough (of Gainsborough), 

Thomas, 5th Lord, Lord Deputy of 

Ireland (1597), in 606 
• Walter Hussey, and the distress in 

Ireland, vi 495; 497 

WiUiam, radical writer, viii 755 

Burghley, William Cecil, Lord, i 522 sq.; 

II 492, 495, 504 sq., 507, 517; becomes 
Elizabeth's secretary, 559; 565, 568; 
Maitland and, 573; negotiates Treaty of 
Edinburgh, 577, 580; ni 265; policy of, 
towards Mary Queen of Scots, 277 ; posi- 
tion of, 280 ; and France, 283 ; character 
and system of, 350 sqq., 491 ; vi 45 
Burghstead, Joim, regicide, v 149 
Burgo, Nicholas del, nuncio to Henry VIII, 
II 435 



Burgos, the Franco- Spanish marriages at, 

IV 629 sq.; depopulation of, v 376; ad- 
vance of Dupont to, IX 430 ; 436; army of 
Estremadura at, 442 ; British at, 474-6 ; 
Wellington at, 477 

Filipino leader, xii 529 

Burgoyne, John, General, in Portugal, vi 

369 ; 426 ; vn 211, 214 sqq. ; surrender of 
(1777), 216, 232 

Burgsdorf, Conrad von, Brandenburg 
statesman, v 642 

Burgundian Circle, inclusion of the Nether- 
lands in (1548), I 459, n 102 

Burgundio, Johannes, of Pisa, 12th century 
Greek scholar, i 588 

Burgundy, ducliy of, annexed to France 
(1482), I 392; n 62; renounced by 
Francis I, 51 ; the Netherlands and, 102 ; 
and Spain, in 508; created a separate 
State, 630 ; the League in, 661 sqq. ; re- 
covery of, 666-7, 669 ; Biron Governor of, 
679-80; taxation of, iv 153; Intendants 
retained in, 606 ; Conde Governor of, 608 ; 
612 ; Tavannes in, 613 ; , Conde exchanges 
Guienne for, 614 ; 615 ; Epernon Governor 
of, 618; and the Treaty of the Pyrenees, 
620; Estates of, v 4, 13; vni 39 

Anthony, son of Philip the Bold of. 

See Brabant, Duke of 

Charles the Bold, Duke of, siege of 

Neuss by, i 295, 390; death of, 295, 391, 
410, 417; League of Pubho Weal and, 
389; Louis XI and, 390, 422; schemes of, 
390 ; the Swiss and, 390 sq. ; Liege and, 
422; 424, 430, 432; n 36; and Li^ge, 

V 488 

John (*' sans peur "), Duke of, i 422; 

n36 

Louis, Duke of. See Louis, Duke of 

Burguudy 

Philip the Bold, Duke of, i 389, 

418 

Philip the Good, Duke of, i 77; 

increase of territory by, 389, 418-42; 
and Ghent and Ypres, 426-7 ; and the 
Church, 430; centralised government of, 
431; military reforms of, 432; art and 
literature under, 432-3; ii 36 

Philip the Fair, Duke of. See 

PhiUp I, King of Castile 

Margaret of, married to William VI 

of Hainault, i 418 

Margaret of, and Austria, daughter 

of Maximilian I. See Savoy 

Margaret of Maele, heiress of Artois 

and Flanders, Duchess of, i 418 

Margaret of York, Duchess of, i 442- 

3; 460; 465; 467 sqq., 474 

Mary, Duchess of, Louis XI and, i 

437 sq., 440 sq. ; the Groote Privilegie 
granted by, 438 sq. ; Ghent and, 441, 
443; marries Maximilian I, 295, 391, 
442; death of, 392, 444 

Maria Adelaide of Savoy, Duchess 

of, V 30 sq. 



General Index. 



271 



Burke, Edmund, and the Act of Settle- 
ment, V 275; 702; 705; vi 435; policy 
of, 442; 444; and America, 447; 455 sq. ; 
Paymaster of the Forces, 457 ; 458; 460; 
resigns, 462; 464 sqq.; 476 sqq.; 581; 
and the trial of Warren Hastings, 471, 
582 sq., 584, 585; and Indian affairs, 
567; 576; 813; 816 sq.; 821; writings 
of, 836 sq.; vii 66, 105 sq., 108, and 
colonial policy, 147, 149 sq., 159, 162 sq., 
172 sq., 724; viii 18, 134; Reflections on 
the Revolution in France, 755 sqq. ; Let- 
ters on a Regicide Peace, 762; 774; and 
the Whig party, ix 673; and Warren 
Hastings, 715; 716; xii 817; 819 

Eichard, and the Penal Code, ix 694; 

695 

Eobert O'Hara, Australian explorer, 

XI 798 

Thomas Henry, murdered, xii 81 

Tibbot, the Mac William, m 606-7 

Burkersdorf, Frederick the Great at, vi 299 ; 

fight at, XI 458 

Burkes, The, hold Cathedral of Tuam, iii 
593; of Castleconnell, 597; of Upper 
Mayo, 604 

Burkhardt, George, of Spelt, ii 111, 132, 
193 

Burlamacchi, Francesco, n 81 ; Gonfalonier 
of Lucca, III 385 
Fra Pacifico, biographer of Savona- 
rola, I 168 

Burlamaqui, J. J., Genevese publicist, ix 
427 

Burlet, J. de, Belgian statesman, xii 253 

Burlingame, Anson, American Minister in 
China, xi 822 

Burma, xi 724; first war with, 727 sq.; 
734; second war with, 742; 802; Great 
Britain and, xn 4; 464; conquest of, 
479; 501; 508; and Siam, 535; 793 

Upper, annexation of, xii 43, 497; 

famine in, 486 

Burnaby, Frederick Gustavus, visits Khiva, 

xn 801 
Burnes, Sir Alexander, captain, and Dost 

Mohammad, xi 732 ; 733 ; Asiatic travels 

of, XII 800 
Burnet, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, v 136 ; 

and Queen Mary, 167; 213; 235; 255; 

258; 271; and Latitudinarianism, 752; 

VI 6; 802; 816 

William, Governor of Massachusetts, 

VII 65 

Burney, Captain, in Siam, xii 535 
Burnouf, Eugene, Orientalist, xn 845 
Burns, Robert, poet, vi 824 ; 829 sq. ; 

832 sq. ; vm 771 ; x 701 sq. 
Burnside, Ambrose Everett, commands the 

Army of the Potomac, vii 483 ; defeated 

at Fredericksburg, t6., 484; ftt Knoxville, 

508, 510 sq., 513 ; 573 sq. 
Burntisland, bombarded by the Dutch 

(1667), V 188; captured by Jacobites, vi 

99; 102 



Burr, Aaron, American politician, vii 324 

sq., 372 
Colonel, defeats the Peshwa of Poona, 

XI 726 
Burrard, Sir Harry, sent to Spain, ix 440; 

441 
Burroughs, Jeremiah, Independent leader, 

IV 359 

Burschenschaft, x 363 sqq. ; 375 
Burton, Henry, punishment of, iv 280 

Sir Eichard Francis, xn 809 

Lieutenant-Colonel, at Quebec, vii 

139 

Governor of Delaware, vii 453 

Bury, John Bagnell, historian, xn 845 
Busaco, Wellington at, ix 460; battle of 

(1810), 463 

Busbecq, Augier-Ghislain, ni 123; Im- 
perial ambassador at Constantinople, vi 
507 

Busby, James, Resident at Bay of Islands, 
XI 793 

Busch, John, Eeformer, i 631, 639 

Busche, Hermann von dem, of Deventer, 
I 435 

Bushe, and the Irish rebellion, ix 701 ; and 
the Union, 703 

Bushell, Captain, at Glasgow, vr 106 sq. 

Busher, Leonard, and religious toleration, 

V 326 

Bushire, British force at, xi 745 

Busleyden, Francis van. Provost of Li6ge, 
I 454 

Busolt, Georg, historian, xii 845 

Bussa, explorers at, xii 807 sq. 

Bussi, Corboli, Monsignor, xi 74 

Bussy, Francois de, French envoy in Lon- 
don, VI 343; 845 

Bussy-Castelnau, Charles-Joseph Patissier, 
Marquis de, vi 538; in the Deccan, 540 
sq. ; 543 ; 545 sqq. ; 552 ; and the Naw&b 
of Bengal, 558; in Cuddalore, 577 

Bute, parliamentary election in, x 606 

John Stuart, 8rd Earl of, vi 298; 

846; and Spain, 368, 370; 407; and 
George III, 417; 419 sq.; ministry of, 
422 sqq.; 426 sqq.; resigns, 429; 430; 
434; 487 

Butera, Prince of. See Colonna, Fadrique 
Butkoff, Vladimir, Eussian official, xi 615 
Butler, Benjamin Franklin, American 
general, vii 464, 516, 557; and "con- 
traband," 581, 583, 600 

Charles, secretary of the committee 

for Catholic relief, x 625; 632 

Sir Edmund, in 595 

Sir Edward, in 595 

James, Duke of Ormond. See Or- 

mond 

Joseph, Bishop of Durham, vi 77 

sqq.; 88 

Pierce, deputy from S. Carolina at 

the Constitutional Convention (1787), vii 
246, 286 

Sir Piers. See Ossory, Earl of 

17—2 



272 



General Index, 



Butler, Samuel, satirist, v 126; 133; 136 

Simon, cliairman of the United 

Irishmen, x 628 

Thomas, Earl of Ossory. See Ossory 

Colonel Walter, at Eger, iv 242 

William Orlando, American general 

and politician, vii 399 

Butlers, The, of Muuster, feuds of, iii 
580 sq. 

Butrinto, captured by All of Janina, x 
176 

Butt, Isaac, and Irish Home Rule, xii 
72 sqq. 

Buttmann, Philipp Karl, ix 827 

Buttstadt, army at, vi 267; 268 

Buturlin, Alexander, Russian field-marshal, 
VI 297 ; 326 sq. 

Buwinkhausen, ambassador of the Protes- 
tant Union, and the United Provinces, 
IV 33 

Buxar, battle of, vi 561 

Buxhowden, Count Frederick William von, 
Russian general, ix 251; Kutusoff effects 
junction with, 257; advances on Tell- 
nitz, 260; 261; Russian army under, 
283 

Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, x 658 sq. 

Buy, Pierre de Mornay, Seigneur de, iii 23 

Buys, Paul, Dutch advocate, in 233, 619- 
21, 624 

Willem, Dutch diplomatist, v 422; 

427 sq. ; 429 

Buzot, Fran(?ois-N.-L., Girondin, viii 174, 
249, 251, 257, 260; suicide of, 357 

Byeliusky, Vissarion, Russian writer, xii 
296 

Byelostok, xn 340; pogrom at, 367 

Bylandt, Dutch merchant, Frederick Henry 
and, IV 699 

Count van Willem Frederik, mili- 
tary Governor of Brabant, x 534 

Bylling, Edward, granted land on the 

Delaware, vii 47 
Byng, Sir George, Admiral. See Torring- 

ton, Viscount 

John, Admiral, loses Minorca, vi 

403 sq., 342a (in Vol. xiii) 

Byrd, William, American lawyer, vii 60 
Byrne, Miles, and Emmet's rebellion, ix 

706 
Byron, George Gordon Noel, 6th Baron, vi 
825; 830; 832; x 100; 126; supports tlje 
Greek revolt, 182; influence of, in Ger- 
many, 405; influence of, in Russia, 432; 
680; and Southey, 709; the poetry of, 
710 sqq.; and Shelley, 713 sq.; 715; 722; 
influence of, upon continental literature, 
725 sq.; xi 350; 354; influence of, on 
Pushkin, 648 

Sir John, 1st Baron, replaces Luns- 

ford, IV 297; refuses to surrender the 
Tower, 299; retreats to Worcester, 306; 
joined by Irish troops, 318; defeated at 
Nantwici), .321, 527 
John, Vice- Admiral, vi 451 scj. 



By town. See Ottawa 
Byzantium, and the Greek Church, v 483 
eq.; 615 

Cabal Ministry, formed, v 198 ; 201 ; dis- 
solved, 210, 214 

Caballero de Rodas, Spanish general, xi 
669 

Cabanis, Pierre- Jean- Georges, nc 21; 24, 
132 

Cabarrus, Count Francis of, Spanish 
statesman, vi 382 sq. ; vm 782 

Cabet, Etienne, x 491 ; French politician, 

XI 24 ; 105 ; and socialism, xn 758 
Cabezas de San Juan, revolt at (1820), 

X 216 
Cabinda, slavery abolished at, xi 575 
Cabot, John, Labrador and, i 20, 50 ; the 

three sons of, and their explorations, 33, 

36; discoveries of, vii 2 

Sebastian, discoveries of, vn 2 ; and 

the Muscovy Company, v 613 

Cabral, Costa. See Thomar, Count of 

Pedro Alvarez, Portuguese com- 
mander in India, i 29 ; discovers Brazil, 
35; IX 304 

Cabrera, Ramdn, Carlist leader, x 237 sqq. ; 

XII 258 

Cabrinetti, Jos6, Spanish general, xn 260 
Cacault, Francois, sent to Rome, ix 183; 

recalled, 191 
Cadalso, Jos6 de, Spanish poet, v 69 
Cadan, Peace of (1534), n 221 sq.; 232 
Cadaval, Nunho C. A. Pereira de Mello, 
Duke of, defeated by Duke of Terceira, 
X 334 sq. 
Cade {Gotteshaiis), Swiss league, iv 36 
Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, Governor of 

Louisiana, vn 88, 93, 99 
Cadiz, Drake burns shipping in harbour of 
(1587), III 304, 604 ; English expedition 
to (1596), 322-5, 521, 522, 529 ; French 
naval victories near, iv 147; English ex- 
pedition to (1625), 262, 267, 477 sq., 481, 
483 sq., 642 ; commerce of Lisbon and, 
650 ; English fleet at (1695), v 61, 262 ; 
379 ; 411 sq. ; vi 60 ; expedition from 
(1719), 105; 155; prosperity of, 166; 
236 ; 351 ; American trade with, vn 327 ; 
Cortes of, 366 ; army collected at (1819), 
367 ; Admiral Man at, vin 460 ; British 
blockade of (1797), 464 sq., 630; Rear- 
Admiral Linois ordered to, ix 53 ; Admiral 
Saumarez off, 54; blockade of (1804), 211, 
215 ; Spanish treasure-ships captured off, 
217-8; plague at, 218; Allied force at, 
219; Villeneuve at, 223, 227; 225; Nelson 
arrives off, 229 ; plan of attack at, ib. ; 
flight of French and Spanish ships to, 
233 ; capture of French ships by Spanish 
insurgents at, 238 ; Dupont ordered to 
(1808), 341, 436; besieged by Soult (1810), 
456, 457, 463; 464; siege of, raised, 473; 
arrest of deputies in, x 208; and the 
revolutionary movement, 213 sqq.; 220; 



General Index, 



273 



the Cortes at, 228 ; blockade of (1823), 

ih., 308; proclamation of, revoked, 229; 

and the Indian trade, 256 ; the Central 

Junta at, 282; and Spanish America, 

292, 305 ; rising of garrison at, xi 569 ; 

riots at, 570 
Cadiz, Duke of. See Francisco de Asis 
Cadogan, WiUiam Cadogan, 1st Earl, v421; 

422; 458 sq.; vil6; 23; 27; recalled, 39 
Cadorna, Eaffaele, Italian general, xi 544 
Cadoudal, Georges, Chouan leader, viii 379; 

IX 2, 14 sqq., 29 sqq. 
Cadsand, taken by the French, vi 247; 

attacked by British (1809), ix 358 
Caen, taken by Coligny (1563), in 5; Parle- 

ment at, 663 ; strike suppressed at, x 491 
Caesalpinus, Andreas, and the circulation 

of the blood, v 725 sq.; 734 sqq.; 738 
Caetani (Cajetani), Enrico, Cardinal, in 

449, 453 
Cazis, occupation of, iv 51 sq. 
Caffa, captured by the Turks (1475), i 83 
Caffarelli, Franpois-Marie-Auguste, French 

general, supersedes Dorsenne, ix 472 

du Falga, Louis-M.-J.-M., French 

general, Ym 606; 610; killed at Acre, 
613 

Caffi, Italian review, x 124 

Cagliari, victory of Venice at, i 258; 
Charles Vs fleet in harbour of, in 111; 
Spanish expedition to, vi 29; panic of 
French troops at, viii 456 

Cahera, Gallus, Bohemian Reformer, i 340 

Cahier de Gerville, B. C, Minister of the 
Interior to Louis XVI, viii 222 

Cahors, massacre of Protestants at, ii 303 ; 
seized by Navarre (1580), iii 33 

Caianello, meeting of Victor Emmanuel 
and Garibaldi at, xi 390 

Caiazzo, Francesco de San Severino, Count 
of, 1 116, 120, 124 

Caillard, Antoine-Bernard, French envoy 
at the Prussian Court, ix 36 

Caillaud, John, Indian officer, defeats Shah 
Alam, VI 559 

Cailli^, Bene, African traveller, xii 807 

Cairncross, Alexander, Archbishop of Glas- 
gow, V 290 

Cairns, Hugh M^Calmont Cau-ns, 1st Earl, 
Lord Chancellor, xii 27 ; 30 

Cairo, Napoleon at (1798), vra 603 sq., 
605 sq., (1799), 614; surrenders (1801), 
617, IX 72 ; 385 ; British troops prisoners 
at, X 647; xii 430; British troops at, 
437 sq. ; Lord Cromer at, 439 ; Gordon 
in, 441 sq.; Clifford Lloyd in, 444; 446; 
448; Medical School at, 452; 454 sq.; 
805 sq. 

(Illinois) , importance of, vn 459 ; 

Grant at, 463, 494 ; 471 

Cairoli brothers, death of, xi 542 

Caisse d^Escompte, founded by Turgot, viii 

86, 694; 96; reorganised by Calonne, 

97 ; Necker and, 695 
Caistor, rising at, u 446 



Cajet river, Portugal and, xii 660 
Cajetan, Cardinal. See Vio, Thomas de 

Jacopo, theologian, xi 718 

Calabria, ravaged by Barbarossa, in 112; 

peasant revolt in (1806), ix 267, 382, 404, 
406; English troops in, 270; insurrec- 
tion in (1830), X 120, 122 ; political per- 
secution in, XI 379; earthquake in, xn 
228; 236 

Francis, Duke of. See Francis I, 

King of the Two Sicilies 

John, Duke of, 1 104, 107, 387, 396 

Nicholas, Duke of, i 396 

Calafat, bombarded, xii 388 
Calagnani, Celio, of Ferrara, n 384 
Calais, English Staple at (1494), i 452; 

secret Treaty of, between Charles V and 
Henry VIII (1520), n 417; French cap- 
ture of (1558), 93, 648, 560 sq., 566, iii 
184, 260, 478 ; English exiles at, ii 545 ; 
Conference of (1521), 418; Elizabeth 
claims, in 3, 6, 26, 263, 477; Armada 
anchors off, 313, 477-8; capture of, by 
Spain (1696), 523, 629, 628, 670; James U 
at, V 262 
Calas, Jean, French Protestant merchant, 

VIII 66 

Calatafimi, battle of, xi 388; 533 
Calatrava, Jos6 Maria, Spanish statesman, 

X 234 ; the ministry of, 238 sq. 
Calcutta, settlement at, v 699; vi 531 sq.; 
534 sq. ; 546 ; 551 ; siege of, 562 ; Clive 
at, 655 ; 657 ; Courts of Appeal at, 568, 

IX 711 ; Cornwallis at, 710 ; xi 730 ; Bur- 
mese embassy at, 742; High Court of, 
751; 816; xn 481; bubonic plague in, 
487 

Calder, Sir Eobert, admiral, engagement 

of, off Finisterre, ix 225 sq. 
Calderon, Felix del Key Calleja, Conde 

de, Spanish general, x 216; Viceroy of 

Mexico, 304 

Maria, mother of Don Juan (II) of 

Austria, iv 649 

Rodrigo. See Siete Iglesias 

de laBarca, Pedro, Spanish dramatist, 

IV 662, X 407 
Caldiero, French defeat at, viii 579; Mass^na 

attacks Austrian army at (1805), ix 258 
Caledon, Du Pr6 (Alexander), 2nd Earl of, 

Governor of the Cape of Good Hope 

(1807-11), IX 753 
Calenberg (Hanover), claim of Tilly's heirs 

upon, IV 408 ; ravages of war in, 418 ; vi 

2 sq., 8 
Calendar, The French Republican (1793), 

vin 358 
Calhoun, John Caldwell, American states- 
man, vn 373 sq., 376, 380 sq., 388; 

Secretary of State, 393, 397 sq.,. 401, 

403; and "nullification," 409 sqq. ; 414; 

death of, 418 
Calicut, Da Gama at, i 25; commercial 

importance of, 26, iv 743; Cabral and, 

X 29 



274 



General Index. 



California, vii 391; American conquest of, 
395 sqq. ; slavery in, 399 ; discovery of 
gold in, 400 sq., 416 sq,, 433, 696; 
organisation of, 402, 416; admitted to 
the Union (1850), 421; Democrats in, 
631; population of, 708; missions in, x 
271; the United States and, xii 685 

Calixtus III (Alfonso Borgia), Pope, i 69 
sqq., 77, 552, 674, 688; ii 29 

Georg, Protestant theologian, reli- 
gious reunion and, iv 424 ; v 648 ; 744 

Callao, Potosi silver shipped to, x 255; 

273 ; attacked by Cochrane, 292 ; royalists 

in, 293, 295 ; bombarded, xi 567, xii 678 
Calleja, Felix del Eey. See Calderon 
Calliergi, Zacharias, Cretan Hellenist, i 566 
Callistus, Andronicus, Greek professor at 

Florence, i 543 
Callot, Jacques, French etcher, xi 511 
Calomarde, F. T., Spanish statesman, 

Minister of Justice, x 232 
Calonius, Finnish lawyer, x 434 
Calonne, Charles-Alexandre de, French 

Comptroller General, viii 60, 69, 72, 

698 sqq.; administration of, 97-103; 

dismissed, 104; prosecution and flight 

of, 106; Requite au Eoi, 108; accused 

of high treason, 221; ix 362 
Calvert, Leonard, settles in Maryland, vii 

31 sqq. 

See Baltimore, Barons 

Calvi, captured by the British, vin 458 

Francesco (Minicio), of Pavia, ii 380 

Pier Fortunato, execution of, xi 377 

Calvin, Gerard, father of John, ii 349 sq., 

352 

John, influence of, in Germany, n 

216; Nicolas Cop and, 285; Christianae 
religionis institntio, 287 sq., 356 sqq., 
363, 376; 294-8; Confession of Faith, 
295, 393; compared with Zwingli, 340, 
713 ; Consensus Tigurinus of Bullinger 
and, 340 ; the Eeformed Church and, 
Cliap. XI passim ; affinities of, with 
Erasmus and Luther, 349; education of, 
350-2 ; De dementia, 352 sq. ; at Basel, 
355 ; letter of, to Francis I, 356 ; at 
Ferrara, 358, 385 ; and Geneva, 358, 
363-74; Letter to Cardinal Sadoleto 
and other writings, 363; Ordonnances 
Ecclesiastiques, 370 sqq. ; system of edu- 
cation of, 372 sq. ; special services to 
Protestantism of, 376; Italian refugees 
and, 393 ; controversy of, with Serveto, 
411; Queen Elizabeth and, 596; 690; 
philosophical ideas of, 713, 715 sq. ; 
Commentary on the Mass, iii 74; 422, 
743 sqq. ; publishes Institution Chretienne 
in French, rv 778; vi 254; 274; 798 j 
803 

Calvinism, in the Netherlands, ii 103 ; see 
Chap. XI, Calvin and the Reformed 
Church; and French Protestantism, 287 
sqq., 293 sqq., 373 sq. ; at Ferrara and 
elsewhere, 385 sqq.; in Scotland, 558 



sqq. ; and Knox, 673 sqq. ; in Sweden, 
629 ; as a system of thought, 715 sqq. ; in 
Poland, III 74 sqq. ; excluded from the 
benefits of the Religious Peace of Augs- 
burg (1555), 141 sqq. ; in Transylvania 
and Hungary proper, 147; in the Austrian 
lands generally, and in the Empire etc., 
under Ferdinand I and Maximilian II, 
see Chap, v passim; at Ghent, 250 sq.; 
in Europe generally, 260; in England, 
growth of, under Elizabeth, 340; under 
James I, 552 sq. ; Dutch, different schools 
and parties arising in and from, 646 sqq.; 
Remonstrants and Contra-Eemonstrants, 
647 sqq.; under Rudolf II, 703 sqq.; 
political theory of, 747, 753 sqq.; and 
Lutheranism, in the Empire generally, iv 
3 sqq. ; 82, 110; recognised by the Treaty 
of Westphalia, 410; in Sweden, under 
Charles IX, 175 sq. ; in general, and 
the Thirty Years' War and Peace of 
Westphalia, see Vol. iv passim ; in later 
Switzerland, xi 234 
Calvo, Carlos, and the Monroe Doctrine, 

XII 688 
Cam, Diego, discovers the Congo, i 17 
Camaldolese Congregation, reform of the, 

II 647 
Camara, Spanish admiral, vii 679 
Camarao, South American leader, v 674 
Camarilla, of the absolutist reaction in 

Spain, X 208 sqq. 
Cambac^r^s, Jean-Jacques-R^gis de, French 
statesman, viii 378, 380 sq., 386; Director, 
489; Minister of Justice, 672, 677, 681; 
738 sq. ; IX 1 ; 5 sqq. , 19, 32, 103 ; Arch- 
Chancellor of the Empire, 110; receives 
Parma, 111; appointed Napoleon's deputy, 
138; 145 sqq.; and the Codes, 172-3; 
616 
Cambi, Giovanni, Medicean partisan, i 175 
Cambodia, France and, xii 132, 524; 797 
Cambon, Joseph, and French finance, viii 
73, 249, 257, 702, 704 ; on the Comite de 
Salut Public, 269, 366, 382; arrested, 
385 

Jules, French ambassador at 

Washington, vii 682 

Paul, French ambassador in London, 

XII 456 

Canibray, League of (1508), i 131, 246, 
266, 277, III 116; Maximilian I and, 
I 319, 344, 456; attacked by France, ii 
89; Charles V and, 102; Conference of 
(1517), 39; Peace of (1529), 25, 59, 203; 
432; siege of (1595), iii 628, 669; handed 
over to Anjou, 706; siege of (1649), rv 
612; French defeated at, 619; Congress 
of (1724-5), VI 39, 57, 126, 138; arch- 
bishopric of, 131; France and, v 36, 39; 
taken by the French (1677), 44; 45; 422; 
430; Louis XVIII at, ix 643, x 44, 48 

Francois de Salignac de la Mothe 

Fenelon, Archbishop of, writings of, v 
28 sq.; 78 sq.j 88; 90; vni 8 



General Index. 



275 



Cambray, Joseph de Bergaigne, previously 
Bishop of Hertogenbosch, archbishop 
of, at Miinster, iv 401 

Cambridge, Erasmus at, i 546; and the 
New Learniug, 580; state of University 
of, II 468; destruction of libraries in, 
503; Queen Mary proclaimed at, 517; 
Royalist tendencies at, iv 304 ; Cromwell 
at, 312 ; the army encamped near, 343 ; 
Crashaw at, 771; Cowley at, 773; Car- 
tesian philosophy at, 791; Milton at, v 
116; 237 sq.; vi 802; Newton at, v 721; 
Jacobinism at, viii 764 ; Byron at, x 711 ; 
Tennyson at, xi 350; study of history 
at, 363; abolition of religious tests in, 
xii 27 ; 36 ; 762 ; historical study at, 820, 
834 
Platonists, v 327; 332; 749 sqq. 

George (Electoral Prince), Duke ol 

See George II, King of England 

George William Frederick Charles, 

2nd Duke of, xii 52; 441 

Camden, Gates defeated at, vii 225 sq. 

Charles Pratt, 1st Earl, vi 431; 

435; 437 sqq.; 441; dismissed, 442; 450; 
President of Council, 457; 462 sq. ; 467; 
VII 147; viii 294 

Sir John Jeffreys Pratt, 2nd Earl 

and 1st Marquis of, and Catholic Eman- 
cipation, IX 678 ; Viceroy of Ireland, 
700 

William, antiquary, xii 816 

Camelinat, French socialist, xii 125 
Camera delta Segnaturay Baffaelle's paint- 
ings in, II 6 sq. 

Cameral Tribunal. See Reichskammergericht 
Camerarius (Joachim Kammermeister), i 
574 

Ludwig, Palatine councillor, at 

Prague, iv 15; and the Palatine family, 
70 

Budolf Jacob, botanist, v 736 

Camerino, reduced by papal forces, ii 75; 

captured by Cesare Borgia (1582), i 194, 
240 ; duchy of, incorporated in the 
Italian kingdom, rx 400 
Cameron, Archibald, Jacobite, vi 119 

Charles Duncan, British Consul at 

Massowah, xi 753 

Sir Duncan Alexander, general, xi 

800 

Eichard, covenanter, v 286 sq. ; 290 

Simon, vii 445; Secretary of War, 

460, 684 sq. ; Minister to Russia, 472 

Verney, travels of, in Africa, xii 

810 sq. 

of Lochiel, vi 105 ; 109 ; 111 sq. 

Cameroons, xii 3 ; 41 ; 130 ; German occu- 
pation of the, 160 ; 658 sqq. 

Camin, see of, and the Great Elector, iy 

407 
Caminha, English force disembarked at, 

X 336 
Gamisards, rising of the, v 26 
Camoens, Luis de. The Lusiad, ? 695 



Camorray working of the, in S. Italy and 

Sicily, xii 239 
Camp Dick Robinson, brigade at, ni 462 

sq. 
Jackson, captured by Captain Lyon 

(1861), VII 458 
Campagna, Spanish occupation of the 

(1556), II 91 ; brigandage in the, in 430 
Campana, Francesco, in 388 
Campanella, Tommaso, the Civitas Solis, 

II 707 
Campbell, Sir Archibald, of Inverneil (d. 

1791), colonel, vii 218 sq. 

Sir Archibald, general (d. 1843), 

Governor of British Burma, xi 728 

Colin. See Clyde, Lord 

Colin, of Glendaruel, vi 105 

Daniel, of Shawfield, vi 107 

Sir George, Lieut.- Governor of Ben- 
gal, XII 464 

Sir James, of Auchinbreck, vi 109 

John A., Confederate assistant 

Secretary of War, vii 605 

Thomas, poet, x 700 

William, American colonel, vii 225 

Admiral, ix 224 

See also Argyll 

Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry, Secretary 

for War, xii 52 ; Prime Minister, 54 sq. 

Campe, peace between France and England 
at (1546), u 461 

Joachim Heinrich, German writer, 

Viii 772 sqq. 

Campeachy, contraband trade at, vi 373 
Bay, the English in, v 687 ; log- 
wood cutting in, vi 149 

Campeggio, Lorenzo, Cardinal, i 489; ii 
16 ; at the Diet of Niirnberg, 171 sq., 
174 ; 210 ; at Ratisbon, 326 ; mission to 
England of, 430 sqq. 

Thomas. See Feltre, Bishop ol 

Campell, Ulric, iv 36 
Camperdown, battle of, viii 482 sq. 
Camphausen, Ludolf, Prussian statesman, 

XI 53 ; 159 sq. ; 191 ; 200 

Otto von, Prussian Minister of 

Finance, xn 150 

Campillo, Don Joseph del. See Del Cam- 

pillo 
Campion, Edmund, Jesuit, iii 287, 350 

Thomas, poet, iii 369 

Campo Florido, Spanish ambassador in 
Paris, VI 158; 166 

Formio, Treaty of (1797), viii 498, 

591 sqq., 633, ix 39 sq., 56, 63, 751 ; 
Bonaparte at, 82 

Santo, Spanish defeat at, vi 237; 

241 

Campomanes, Pedro Rodriguez, Count of, 

President of the Council of Castile, vi 

382; VIII 782 
Campos, Martinez, Spanish general, tu 

675 
Campredon, N. de, French ambassador in 

Russia, Y 551 ; to Stockholm, tx 86 



276 



General Index, 



Camus, Armand Gaston, and French pen- 
sions (1790), VIII 72, 700; Jansenist, 
196; 249 

Lieutenant, French naval oflBcer, xi 

850 

Canada, France and, v 13, 442 ; 684 sq. ; 
688 ; colonisation of, vi 183 ; 248 ; 342 ; 
342a sqq. (in Vol. xiii) ; ceded to 
England, 347; 349 sq.; 351; 410 sqq.; 
the Peace of Paris and, 428; 461; ag- 
gressive policy of, VII 42 ; projected 
invasion of, 69 ; the French in. Chap. 
Ill ; the conquest of. Chap, iv ; General 
Hull invades (1812), 337 ; and the sealing 
question, 666 ; migration from the States 
into, 712 ; colonial empire in, ix 735 ; 
740 sqq. ; (1763-1840), Vol. x, Chap, xxi 
passim; the Catholic Church in, 625 ; the 
export wheat trade of, 760 ; the Federa- 
tion of. Vol. XI, Chap, xxvii (2); 17 
the Clergy Keserves of, 310 ; 336 ; 343 
British rule in, 755 sqq. ; xii 2 ; 21 ; 47 
preference tariff in, 57 ; 603 ; 649 sq. 
and naval defence, 649, 651 ; 654 ; and 
arbitration, 721 sqq. ; exploration in, 814 

Company, The, vi 533 

Viscount. See Stirling, Earl of 

Franijois Xavier de Laval -Mont- 
morency, Bishop of, VII 84 

Canadian Pacific Railway, xn 606 ; 609 ; 615 
Canale, Nicold da, Venetian commander, 

I 79 
Canalejas, Jos6, Spanish journalist, vn 676 
Canales, Marquez de, Spanish diplomatist, 

V 390 
Cananor, Rajah of, the Portuguese and, i 29 
Canary Islands, the Guanches of, i 10 ; 
Spain colonises, 40 ; Spanish fleet sent 
to, III 531; exports from, v 677; Spanish 
generals banished to, xi 569 
Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg, vii 543 
Canclaux, Comte Jean -Baptiste- Camilla, 

French general, viii 382 
Candale, Sire de, i 394 
Candia, siege of, by Turks (1648-69), v 36, 
342 sq., 348 sq. ; vi 675 ; British occupa- 
tion of, XII 423 
Candide, French journal, xi 486 
Candolle, Alphonse-Louis-Pierre de, xi 260 

Auguste de, xi 260 

Candy. See Kandy 

Canea, taken by the Turks, v 342 ; insur- 
rection in, XII 419; occupied by the 
Powers, 420, 423 

Canevaro, Italian admiral, xn 423 sq. 

Canga Argiielles, Jos^, x 218 

Canisius, Egidius, Cardinal, i 660 

(Peter Kanes), Jesuit, ii 250; in- 
fluence of, at the Council of Trent, 682 ; 
and the Index, 688 ; m 148 sq. ; 155 ; 
160 sqq. 

Cannes, landing of Napoleon at, ix 615 
Canning, Charles John Canning, 1st Earl, 

Governor-General of India, xi 329 eq. ; 

724 ; 744 sq. ; 749 sqq. 



Canning, George, statesman, vn 369; Foreign 
Minister, ix 236 ; in Foreign Office, 289 ; 
Napoleon's designs revealed to, 297 ; 
policy of, 298; 300, 305, 309, 321, 340; 
gets subsidy for the war of 1809, 358 ; 
duel with Castlereagh, 359; urges Eng- 
land to intervene in regard to Napoleon, 
439 ; ode of, 681 ; and the Tory party, 
686; 688; x 12; 33, 34; policy of, 
36 sqq. , 584 sq. ; and the Greek revolt 
and Eastern Question, 184 sqq.; 197 sq. ; 
200; and the Spanish question, 226; 
and Spanish America, 308 sq. ; and the 
United States, 309 ; and Portuguese 
affairs, 319, 321 ; and the European 
System, 371 ; 573 ; and the Ministry 
of 1816, 575; 580; Foreign Secretary 
(1822), 583 ; 587; 589 sq. ; Prime Minister 
(1827), 591 ; and the Corn Law, 591 sq.; 
death of, 195, 592 ; and Tory principles, 
600 sq. ; 602 ; 604 ; 618 ; and Catholic 
emancipation, 634, 642, 645 ; and the 
abolition of slavery, 658 ; and the Anti- 
Jacobin, 700; policy of, on the India 
Board, xi 724 ; 755 ; 762 ; xn 682 ; 688 

Stratford. See Stratford de Red- 

cliffe 

Cano, Melchior, Spanish theologian, ii 408 

sqq., 647, 659 
Canosa, captured by the French (1602), i 

125 

Prince of, x 110 

Canossa, Ludovico di, of Verona, ii 16 
Canova, Antonio, sculptor, vi 117; x 151 
Cauovas del Castillo, Antonio, Spanish 

premier, vn 675; xi 560; xn 258; 262 

sq.; 265; murdered, 266, 268; 842 
Canrobert, Francois-Certain, Marshal of 

France, in the Crimea, xi 318; 322; 582; 

590 sqq.; at Gravelotte, 593 sq,; 595 
Canso, Gut of, toll demanded in, vn 363, 

658 
Cantacuzenus, Emperor of the East. See 

John V 

Manuel (Ghin), leader of Albanians, 

I 75 

Cantemir, Demetrius, Hospodar of Mol- 
davia, V 604 

Canter, William, of Utrecht, Dutch 
humanist, i 579 

Canterbury, typical medieval library of 
Christ Church in, i 589; Convocation 
of (1559), resists the Reformation, n 566; 
(1563), accepts the Thirty-Nine Articles, 
587 sq. 

Charles Manners - Sutton, 1st Vis- 
count, Speaker of the House of Commons, 
becomes Secretary of State, x 615 

Archbishops of. See sub nom. 

(New Zealand), xi 796; 799 

Association, xi 796 

Cantillon, Philip, The Nature of Commerce, 
vin 21 sq. ; x 770 

Napoleon's legacy to, for attempted 

assassination of Wellington, ix 759 



General Index, 



277 



Canton, xi 325; 724; 734; the English in, 
803 sqq.; opium trade at, 806 sq.; British 
attack on, 809; American trade with, 
810; capture of, 812; 814 sq.; occupa- 
tion of, 816; XII 526; Earl Macartney 
at, 796; 797 
Cantons, the Swiss Catholic, League of 

1524, II 325 
CantiJi, Cesare, x 106; 125; History of 

Italy, XII 842 
Canuel, Simon, Baron, French general, x 54 
Canus, Melchior, theologian, xi 718 
Canynges, William, English merchant, 1 605 
Cap Fran9oi8, French fleet at, vi 452 
Capaul, Josef von, shot, iv 54 
Cape Anne, trading station at, vn 15 

Branco, discovered by the Portu- 
guese, I 13 

Breton Island, France and, v 443 ; 

settlement of, vi 133; 249; regained by 
France, 331, 638 ; 428 ; vii 75, 91; 
fortified, 95 ; history of, 112 sq. ; govern- 
ment of, IX 746 ; and the Peace of Paris 
(1763), X 685; 687 

Coast Castle, xn 807 

Cod, Pilgrim Fathers at, vn 13 

Colony, founded by the Dutch, iv 

713 ; development of, vi 188 sq.; captured 
by the British (1806), ix 235, 240, 752 
sqq.; retained by Great Britain, 654, 
735 ; British occupation of, 749 sq. ; the 
wool trade with, x 759; (1815-70), Vol. 
XI, Chap. XXVII {2) passim \ 761; xii 161; 
affairs in, 635 sqq.; and the Transvaal, 
640 sqq.; 644 sq.; and the Union of 
South Africa, 646; 648; 808 

Finisterre, second Spanish Armada 

scattered by tempest off (1596), iii 529, 
606 ; battle of (1805), ix 225 sq. 

Hatteras, the Monitor founders off 

(1862), VII 563 

Home, settlement at, vii 15 

Capel, Arthur, Ist Baron Capel of Hadham, 

at Colchester, iv 349, 351 
Arthur, Earl of Essex. See Essex 

Sir Henry, Baron Capel of Tewkes- 
bury, V 321 

Capella, Martianus (c. 420), Septem Artei 

Liberales, i 633 
Capellari, Mauro. See Gregory XVI 
Cape of Good Hope, Diaz discovers, 

I 17, 19 sq,; Da Gama and, 25, 285; 

Dutch occupation of, v 693 sqq. ; vi 454 ; 

question of British retention of (1797), 

viii 498; restored to the Dutch (1802), 

IX 75, 752; 283; recaptured (1806), 752; 

retained (1814), 755, x 520; xi 667; 760. 

See also Cape Colony 

Passaro, naval battle off, vi 33, 104, 

125, 157 ; 419 

St Catherine, the Portuguese reach, 

I 16 

St Vincent, origin of name of, i 12 ; 

battle of, viii 461 sqq., 498; Miguelist 
fleet destroyed off (1833), x 333 sq. 



Cape Town, and Cape Colony, vi 189; 
captured (1795), viii 484 sq.; surrendered 
(1806), XI 778; Union convention at, 
XII 646; 647 

Verde Islands, discovery of, i 15; 

salt trade with, in 631 

York, overland journey to, xi 795 

Capisucchi, Giovanni Antonio, Auditor of 

the Rota at Rome, ii 434 
Capito, Wolfgang Fabricius, Zwinglian, ii 

160, 211; French reformers and, 283 sq.; 

310, 328 ; at Basel, 355 
Capo d'Istria, Pietro Paolo Vergerio, Bishop 

of, II 233, 394-5, 588 

Count John. See Capodistriaa 

Capodimonte, palace at, vi 596 
Capodistrias, John, Count, at the Congress 

of Vienna, ix 686; 600-1, 609; and the 
French frontier, 664; at the Conference 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, x 14, 16; 21; 23; 25; 
at the Conference of Troppau, 27 ; at the 
Conference of Laibach, 29 ; 34 ; and the 
Ionian Islands, 177; refuses leadership 
of the Greek revolt, 178; and Ypsilanti, 
179; decline of the influence of, 184; 
188; elected Greek President, 200; and 
the Greek settlement, 203; and the 
Spanish secret mission, 212 sq. ; and 
Metternich, 370; 420; assassination of, 
204; XI 277 

Cappella, Galeazzo, n 16 

Cappello, Bianca, iii 396 

Cappioni, Piero, and Charles VIII, i 113, 
164 sq., 172 

Capponi, Gino A. G. G., Marchese, x 108; 
128; XI 65; 67; 90; 546; 648; xii 
842 

Caprara, Count Aeneas Sylvius, captures 
Neuhausel, v 366; 369 

Count Albert, mission of, to the 

Porte, V 358 sq. 

Jean-Baptiste de. Cardinal, Papal 

Legate in France, ix 186-9; catechism 
sanctioned by, 191; debts of, paid by 
Napoleon, 194; 195; advice on the 
German Concordat, 203 

Caprera, Garibaldi at, xi 390, 633, 642, xn 

216 
Capres, "Malcontent" of southern Nether- 
lands, III 251 
Capri, retaken by Murat (1808), ix 382; 

British fleet lands a garrison at, 404; 

Corsican and Maltese garrison expelled 

from, 406 
Caprivi, Georg Leo, Count von, Chancellor 

of the German Empire, xii 166 
♦♦Caps," Swedish party of the. Vol. vi. 

Chap. XXII, The Hats and Caps... 
Capua, held by the Austrians, vi 153; 

reduced (1799), vra 658; fight at, xi 

390 

Nicholas von Schomberg, Cardinal, 

Archbishop of, ii 23, 423, 642 sq. 

Pietrantonio di. See Otranto, Arch- 
bishop of 



278 



General Index, 



Capuchins, introduced into Switzerland, 

II 341; origin of, 647; iv 4 
Carabobo, battle of (1821), x 294 
Caracas, Dutch trade with, v 688; the 

cabildo of, x 246 sq.; attached to Mexico, 
248; and the succession to the Spanish 
throne, 283 ; 285 ; revolution of, 288 sq. ; 
Bolivar in (1821), 294, (1827), 296; 297 
sq. 
Caraccioli, Gaieazzo, Italian Reformer, n 
390 

Marino, papal nuncio at Worms 

(1521), n 139 

Caracciolo, Antonio, chronicler, ii 389 sq., 
396 

Prince Francesco, Neapolitan ad- 
miral, vni 632, 658, 779 

Caracena, Count, Spanish commander, 

attacks Villa Viposa, iv 662 sq. ; v 34 
Carafa, Ettore, Count of Ruvo, vin 779 
Caraffa, Antonio, Cardinal, iii 448 

Antonio, Austrian field-marshal, v 

367 

Carlo, Bishop of Aversa. See Aversa 

Carlo, -Cardinal (nephew of Paul IV), 

n 91 sq. 

Giovanni Pietro. See Paul IV, Pope 

Caramania, conquest of, by Turks, i 81 sqq. 
Carberry Hill, Prince Charles at, vi 113 
Carbery, Eichard Vaughan, 2nd Earl of, 

V 748 
Carbisdale, Montrose defeated at, iv 509 
Carbon, Jean, Chouan, ix 17; 18 
Carbonari, meeting of, at Bologna, x 21 ; 

III sqq. ; in Piedmont, 114 ; 123 ; con- 
demned by the Papacy, 135 ; 138 ; Pius VII 
and, 150; persecution of, by Cardinal 
Rivarola, 152 ; and American revolution- 
aries, 213; in Spain, 221; excommuni- 
cated, 452; Pius IX and, xi 72, 74, 77 

Carcassonne, revolt of, in 668 

Carces, Comte de, in 416 

Cardadeu, Reding defeated at (1808), ix 448 

Cardan, Jerome, physician, v 716 

Cardenas, Ifiigo de, Spanish ambassador, 

Mary de' Medici and, rv 625 
Cardew, Sir Frederick, Colonel, xii 811 
Cardigan, James Thomas Brudenell, 7th 

Earl of, at Balaklava, xi 319 
Cardona, Ramon de, Spanish viceroy of 

Naples, I 137 sqq., 198, 249 

Duke of. Viceroy of Catalonia, iv 

648 

Cardoso, Governor of Villa-de-Conde, x 

328 sq. 
Carducci, Giosue, Italian writer, x 115; xi 

549 
Cardwell, Edward Cardwell, Viscount, 

Secretary for War, xii 23; and army 

reform, 25 sq. ; 29 
Carelia, ceded to Sweden, v 503; claimed 

by Russia, 614; Gustavus III and, vi 

778 ; Sweden demands the restoration of, 

vm 325 
Carentan, surrender of (1574), in 24 



Carew, Sir George, in 532, 608 

John, arrest of, iv 447 

Sir Nicholas, execution of, ii 449 

Sir Peter, heads rebellion against 

Mary, ii 626 sq. 

Thomas, poet, v 745 

Carey, Arthur Douglas, in Tibet, xii 802 

Henry Charles, American political 

economist, vii 699 

Sir Robert. See Monmouth, Earl 

of 

Cargill, Donald, covenanter, v 286 sq. 
Caribbean Islands, grant of (1627), vii 74 

Sea, Spanish possessions in, v 680 ; 

688; 691; vi 59; 62; European Powers 
in, 185 ; xn 652 ; 655 ; the United States 
and, 684 sqq. 

Caribs, The, aborigines of West Indies, i 38, 

41 
Carignano, Eugenio, Prince of (1859), xi 

386; 536 

See Savoy- Carignan 

Carillo d'Acuna, Dom Alfonso, Archbishop 
of Toledo. See Toledo 

Carillon. See Ticonderoga 

Carinthia, transferred to Archduke Fer- 
dinand, II 150 ; Protestantism in, in 702 ; 
Estates of, 728; Austria and, vi 204; 
abandoned by Austria to Italy (1809), ix 
355 ; French province of, 418 ; recovered 
by Austria (1815), 660; and German 
unity, XI 173 

Carisbrooke Castle, Charles I at, rvr 346 sq., 
350, 359 

Cariteo, Neapolitan poet, in 458 

Carleill, Christopher, in 301 

Carlens, Jean-Pascal-Raymond, commands 
the Army of the Rhine, viii 426 

Carleton, Sir Dudley, 1st Baron Carleton 
and Viscount Dorchester. See Dor- 
chester 

Sir Guy. See Dorchester 

Carlier, Pierre, French Prefect of Police, xi 

134 
Carlingford, Chichester Samuel Parkinson- 

Fortescue, 1st Baron, xi 343 
Theobald Taaffe, 1st Earl of (Viscount 

Taafie), defeated at Mallow, iv 345; at 

Knockninoss, 531; v 109 
Carlisle, siege of, iv 331 ; Irish garrison for, 

520; Prince Charles at, vi 114 sq.; 117 

Charles Howard, 1st Earl of (3rd 

cr., 1661), and motion on royal marriages, 
V 213 

Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of, vi 

450 ; Viceroy of Ireland, 456, 499 ; 464 ; 
467 

George Howard, 6th Earl of (Lord 

Morpeth), English ambassador (1806), ix 
282 

George William Frederick Howard, 

7th Earl of, x 677 

James Hay, 1st Earl of (2nd cr.), 

starts on a mission of peace, rv 24; 
meets Ferdinand at Salzburg, 27 ; yii 74 



General Index, 



279 



Carlists, party of the, rise of, in Spain, x 
231 ; the Carlist War (1834-40), 235 sqq. ; 
from 1871, xii 257 sqq. 

Carlo Alberto, King of Sardinia. See Charles 
Albert 

Carlos, King of Portugal, xii 271 sq. 

Don, son of Philip II, iii 168-9, 175, 

268-9, 480, 484, 488-90, 685 

Don, son of Philip in, iv 14 ; 69 

Don, son of Philip V. See Charles 

III, King of Spain 

Don (Carlos Maria Isidro de Borboro), 

X 230 ; and the rise of the Carlist party, 
231; and the succession to the throne, 
232 sq.; and the Powers, 235; 237 sq.; 
negotiations of, with Cristina, 239; re- 
tires to France, 240 ; abdication of (1845), 
243, XI 553; Thiers and, x 496 

"VI," pretender to the throne of 

Spain. See Montemolin, Count of 

Don, Spanish pretender, xii 258; 

260; 262 sq. 

Carlota, Dona (Louisa Carlota, of Sicily, 
Duchess of Cadiz), and the marriage of 
Queen Isabel, xi 553 

of Naples, consort of the Infante 

Don Francisco de Paula, and the Spanish 
succession, x 231 sqq. 

Joaquina of Spain (Princess of Brazil), 

Queen consort of John VI of Portugal, 
VI 381 ; X 283 ; 285 ; 310 ; character of, 
313; 316 sq.; 322; death of, 324 
Carlowitz, Treaty of (1699), v 33, 61, 364, 
371, 388; xi 179; rising at, 180 

Christopher, foments dissension in 

Saxony, ii 252 

General Georg Karl von, at Moscow, 

V 587 

Carlsbad, Peter the Great at, v 607 ; meeting 

of Ministers at (1819), x 366; Metternich 

and Nesselrode at (1830), 481; Decrees 

(1819), 22, 23, 356, 367, 370 
Carlson, Frederik Ferdinand, Swedish 

statesman, xi 690 
Carlsruhe, Ney crosses the Rhine near, ix 

253; Diet at, xi 145; 147; 221 
Carlstadt (Andrew Bodenstein of), German 

Reformer, ii 117, 138, 165 sqq., 177, 190; 

in Zurich, 323 ; visits Denmark, 606 ; in 

739 
Carlyle, Thomas, and Scott, x 719 ; xi 342 ; 

the writings of, 347 sq. ; 349 sqq. ; 355 ; 

357 ; 359 ; 361 ; Frederick the Great, 362 ; 

Froude's Life of, 364; historical works 

of, XII 838 sq. 
Carmagnola, Savoyard plots in (1580), m 

408, (1588), 414 

(Francesco Bussone), Italian general, 

I 279 sq. 

Carmarthen, Marquis of. See Leeds, 5th 

Duke of 
Carmel, Gaspard, French Reformer, ii 295 
Carmelites, The Bare-footed, v 73 
Carmen Sylva. See Elizabeth, Queen of 

Roumania 



Carmer, Count Johann H. C, Prussian 

High Chancellor, vi 728 
Carmine, Italian statesman, xn 227 
Carnarvon, Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of 

(3rd cr.), ix 78 

Henry H. M. Herbert, 4th Earl of, 

XI 340 sq. ; 771 ; Colonial Secretary, xn 
30; 33; and Parnell, 42, 83; 43; 84; 
resigns, 390 ; and Cape Colony, 636 ; 646 

Carnatic, The, Clive and Warren Hastings, 
Vol. VI, Chap. XV (2) passivi ; 465 ; affairs 
in, IX 721-2; Naw4bs of, see Arcot, 
Nawabs of 

Came, Edward, English ambassador in 
Rome, II 436 sq., 564 

Carn^, Comte Louis Marcein de, x 500 

Carnesecchi, Pietro, Italian Reformer, ii 
390, 396 sq.; ra 390, 459-60, 466 

Carniola, transferred to Archduke Ferdinand, 
11 150; Protestantism in, ni 702; Estates 
of, 728; Austria and, vi 204; French 
province of, ix 418; recovered by Austria 
(1815), 660; and German unity, xi 173 

Carnot, Lazare-Nicolas-Marguerite, viii 233, 
249; on Comiti de Salut Public, 844, 348, 
368, 380, 385, 389; and the army, 426, 
431, 434 sq.; Director, 490 sqq., 495, 
498 sq. ; and Coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor, 
508 sqq., 591; pamphlet of (1798), 641; 
IX 19; 24, 31, 96, 133; and the Restora- 
tion, 565; 572, 616, 643 

Lazare-Hippolyte, xi 26; 39; Min- 
ister of Public Instruction, 104; retires, 
114; 116; and national education, 120; 
124 ; 131 ; and Coup d'etat of December, 
136; 304; 477; 489 

Marie-FranQois-Sadi, President of 

French Republic, xii 98; 112; and the 
Papacy, 119; assassinated, 126 

Nicolas-Leonard- Sadi, and the theory 

of heat, XII 784 

Carnwarth, Robert Daly ell, 6th Earl of, vi 

101; 103 
Caro, Annibale, ni 471 

Ventura, Spanish general, vin 439 

Caroli, Peter, Calvin and, ii 368 
Carolina. See also Carolinas, The 

North, Amidas and Barlow land in, 

vii 3; settlement in (1585-6), ih,-, 63; 
trade of, 56 ; 162; condition of, 164; the war 
in (1776), 173; constitution of, 241 sq.; 
and custom dues, 243 ; and the Constitu- 
tional Convention, 245 sq., 278, 281, 
283; refuses to ratify the Constitution, 
303 ; encouragement of manufactures in, 

and the Tariff, 377; slavery in, 
581; white population in (1860), 
and secession, 453, 603 ; Sherman's 
march through, 528, 534; emancipation 
in, 595 ; opposition to Confederate policy 
in, 608 sq. ; becomes Democratic, 642 

South, negroes in, vii 55; trade of, 

56; the war in (1776), 173; invasion of 
(1778), 219; constitution of, 237, 241; 
and Constitutional Convention, 246, 268, 



354 



415; 



280 



General Index, 



263, 265, 268, 272, 277, 281 sq., 292; 
and the Tariff, 377 sq., 380; "nullifica- 
tion" in, 381, 409, 412, 414; white 
population of (1860), 415; secedes from 
Union (1860), 441, 445; 447; joins Con- 
federacy, 453, 603 ; Sherman's march 
through, 528 sq., 584; slavery in, 588; 
emancipation in, 695 ; corruption in, 
641; Republicans in, 642 

Carolinas, The, v 101 ; foundation of, 685 ; 
VI 51, 187; trade of, 447; vii 34-8; 
population of, 65; religious conditions 
in, 58, 114; disaffection in, 169; loyalist 
fugitives from, 219; war in (1780-1), 
223-9 ; and Constitutional Convention, 
252, 279 ; cessions in, 308 ; in the 
Civil War, 471 ; blockade -running in, 
620 

Caroline affair. The, vii 390 sq. 

Caroline, Augusta (of Bavaria), Empress of 
Austria, x 146 

Matilda, Queen of Denmark, consort 

of Christian YII, vi 743 ; and Struensee, 
745; 746; 748 sqq. ; death of, 752 sq.; 
VIII 279 

Queen of Great Britain, consort of 

George n, vi 19; 42; 47; 77 

Queen of Great Britain, consort of 

George IV, marriage of, ix 675; 687, 
690; X 583 

(Archduchess), Queen of Naples and 

Sicily, consort of Ferdinand I, viii 79, 
555 sq., 644, 649; 659; 778 sq. ; ix 247; 
381 ; makes one more bid for power, 
384; flight of, 404; death of, 604; treat- 
ment of, IX 648; X 110 

Princess of Palermo. See Aumale, 

Duchesse de 

Islands, purchased by Germany, xii 

171; Spain and, 264; 666 sq. 

Carolinum at Zurich, Zwingli Rector of 

the, II 321 
Caron, Augustin-Joseph, French colonel, 

X 76 
Franpois, Dutch trade with Japan 

and, IV 712; v 703 
Noel de. Seigneur de Schoneval, in 

258 
Carpaccio, Vittore, Venetian artist, i 284 
Carpentaria, exploration of, xi 798 
Carpenter, George Carpenter, Lord, Lieu- 
tenant-general, VI 101 
Carpentier, Pieter, Dutch Governor- General 

of the Indies, iv 711, 739 
Carpentras, siege of, by Avignon, viii 217 
Cardinal-Bishop of. See Sadoleto, 

Jacopo 
"Carpet-baggers," vii 640 sqq., 644 sq., 

652 
Carpi, French defeated at (1701), v 402 
Prince of. See Pio di Carpi 

Girolamo da, v 724 

Carpio, Duke of. See Haro, Don Luis de 
Carr, Robert. See Somerset, Earl of 
Robert, English officer, vii 41 



Carra, Jean-Louis, French politician, viii 
232 sq. 

Carraca, arsenal of, seized by revolution- 
aries (1820), X 216 

Carranza, Bartolom6 de, Archbishop of 
Toledo. See Toledo 

Carrara, marble quarries near, iii 392 

(Carraresi), the family of, recover 

Padua, I 265 

Francesco da. Lord of Padua, war 

between Venice and (1378), i 258, 265; 
Petrarch and, iii 463 

Jacopo da, of Padua, i 262 

Marsilio da, of Padua, i 262 sq. 

Carrel, Nicolas-Armand, journalist, and 

Napoleon, ix 758; x 491 sq. ; 499; xi 

26; 526 
Carrer, Luigi, Italian poet, xi 545 
Carretto, Francesco Saverio, Marquis del, 

Neapolitan Minister, xi 69 

Guglielmo, Marquis del, suppresses 

revolt at Cilento, x 119 

Carrickfergus, and the rebellion in Ulster, 
IV 522; Munro at, 524; surprised by 
•'Old Scots," 532; taken by Schomberg 
(1689), V 312; 313; French landing at, 

VI 489 

Carrickmacross, Lawless at (1828), x 647 
Carrick-on-Suir, William III at, v 315 
Carrick's Ford, Federal success at (1861), 

VII 457 

Carrier, Jean-Baptiste, member of the 
National Convention, viii 249, 356; 
impeached and executed, 377 
Carriglea, battle of (1588), iii 589, 602-3 
Carrion River, Soult on the, ix 445 
Cars, Duo des, French legitimist, x 486 
Carstares, William, and the establishment 

of Presbyterianism in Scotland, v 293 
Cartagena, Alva sails from (1567), in 213; 
Drake before, 321 ; trade of, v 684 ; sack 
of (1697), 691; blockade of, ix 211; Al- 
lied force at, 219; Villeneuve at, 220; 
Duke of Aosta lands at, xi 572 ; canton- 
alism at, xii 261 sq. 

de las Indias (Colombia), defence 

of (1741), VI 165, X 273; emigration to, 
251; the Inquisition in, 253 sq. ; and 
trade, 255; and the slave-trade, 260; 
buccaneers at, 272; revolution in, 285; 
288; Bolivar raises troops in, 289; be- 
sieged, 290; Bolivar retires to, 296 

Cartaojal, Spanish general, commands 

army in La Mancha, ix 448 ; 449 ; covers 

eastern passes, 450 
Cartaxo, Saldanha at, x 336 
Carteaux, Jean-Fran9ois, French general, 

vni 348, 352 
Carteret, Sir George, v 113; Lord Pro* 

prietor in New Jersey, vii 41 
Sir George (grandson of above). Lord 

Proprietor in New Jersey, vii 47 

Philip, Governor of New Jersey, vii 

41, 46 sq. 

Lord. See Granville, Earl 



General Index, 



281 



Cartesianism, %ee Vol. rv, Chap, xxvii, 

Descartes and Cartesianism; v 72 sq. 
Cartets, Vicomte de, and Labadie, v 756 
Carthage, Charles V lands at, ii 69 
Carthusians, execution of, under Henry VIII, 

II 442 
Cartier, George Etienne, Canadian states- 
man, XI 769; 770; 775 

Jacques, French explorer, 1 44 ; vii 71 

John, in India, vi 558; 566 

Cartwright, Thomas, Bishop of Chester, 

V 234 

Thomas, Puritan controversialist, ii 

694; III 340, 743, 752 sqq.; v 326 

Edmund, inventor, ix 372 

Major John, political reformer, vin 

755, 760; ix 688; x 576 sq.; 597 

Thomas, Secretary of the British 

Legation at the Hague, x 536 sq. 

Commander at Fort Orange (Albany), 

vii 39 
Carvajal, Juan de, papal legate in Hun- 
gary, I 69 

Spanish general, x 222 

y Lancaster, Don Jos6 de, Spanish 

statesman, vi 361 sqq.; death of, 364 
Carvalho, Jos6 da Silva, Portuguese states- 
man, X 326; 330 

e Mello, Sebastian Joseph. See 

Pombal, Marquis of 

Carver, William, Governor of New Ply- 
mouth, VII 14 

Cary, Lucius, Viscount Falkland. See 
Falkland 

Thomas, Governor of Carolina, vii 37 

Casa Blanca, xii 12; massacre at, 133 

Giovanni della, Archbishop of Bene- 

vento. See Benevento 

Casal, J. Chrysostom de Villaret, Bishop 
of, IX 129 

Casale, rising of, iii 407; Imperialist forces 
before, iv 115; siege of, 134 sqq.; French 
garrison in, 148 ; negotiations of Mazarin 
before, 592; Harcourt and, 599; assigned 
to Mantua, 618; attack on, by Spain, 643, 
673 ; death of Spinola at, 644 ; seized by 
the French (1681), v 48, 357; Agricultural 
Congress at, xi 78; 371 

Casali, Battista, at the Eoman Academy, 
II 16 

Casati, Spanish ambassador, opposes 
Henry IV, rv 41; offers treaty to the 
Grisons, 45 sq.; 48; Swiss Catholics 
and, 51 

Gabrio, Count de, Italian states- 
man, XI 90 

Teresa, x 118 

Casaubon, Isaao, Calvinist theologian, n 

718; III 60 
Casaux, the Seigneur de, and Marseilles 

(1596), m 397 
Cascaes Bay, Drake in, in 318 
Caselli, Charles-Fran<?ois, Servite, sent to 

France, ix 181 ; urges Pius VII to yield 

to Napoleon, 193 



Caserta, palace at, vi 696 

Gian Francesco di, Italian reformer, 

II 391 

Cashel, Synod of, ra 680; Inchiquin at, 
IV 531; Reconciliation meeting at (1828), 
X 648 

Casimir III, King of Poland, West Prussia 
acquired bv, ii 635; v 632 

IV, King of Poland, i 345 

John. See John II, King of Poland 

Casimir-P^rier, Jean-Paul-Pierre, President 

of the French Republic, xii 105; 107; and 

the establishment of the Republic, 110; 

112; 119; 126 
Casket Letters, iii 278-9 
Caspian Sea, Russia and, v 520 sq., 544 sq. ; 

Russian advances on, xi 273, 633, xii 

491; 793 
Cass, Lewis, American statesman, vii 398 

sq., 400, 419; resigns Secretaryship of 

State (1860), 447 
Cassala, xii 240; 447; relinquished by 

Italy, 448 
Cassander, George, in 164, 172 
Cassano, Prince Eugene repulsed at, v 414 
Cassard, Jacques, in the West Indies, v 

679 
Cassegrain, N., v 721 
Cassel (Montcassel), William of Orange 

defeated at (1677), v 44; 45 

(Hesse), Charles XII at, v 610; 743; 

surrender of, vi 426; Mortier ordered to 
march on, ix 278; capital of the kingdom 
of Westphalia, 411 ; xi 223 ; Prussian 
troops in, 229 sqq. 

Sir Ernest, and Egyptian hospitals, 

XII 453 

Cassian, John, writer on monachism, i 

534 
Cassillis, Gilbert Kennedy, 3rd Earl of, ii 

456, 458 
Cassini, Count, Russian Minister at Peking, 

XII 512 
Cassiodorus, Magnus Aurelius, the De Arti- 

bus et Disciplinis Liberalium Artium of, 

I 534 
Castagnetto, Count, Secretary to King 

Charles Albert, xi 78 
Castalbajac, French Royalist politician, x 

74 
Castaldo, Giambattista, Austrian envoy of 

Charles V, contrives the murder of Mar- 

tinuzzi, II 268, iii 122 
Castaneda, Spanish envoy at Vienna, iv 

238 
Castafios, Francis Xavier de, aftenoards 

Duke of Baylen, Spanish general, com- 
mands the Spanish army of Andalusia, 

IX 437; Dupont's convention with, 438; 
442; army of, remains intact, 443; in 
La Mancha, 448; aids Beresford, 466; 

X 211 

Castel Delfino, ceded to Dauphin^, in 419 
Castelar y Ripoll, Emilio, Spanisli states- 
man, XI 667; 670; xii 261 sq.; 264 sq. 



282 



General Index. 



VIII 778 
VIII 574 



Castelar, Baltasar Patino, Marquis of, 
Spanish diplomatist, vi 142; 149; 166 

Spanish general, vi 362 

Castelfidardo, Papal army defeated at, xi 

389, 469 
Castellesi, Cardinal (Adriano di Corneto), 

I 241, 489; ii 5, 15 

Castellio, Sebastian, ii 364, 372, 375 ; here- 

tical views of, 716 
Castel-Melhor, Louis Souza Vasconcellos, 

Count of, Portuguese statesman, v 34 
Castelnau, Jacques de la Mothe, Baron de, 

II 297 

Michel de, Memoires, in 65; envoy 

to Scotland, 269-70 

Castelnaudary, Gaston's army defeated at, 
IV 140 

Castel-Bodrigo, Francisco de Moura Corte- 
real, Marquis de, Governor of the Spanish 
Netherlands (1664-8), v 152 sq. 

Castelvetro, Giammaria, Modenese Re- 
former , II 387 

Ludovico, of Modena, ii 386 sq. ; m 

457, 465 

Casti, Gianbattista, Italian poet, 
Castiglione, battle of (1796), 

sqq. 

Baldassare, II Cortegiano, i 560 ; ii 

8, 20 ; III 457, 462-4, 466 

Castiglioni, Francesco Xaverio. See Pius 
VIII, Pope 

Castile, united with Aragon, i 111, 347 ; 
institutions of, 348-9; Holy Brother- 
hood in, 352 sq. ; war of succession in, 
352 ; the Council of, 355 ; Navarre in- 
corporated with, 367; revolt of Comuneros 
in, 357, 372 sq.; Cortes of, meet (1586), 
III 508; vote subsidy for Irish expedition, 
682 ; kingdom of, royal autocracy in, 
478 ; traditional policy of, 479 ; govern- 
ment of, 485; condition of, 488, 513; 
Moors in, 494 ; taxation of, 496-7 ; 
burdened by imperial poUcy of its kings, 
604, 512; desolation of, 523, 528, 537; 
taxed for new Holy League, 541 ; Philip 

III and the Council of, iv 634 ; Philip IV 
and the Council of, 640 ; flight of Philip 

IV and Ohvares to, 643 ; Portugal to be 
a province of, 651 ; 655 ; industries in, 
656 ; Cortes of, ib. ; Council of, and the 
succession, v 392 ; 428 ; Council of, vi 
137; 142; economic reform in, 383 

(New), IX 429 ; territory held by 

French troops in, 435 ; operations re- 
sumed in, 455 ; Hill ordered to abandon 
(1812), 475; 479 

(Old), Blake's army descends into, 

IX 438 ; Baird directed to join Moore in, 
443 ; Mortier's corps in, 453 ; occupied 
by Imperial Guard, 458 ; disorder in, xi 
562; 567 

Admiral (Adelantado) of. See Mel- 
gar, Count of, and Padilla, Martin de 

Constable of (1520). See Frias, 2nd 

Duke of 



Castilla, Eamdn, Peruvian statesman, xii 

673 
Castillejos, battle of, xi 564 
Castillia, Gaetano, x 119 
CastiUo, Hernando del. See Del Castillo 
Castle, informer, x 578 sq. 

Island, fortified, vn 17 

Castlehaven, Spanish ships in, in 327, 

532-3 

James Touchet, 3rd Earl of, 

Vavasour defeated by, iv 526; Ireton 
and, 535 

Castlemaine, Barbara, Countess of, y 
111 

Roger Palmer, Earl of, v 235 

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount, after- 
wards 2nd Marquis of Londonderry, vin 
771 ; fights a duel with Canning, ix 359 ; 
dealings of, with Sicily, 384 ; advises inter- 
vention against Napoleon, 439 ; proposes 
Wellesley as commander of expedition to 
Spain, 440; Wellesley 's appointment due 
to, 449 ; at Conference of Chatillon, 546 ; 
signs Treaty of Chaumont, 577 ; at Con- 
gress of Vienna, 579 sq. ; 648, 653, 667 ; 
and the French frontier, 664 ; and Ca- 
tholic Emancipation, 678 ; 681 ; and the 
Walcheren expedition, 688 sq.; succeeds 
Wellesley in office, 690 ; and the Union 
with Ireland, 702; 705; criticism of 
Treaty of Bassein, 725 ; 729, 733 ; and 
the French colonies, 735 ; x 7 ; 9 ; and 
the Holy Alliance, 10 ; and Treaty of 
Paris (1815), 11; and the "European 
System," 12 ; 13 ; at Conference of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 14 sqq. ; 21 ; protests 
against Carlsbad Decrees, 22; 23; 25; 
and Conference of Troppau, 27-9 ; dis- 
cusses Eastern Question with Metter- 
nich, 32, 184; 36; and Consalvi, 141; 
176 sq. ; 186; and the Greek revolt, 
187; and Vienna Congress (1819), 368; 
371 ; and the Polish question, 445 sq. ; 
and the union of Holland and Belgium, 
519 sq.; leader in the Commons, 574 sq.; 
and repressive measures, 578 sq.; 580; 
684 ; election of, for county Down, 607 ; 
and the movement for Catholic reHef, 629, 
634 ; death of, 33, 583 ; xii 682 
Castries, Charles-E.-G. de La Croix, Marquis 
de, French marshal, Miaister of Marine, 
VIII 94, 96, 107 
Castriotes, George. See Scanderbeg 
Castro, the Barberini and, rv 685 ; restored 
to Parma, 687 

Vireyna, silver mines at, v 682 

Alfonso de, the De Uaeresihus, ii 

402 

Alphonso de, Viceroy of the Indies, 

m 638 

Don Pedro de, vi 105 

Count of, Spanish ambassador in 

Venice, iv 671 

Catalans, Philip V and the, v 445 sq.; 
452 



General Index. 



283 



Catalonia, constitution of, i 351 ; Cortes of, 
III 485, 496; exposed to Barbarossa's 
attacks, 110; revolt of (1640), iv 147 sqq., 
618 sqq.; insurgents of, represented at 
Miinster, 402 ; France and, 593, 598 sqq.; 
612, 615 ; Peace of the Pyrenees and, 620, 
660 ; Cortes of, 628, 643 ; Castilian troops 
in, 647 ; government of, 653 ; 656 ; 658 ; 
expense of war against, 659 ; pacification 
of, 661; the French in, v 61, 416; re- 
stored to Spain, 63; 375; 428; 451; and 
Philip V, 404, 436 ; the Allies in, 419, 
426; evacuated by the Allies (1712), 434; 
440; VI 34; evacuated by French, 35; 
136; 383; French invade (1794), viii 
440 ; emigres in, 782 ; operations in 
(1808), IX 239; 396; Duhesme in, 430, 
435, 439; Saint-Cyr sent to, 447 sqq., 
454; Augereau's failure in (1809), 457; 
458; Macdonald supersedes Augereau in, 
464 ; isolation of, 465 ; struggle in (1813- 
4), 479 ; Mina in, x 228 ; the Society of 
the Exterminating Angel, 229 ; absolutist 
revolt in (1828), 230; Don Carlos in, 
239 ; Carlist rising in, xi 556 ; xii 258 ; 
military disorder in, 260 ; 263 ; 268 

Catania, naval battle of (1676), v 44; Order 
of St John of Jerusalem at, ix 604 ; cap- 
ture of, XI 92 

Catarino, Ambrogio, refutes the SommariOy 
n386 

Catawba river, Cornwallis crosses, vn 227 sq. 

Cateau-Cambresis, Treaty of (1559), ii 26, 
88, 93 sq., 99, 566; iii 6, 184, 187, 
260, 263, 280, 406, 465, 477 sqq., 674, 
677 

Catechism, of Martin Luther, ii 201, 613; 
of Canisius, 682 

Catharine (of Aragon), Queen of England, 
consort of Henry VIII, marriage of, i 
466, 473 sq., 476 ; 482, 488 ; n 26, 70, 
416 sq., 428 sqq., 437, 440, 444 

(of Braganza), Queen of England, 

consort of Charles II, marriage of, iv 
621, v 105; 106; 212 sq.; Titus Gates 
and, 225; 698 

(Howard), Queen of England, 6th 

consort of Henry VIII, ii 451 ; executed, 
453 

(Parr), Queen of England, 6th con- 
sort of Henry VIII, ii 457 ; marries Sir 
Thomas Seymour, 488 

(de' Medici), Queen of France, consort 

of Henry II, marriage of, ii 26, 67, 98 ; 
219; the Keformation in France and, 
296-304 ; 578, 581 ; policy and action of, 
III 1-45 ; 53 ; and Poland, 85 ; 177; and 
the Guises, 266. 271; and St Bartholo- 
mew massacre, 285 ; and Savoy, 403, 
408, 413 ; and Philip II, 484, 486, 489 sqq. ; 
and Don Antonio, 501 sq. 

(d'Albret), Queen of Navarre. See 

Navarre 

(of Austria), Queen of Poland, 3rd 

consort of Sigismund I, ni 82 



Catharine (of Austria), Queen of Portugal, 
marries John III, n 172 

I, Tsarina of Eussia, v 547 sq. ; 

accession of, 549 ; 550 sq. ; illness and 
death of, 551 sq.; vi 143; 302; 312 

II, Tsarina of Eussia, v 479 ; 505 ; 

Vol. VI, Chap. XIX ; 316; and Stanislaus 
Poniatowski, 200 ; 299 ; 322 ; 340 ; 346 ; 
the " Greek project " of, 353, 355 ; 354 ; 
and Poland, 357 sq., 730 sqq.; Spain and, 
378; 460; 629; and Prussia, 630 sq.; 
633; and Austria, 647 sq.; 651; and 
Frederick the Great, 352, 702, 707 sq., 
729; 742; and Denmark, 743 sq., 754; 
746; 750; 753; 765 sq.; and Sweden, 
769 sqq.; 778; and Finland, 782; 783; 
vn 232; vin 278, 280, 292 sq. ; policy 
of, 307 sqq. ; in the Crimea, 315 ; after 
Eeichenbach, 336 sq.; and Poland, Chap. 
XVII passivi; death of (1796), 552, 683; 
and the French Eevolution, 784 sq. ; ix 
34 sqq. ; and the First Armed Neutrality, 
43 sqq.; 280; attacks of, on Turkey, 385; 
X 172 ; 413 ; 423 ; 425 ; and the serfs, 
426; 471; xi 262; 264 

(Jagello), Queen of Sweden, con- 
sort of John III, influence of, n 630, 
632; marriage of, iv 162; 166; death 
of, 167 

(Stenbock), Queen of Sweden, con- 
sort of Gustavus I, death of, rv 183 

(of Brandenburg), Princess of Tran- 
sylvania, consort of Bethlen Gabor, iv 
29; Eussian marriage proposed for, 90; 
marries Bethlen Gabor, 91, 100 

daughter of Henry II of France, 

in 400 

Ivanovna, Duchess of Mecklenburg- 

Schwerin, v 611 ; vi 309 

of Navarre, sister of Henry IV, m 

413 

Grand Duchess of Eussia, Duchess 

of Oldenburg, afterwards Queen of Wiir- 
temberg, at Vienna, ix 581 ; x 361 

Infanta, daughter of Philip II, con- 
sort of Charles Emmanuel, Duke of 
Savoy, III 413, 613 ; death of, 417 

Cathcart, Charles Murray, 2nd Earl Cath- 
cart, in British N. America, xi 767 

Sir William Schaw, 10th Baron, Ist 

Viscount and Earl, bombards Copenhagen, 
IX 236 ; 263 ; at Eiigen, 289 ; 295-6 ; at 
the Congress of Vienna, 585 

Cathelineau, Jacques, Vendean leader, vin 
266, 341 

Catholic Emancipation, and Pitt's resigna- 
tion, IX 678 sq., 693 sqq., but see Chap. 
XXII passim; becomes law, x 593, see 
Chap. XIX, 620-54. See also Toleration 

Catholique, Le, Ghent journal, x 532 

Catinat de St Gratien, Nicolas de. Marshal 
of France, v 60 sqq.; 401 sq.; 404 sqq. 

Cats, Jacob, Pauw replaced by, iv 697* 
poems of, 719; 721; Grand Pensionary 
of Holland, v 139 



284 



General Index. 



Cattaneo, Carlo, Italian writer, xi 547 

Cattaro, prisoners work at, rx 84 ; ceded to 
France (1806), 269, 270-1, 293, 306; re- 
stored to Austria (1815), 660; Monte- 
negrin occupation of, xii 402 

Cattegat, Russo-Danish squadron in, vi 
779 

Caturce, Jean de, French Reformer, ii 
291 

Caub, Bliicher at, nc 544 

Caucasus, The, Russian influence in, v 545 ; 
VI 673 sq., 676; Orthodox mission in, x 
422; Russian advances in, xi 273 sq. ; 
633 ; naphtha industry of, xii 321 ; strike 
in, 331 ; 332 ; 342 sq. ; disturbances in, 
350 sq. ; 353 sq. ; 373 ; 793 

Caudebec, taken by Parma (1592), iii 
51 

Caulaincourt, Armand-Augustin-Louis de, 
Duke of Vicenza, ix 30; receives Vi- 
cenza, 111; 145; French ambassador, 
307; Napoleon's directions to, 308; 310; 
meeting with Romanzoff, 312; 313; 
Napoleon's letters to, 314; 315 sqq. ; 
summoned to St Petersburg, 485; sent 
to Alexander, 520; 543; suggests ne- 
gotiations, 545; at Chatillon, 546; 649, 
552; envoy to Alexander, 558; Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, 616 

Caulet, Etienne-FranQois de, Bishop of 
Pamiers. See Pamiers 

Caumartin, Francois LefSvre de. Bishop 
of Amiens. See Amiens 

Caussidi^re, Marc, x 492; xi 99; 110 

Cauvin, Jean. See Calvin 

Cavagnari, Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon, xii 
34 sq.; 469; 471 

Cavaignac, El^nore-Louis-Godefroy, x 485 ; 
491 

• Jacques - Marie - Eugene - Godefroy, 

French Minister of War, xii 121 

Louis-Eugene, French general, x 485 ; 

XI 104; Minister of War, 112; 113; 
suppresses insurrection in Paris, 114; 
117; and the Presidential election, 118; 
121 sq. ; imprisonment of, 136; 304 

Cavalier, Jean, Camisard leader, v 26 

Cavalieri, Bonaventura, mathematician, v 
711 

Cavallini, Pietro, iii 438 

Cavallotti, Felice, Italian politician, xii 
219 

Cavan, invasion of, in 605 ; plantation of, 
614 

Cave, Stephen, and Egyptian finance, xii 
481, 434 

Cavendish, Charles, killed at Gainsborough, 
IV 314 

Lord Frederick Charles, Secretary 

for Ireland, xii 40; 81 

Henry, man of science, xii 768 

Lord John, Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, VI 457; 462 sqq. 

Sir Thomas, navigator, x 272 

Lord. See Devonshire, Duke of 



Cavite, Spanish fleet destroyed at, vn 679, 

XII 530 
Cavour, surrender of, m 417 

Camillo, Count di, ii 35; and Italy 

(1849-61), Vol. XI, Chap, xiv; 79; 83; 
interview with Napoleon III, 307, 376, 
881; 322; and Austria, 403; results of 
work of, 529; 530; 539; 705; death of, 
392; XII 215 

Cawdor, Frederick A. V. Campbell, 3rd 
Earl, XII 60 

John Campbell, 1st Baron, viii 

475 

Cawnpore, xi 738 ; mutiny at, 746 ; massacre 

at, 747; 748 
Cawsand Bay, English fleet leaves for Cadiz, 

III 324 
Caxton, William, the Golden Legend, i 641 
Caya river, defeat of the Allies on (1709), 

V 426; Soult and Marmont in front of, 

IX 468 

Cayenne, French colony of, rv 756, v 448, 
678, VII 79, 96; trade of, 327; trans- 
portations to, VIII 506, 512 sq., xi 139, 
304; Villeneuve ordered to, ix 219; re- 
duced (1809), 240 

Cayla. See Du Cayla 

Cayuga, The. See Iroquois 

Cazal^s, J.-A.-M. de, French politician, viii 
159, 172, 741 

Cazalla, Dr Agustin, Spanish Reformer, ii 
404, 407 sq. 

Francisco de, Spanish Reformer, ii 

408 

Pedro, Spanish martyr, ii 408 

Cea Bermudez, Spanish Minister, x 233 
Cechs, compared with Magyars, i 330 sq. ; 

XI 46; 176 sqq.; 190; 216; literature of, 
653 sqq. ; Vol. xii. Chap, vii passim 
Cecil, Sir Edward, commands expedition to 
Calais, iv 262 

Sir Robert. See Salisbury, Earl of 

Sir William. See Burghley, Lord 

C6cora, Polish disaster near, iv 189 
Cedar Creek, battle of (1864), vii 532 sq. 
Celebes, The, and Dutch colonisation, iv 

711; government of, xii 669 

Celeron. See Bienville, Celeron de 

Celestina, La, by Rojas, i 379 

Cellamare, Antonio Giudice, Duke of 
Giovenazzo, Prince of, Spanish am- 
bassador at Paris, vi 33 ; 121 ; 125 ; 130 

Celle, Queen Caroline Matilda at, vi 751. 
753 

Celles, Antoine-Charles Fiacre, Comte de 
Visscher de, cruelty of, as prefect of the 
Zuider See, ix 417 
Antoine-P.-F.-G., Comte de Visscher, 

X 480; 627 

Cellini, Benvenuto, ii 24; iii 394, 466. 

474 
Celman, M. Suarez, President of the 

Argentine Confederation, xii 683 
Celtes, Conrad, German humanist, i 323, 

325, 637 



General Index, 



285 



Cemetery Eidge, and Gettysburg, vii 

488 sq. 
Cenci, Beatrice, executed, iv 668 
Cennini, Bernardo, Florentine printer, i 

561 
Centallo, annexed to Saluzzo, in 419 
Centerville, Federal retreat to (1861), vii 

466 
Gentri, secret society, in Mantua, x 111 
Centuries of Meditations, Traherne's, rv 

771 
Centurione, Paolo, Genoese traveller, v 512 
Cepbalonia, seized by Turks (1479), i 81; 

Fleet of Triple Alliance at (1571), m 

135 
Ceraechi, Joseph, ix 17 
Ceram, English attempt to establish factories 

in, IV 735 
Cerdagne, recovery of, by Spain (1493), i 

111, 229, 363; Spain and, vi 141 
Ceresole, French victory at (1544), n 77, 

245 
Ceri, Eenzo da, condottiere, 1 134 ; defends 

Marseilles, ii 49; raids the Abruzzi, 55 
Cerignola, French capture of (1502), i 125; 

French defeat at (1503), 195 
Cerkova, Charles XII at, v 600 
Ceroni, Joseph, Italian poet and captain, ix 

87 
Cerretani, Bartolommeo, Florentine chroni- 
cler, I 147 
Cerro Gordo (Mexico), captured by Scott 

(1847), VII 396 
Certain, George, and Lambert (William and 

Lewis of Nassau), iii 231 
Cervantes, Miguel, in 136; Don Quixote, 

365, 546-7 
Cerveira, Portuguese chronicler, i 16 
Cervera y Topete, Pascual, Count de Jerez 

and Marquis de Santa Ava, Spanish 

admiral (1898), vn 679 sq. ; xn 266 
Cervi, island of, xi 280 sq. 
Cervoni, Jean-Baptiste, French general, 

vin 564 sq., 569 
Cesari, Itahan brigand, x 138 
Cesarini, Alessandro, ii 16 

Cardinal Giuliano, at the Council 

of Basel, i 623 

Cesarotti, Melchiore, Italian writer, vi 830 
Cesena, Pius VII at, x 134; riots at (1830-1), 

154, 155 
Cesi, Prince Federigo, and the Accademia 

del Lincei, v 740 

Paolo Emilio, n 16 

Pietro Donati, Cardinal, Bishop of 

Narni, m 450 

Cetewayo, King of the Zulus, xii 636 
Cette, harbour works at, xii 102 
Cettinje, investment of, xi 636 
Ceuta, taken by Portuguese (1415), i 10; 

fighting at, vi 151 ; Arab raids near, xi 664 
Ceva, the Allies at, vni 565; occupied by 

the French (1796), 567 
Cevallos, Pedro, Spanish ambassador at 

Vienna, x 213 



Cevennes, Protestant rising in the, v 26 

Ceylon, Dutch trade with, iii 638 ; Christian 
IV and, IV 567 ; and Dutch colonisation, 
711 ; Portuguese in, 743 sq. ; and French 
colonisation, v 13; the Dutch in, 107, 
696; 146; 695; Dutch colony of, taken 
by the English, viii 484; retained by 
Great Britain, ix 75, 77, 654, 752; 
account of, 733 sq. ; Arabi Pasha exiled 
to, XII 438 

Cezimbra Bay, Spanish carrack captured 
in, III 327 

Chaban, Prefect of Brussels, ix 399 ; work 
of, at Brussels, 416 

Chabert, French labour politician, xn 
94 

Chablais, participates in Swiss neutrality, 
IX 660 

Chabot, Francois, Eevolutionary, viii 213, 
249, 339 ; trial and execution of, 363 sq. 

L.-F.-J., French general, viii 582 

de I'AUier, Georges-Antoine, ix 19 

Chabran, Joseph, Comte, French general, 

IX 60 

Chabrol de Volire, Gilbert-Joseph-Gaspard, 
Comte de, ix 145 

Chacabuco, Eoyalist defeat at (1817), x 
292 

Chaco, district of the, x 269 sq. 

Chad, kingdom of, the French Congo and, 
XII 130 

Lake, xn 659 sq. ; exploration on, 

129 sq., 806 sqq., 810 sqq. 

Chadda river, and the Niger, xn 807 

Chadwick, Sir Edwin, and Poor Law re- 
form, X 660 sqq.; 681; xi 1; xn 750 

Chagatais clan, vi 508 

Chaikovsky, Nicholas, Eussian revolution- 
ary, XII 304 

Chaireddin. See Barbarossa 

Chait Singh, Eajah of Benares, Warren 
Hastings and, vi 471 ; 578 sqq. ; 582 sq. ; 

IX 716 

Chakdarra, attacked by the Swatis, xn 

488 
Chalais, Henri de Talleyrand, Comte de, 

execution of, iv 131 
Chalcondylas, Demetrius, career of, in 

Italy, I 543; n 16 
Chaldiran, victory of Turks at (1514), i 

90 
Chalgrove, skirmish at (1643), iv 313 
Challemel-Lacour, Paul-Armand, French 

politician, xi 487 
Challier, Marie- Joseph, Lyons Jacobin, 

vin 340, 346 
Challoner, Sir Thomas, agent of Edward VI 

and Mary at the French Court, n 518; 

m 265 
Chalmers, Thomas, economic theories of, 

X 775 ; and the Disruption of the Scottish 
Church, XI 6 

William, bequeaths industrial college 

to Goteborg, xi 684 
Chalons, House of, v 669 



G. M. H. 



18 



286 



General Index, 



Ch41ons-sur-Marne, headquarters of the 
League, in a9; Parlement of, 659, 663 
sqq. ; army at, 690 ; insurrection at 
(1792), VIII 251; Bliicher at, ix 548; 
army corps at, xi 582; 585; German 
advance on, 594; 595 

Cham, Wallenstein abandons investment 
of, IV 237 

Chaman, railway to, xn 489 

Chambarlac, General, ix 14 

Chamberlain, Hugh, and a national bank, 

V 266; 271 

Joseph, President of the Board of 

Trade, xn 36 ; 40 ; the " unauthorised pro- 
gramme " of, 42 sq. ; and Home Rule, 
44, 46; mission of, to the United States, 
47; 48; Colonial Secretary, 52; and 
the Jameson Baid, 53; advocates Tariff 
Reform, 54; Colonial policy of, 57; and 
Parnell, 81, 84; and South African 
affairs, 641; 652 

Sir Neville Bowles, Field-Marshal, 

xn 469 

Chamberlayne, William, poet, v 136 

'* Chambers of Reunion," Louis XIV's, v47 

sq., 357 
Chambers, Richard, refuses to pay taxes, 

IV 273; punishment of, 281 
Chambersburg, Lee at, vii 488; burned 

by the Confederates, 532 
Cbamb6ry, taken by the French (1630), iv 

138 ; added to France (1814), ix 564, 576 ; 

bishopric of, x 149 
Chamblee, fort at, vii 170 
Chambon de Montaux, Nicolas, Mayor of 

Paris, VIII 252 
Chambord, Treaty of (1552), ii 87, 271 

Henri - Charles - Ferdinand - M. - D. 

d'Artois, Comte de, xi 133; xii 92; 103 
sq. ; and the Comte de Paris, 107 sqq. 

Chambre Ardente, La, ii 293 

Introuvahle, x 46 

Chambres de VEdit, in 676 

Chamillart, Michel de, French financier, 

V 28 sq. ; 417; 424 

Chamisso, Adalbert von, German poet, 
X 404 

Champ de Mars, "massacre" of the (July 
17, 1791), vm 200 

Champagne, devastation of, n87; Guise in, 
ni32; the League in, 661, 663; Intendant 
retained in, iv 606; Conti Governor of, 
608, 614; Spaniards under Turenne in, 
613; Conde in, 618 sq.; customs of, v 
13; Prussian retreat from, viii 534, 551 

Champagny, Oomte Fran<;ois-J.-M.-T. de, 
X 600 

F. Perrenot de, in 237, 242 ; Governor 

at Antwerp, 245-6 

Jean-Baptiste Nomp^re de, vn 332 

sq. ; granted duchy of Cadore, ix 111 ; 
becomes Foreign Minister, 136; 141, 195, 
245, 247; Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
300; 309, 321, 335, 359; Nax3oieon writes 
to, 370 



Champaubert, Russian repulse at (1814), 

IX 547 
Champeaux, French ambassador in Spain, 

VI 156 

Champigny, truce ratified at (1575), iii 28 
Champion, Alexander, general, invades 

Rohiikhand, vi 669 sq, 
Championnet, Jean - Etienne, French 

general, vm 429; in Rome (1799), 652; 

in Naples, 653, 779 ; 663 
Champion's Hill, Federal victory at (1863), 

VII 504 

Champlain, Lake, exploration of, vn 72; 
80 ; French troops at, 124 sq., 137 ; and 
the United States boundary, 307, 315; 
Americans checked on (1813), 341 

Samuel de, founder of Quebec, v 

684; vn 71 sq.; surrenders Quebec, 74; 
75 sq. 

Champnol, Emmanuel Cretet, Comte de. 
Governor of the Bank of France, ix 117; 
Minister of the Interior, 136-8; pleni- 
potentiary for the French Concordat, 
184 

Champollion, Jean-Francois, Egyptologist, 

XI 525; XII 845 

Chancellor, Richard, in Russia, v 512 sq. ; 
xn 793 

Chancellorsville, battle of (1863), vii 485 sq. 

Chand Bibi, Queen Regent of Ahmadnagar, 
VI 512 sq. 

Chanda Sahib, Nawab of the Carnatic, vi 
533 ; 539 sqq. 

Chandernagore, factory at, v703; vi347; 
454; French rule in, 534; 544; 552; 
captured by the English, 553, 577; 554 

Chandler, Edward Barron, Canadian poli- 
tician, XI 775 

Zachariah, American politician, vn 

469, 653 

Chandos, Marquis of. See Buckingham 
and Chandos, Duke of 

Chang Chihtung, Chinese Viceroy, xn 505; 
507; 516 

Changama, Haidar Ali defeated at, vi 
567 

Changarnier , Nicolas - Aime - Th^odule, 
French general, xi 110; 119; 125; de- 
prived of his command, 132; 134; 136; 

XII 106 sq. ; 109 

Channel, control of the, in 510-11; Ar- 
mada in the (1688), 607, (1597), 529, 
(1698), 629-30 

Islands, reduction of, iv 466 ; a centre 

of English commerce, ix 381 

Channing, William Ellery, American Uni- 
tarian, VII 738 
Chantilly, Duke of Bourbon sent to, vi 144 
Chantonnay, captured by the Republicans, 
vm 353 

Thomas Perrenot de, Spanish am- 
bassador in France, n 302, 676 ; in 200 

Chantries Bill, The (1547), n 482 
Chantry Lands, confiscation of, in Eng- 
land, u 502 sq. 



General Index, 



287 



Chanut, Pierre, French ambassador, and 

Christina of Sweden, iv 675 sq. ; 787 
Chanzy, Antoine- Eugene -Alfred, French 

general, xi 605 sq. ; retreats to Le Mans, 

607; 608 sq.; defeated at Le Mans, 610; 

xii 105 
Chapelain, Jean, member of French 

Academy, iv 156 
Chapelle St Lambert, Prussians at, ix 634, 

637 
Chaplin, Henry, and bimetallism, xii 50 
Chaplitz, commands a detachment at Brili, 

IX 502 sq. 
Chapman, Frederick Henry, in Sweden, 

VI 775 

George, in 369, 380 

Chaptal, Jean-Antoine, Comte de Chante- 
loup, IX 9; 25, 124, 133, 376; experi- 
ments of, 377; X 744 

Chapu, capture of, xi 809 

Chapultepec, fort of, stormed by Scott 
(1847), VII 396 

Chapuys, Eustace, Imperial ambassador in 
England, n 442 

Charasia, Afghans defeated at, xii 471 

Gharbonnerie frangaisej secret society, x 
68, 75 

Charbonni^res, taken by Henry IV, iii 
417; recaptured by Charles Emmanuel 
(1598), ib. 

Charcas (Upper Peru), province of, x 249 

Charenton, Synod of (1631), v 743 

Charette de la Contrie, Francois- Athanase, 
Vendean leader, vin 266 sq., 341; deser- 
tion of, 353 sqq. ; accepts the terms of 
peace, 381 sq., 391; executed (1795), 395 

"Charitable Conference," at Thorn (1645), 
V 743 

Charlemont (Armagh), captured (1690), v 
314 

(Li^ge), fortified by Charles V, n 

89, 102 

James Caulfield, 4th Viscount and 

1st Earl of, vi 500 sqq.; vni 771; and 
the Whig Club, ix 693; 695, 701 

Cbarleroi, v 43; restored to Spain, 45; 

160; taken by the French (1667), 199; 

450; 457 sq.; siege of (1746), vi 246 sq.; 

Jourdan besieges, vin 435 ; Prussians 

at, IX 623; Napoleon captures (1815), 

625, 626 
Charles the Great, Emperor, i 9; the 

schools of, 634 sq., 537; v 617 
IV, Emperor, and Brandenburg, v 

621; 633 

V, Emperor (Charles I, King of 

Spain), I 46, 96, 318; Spanish revenue 
of, 358; 368-77 passim; received as 
King in Spain, 369 sq. ; the Cortes and, 
370 sq.; revolts against, 372 sq. ; 423, 
453 sqq.; 457 sq., 477, 486, 490, 519, 
658, 685, 691; character of, 378 sq.; see 
passim, Vol. n. Chaps, ii and in (Habs- 
burg and Valois), and Chaps, v-vni 
(Reformation and Eeligious Wars in 



Germany), 14, 23-5, 29, 36; possessions 
of, 37; character of, 38; election of, 
40 sq.; meets Henry VIII (1520), 42, 
416; (1522), 45, 419; 424, 426; quarrels 
with Henry VIII, 429; comment of, 
on More's execution, 443; encourages 
colonial trade, 100 sq.; at the Diet of 
Worms (1521), 139-41; dynastic aims 
of, 143-5, 246-8, 267; effect of reign 
of, on Germany, 145; the Schmalkaldio 
War and, 256-61; efforts of, to obtain 
a general Council, 249, 642; Paul III 
and, 661; and the Council of Trent, 
663-70; advice to Mary Tudor of, 518, 
622; 634, 536; close of career and 
abdication of, 89 sq., 537; activity of, 
against the Turks, ni 104 sqq.; sends 
letter to Sultan, 109; and Paul III, 110; 
expedition of, against Tunis, 111 sqq.; 
war of, with Francis I, 113; negotiates 
with Barbarossa, 114, 135; with Venice, 
115 sq.; Germany and, 145; Archduke 
Maximilian and, 166; 168; abdication 
of, 182 sq.; and the Netherlands, 184 
sqq. ; 189 sq. ; and Italy, 383 sqq. , 392, 
395; and Savoy, 402 ; 410; on Castiglione, 
464 ; policy of, 475 sq. ; possessions of, 
508; 640; and Ireland, 581; and Jiilich- 
Cleves, 716; temper of , 741 ; v 34; 627; 
VI 138; 158; 507; 612; x 269 
Charles VI, Emperor (Archduke), and the 
Spanish Succession, v 384, 388, 390 sqq., 
401; and Spain, 412; 417; inherits 
Habsburg dominions, 419 sq. ; 426 sq. ; 
in Catalonia, 419 sq. ; 429 ; leaves Spain, 
432 ; and peace negotiations before 
Utrecht, ib. ; elected Emperor, 434 ; and 
Peace of Utrecht, 434, 438 sqq., 450 sq.; 
and Peace of Eastatt, 435 sq., 452 sqq, ; 
and the Catalans, 445 sq. ; and Peace of 
Baden, 454 sq. ; and the Tsarevich, 539 ; 
and Peter the Great, 542; 643; 704; 
744; VI 21; 23; and Great Britain, 25, 
37 sqq., 61 sq. ; and Sardinia, 29; 30 
sqq. ; 35 ; and Vienna Treaties, 57, 60 ; 
58 sq. ; 91 ; and the Old Pretender, 97 ; 
109; 123; and Sicily, 124, 126; 125; 
and Dubois, 131 ; and the Spanish claims 
in Italy, 138 sqq. ; and the Jacobites, 142 ; 
and Spain, 145 sq., 148 sq. ; 151 sqq.; 
155; and Chauvelin, 163; 169; and Os- 
tend Company, 182; and Poland, 193; 
and Pragmatic Sanction, 201 sqq,, 228; 
205 sqq.; 210; Frederick William I 
and, 212; 227; 249; and Eussia, 308; 
and the Papacy, 586 sqq.; Venice and, 
606; sells Finale, 608; 614 sq.; 640; 
646; 741; 760; death of, 158, 204, 236; 
and the Austrian Netherlands, viii 
317 

VII, Emperor (Elector of Bavaria), 

V 451; VI 199; marriage of, 201; and 
Pragmatic Sanction, 202; and the Aus- 
trian Succession, 228 sqq. ; regains Ba- 
varia, 236; 238; 240; death of, 241 sq. 

18—2 



288 



General Index. 



Charles I, King of England (Prince of 
Wales), scheme of Spanish marriage for, 
in 660 sq., 575 sqq., iv 86 sq., 639 sqq.; 
French marriage of, 129 ; and the Roman 
Catholics in England, 131 ; and the con- 
stitutional struggle (1625-40), see Chap, 
vin; during the years 1640-2, see Chap. 
IX; and First Civil War (1642-7), see 
Chap, x; and the Presbyterians and 
Independents (1645-9), and trial and 
death of, see Chap, xi; 859; suspicious 
of the French Government, 378; and 
projected conference at Brussels, 396 ; not 
represented at Miinster or Osnabriick, 
403; 434; revives naval activity, 459 sq.; 
poverty of, 461 ; naval disorders of reign 
of, 462; reign of, and growth of 
English commerce, 466; 485; and Scot- 
land, see Chap, xvn; and Ireland, see 
Chap. XVIII ; 639 sq. ; Spanish journey 
of, 641 sq. , 673 ; and Frederick V, 643, 
646; 659; 664; Aerssens sent to, 701; 
the Dutch and, 702 ; protests against the 
"Massacre at Amboina," 739; and the 
East India Company, 746; experiments 
of, in colonial government, 748; 754; 
and Ireland, v 103; and Portugal, 105; 
216; and Scotland, 279 sq., 283 sq., 291 ; 
and the Puritans, 325; 326; 746; vi 
795 sq. 

II, King of England (Prince of Wales), 

at Bristol, iv 328 ; at Exeter, 333 sq. ; 
and Cromwell, 347; and the fleet, 350, 
463 ; Lauderdale and, 351 ; invited to 
Ireland by Ormonde, 435 ; at Worcester, 
436; 446; 450; Richard Cromwell and, 
450 sq. ; 463; in Scotland, 466; pro- 
claimed King in Scotland, 509 sqq.; 540; 
Treaty of Pyrenees and, 542; Monck 
and, 545; parliamentary writs and, 553; 
goodwill to, 554; negotiations with, 555 
sq. ; the Convention and, 558 ; return of, 
559; Irish Confederates and, 532; Irish 
peace of 1649 and, 534; expelled from 
France, 619; 620 sq.; William II of 
Orange and, 724 ; and Algiers, 483 ; 591 ; 
policy of (1667-85), Vol. v, Chap, ix; 
and the government of Scotland, Chap. 
X (2) ; in Holland, 148 ; lands at Dover, 
280; and Portugal, 34, 105, 107, 148; and 
Louis XIV, 37, 40, 42, 44 sqq., 105 sq., 
109, 154; and United Provinces, 37, 
43 sqq., 107, 178 sq. ; restoration and 
policy of, 92 sq.; 94; 96; 98; and re- 
ligious toleration, 99 sqq., 329, 333 sq.; 
and Clarendon, 101 sq., 114; and Spain, 
104 sq. ; marriage of, 105 ; and Prince 
of Orange, 107, 158, 163 ; and the Dutch 
war, 108 sq. ; financial difficulties of, 
110 sqq.; and the peace negotiations, 
112 sq.; and the army, 113, 265; and 
the Parliament, 114 sq.; 124; Dryden 
and, 134 sqq. ; and Bishop of Miinster, 
150, 182 ; and Triple Alliance, 154, 191 ; 
and Treaty of Dover, 154, 156; 177; 



and the fleet, 178, 187 sq. ; declares war 
against Dutch (1665), 180, (1672), 191; 
187; 190; 197; and Ireland, 301 sqq., 
310; religion of, 331; 359; and Dun- 
kirk, 442; 650; and Brazil, 675; and 
colonial affairs, 690; and East India 
Company, 697; and Hobbes, 751; death 
of, 230, 288; vi 6; 791; 808; and 
Virginia, vn 9; and New Netherlands, 
38 sq.; and Acadia, 75 
Charles V, King of France, i 384, 389, 392 ; 
communes suppressed by, 398, 411, 605, 
657 

VI, King of France, i 259, 384, 409, 

414 

VII, King of France, i 107, 384 sq. ; 

the Popes and, 386-7; 396, 400, 403; 
taxation under, 404 sqq. ; 411, 413, 430, 
636; n 36 

VIII, King of France, i 86, 107; 

Italian expedition of, 108-18, 229 sq., 
303, 5G4, 575; Florence and, 155, 228; 
170; Pisa and, 191; 362, 384, 392; 
marries Anne of Britanny, 395, 450, 
467; 401, 411, 413, 445, 467, 672; v 483 

IX, King of France, accession of, ii 

299, 302, 581; Geneva and, 373; ni 7; 
marriage of, 15, 177; and England, 16 
sq. ; and St Bartholomew, 19 ; and Mary 
Queen of Scots, 276, 282 sq.; and the 
Netherlands, 230 sqq.; and Cosimo I, 
390; death of, 24, 406; 484; 591 

X, King of France (Charles-Philippe, 

Comte d'Artois), vi 656; viii 81, 117; 
emigrates (1789), 165; accused of high 
treason, 221 ; expedition of, to the 
Vendue, 395; 398, 495, 555; ix 3; 28, 
30 ; enters Paris, 560 ; made Lieutenant- 
Governor, 561; views of, 566; 568 sq.; x 
13; 41; 44; 49; and army reforms, 55; 
tries to force a Royalist policy, 56; 
58; decline of the influence of, 60; 62; 
65; 67; and Richelieu, 63, 70; 65; 67; 
71; accession of (1824), 85; and com- 
pensation for the Emigres, 71, 85 sq. ; 
and the Church, 87 ; consecration of, 87 
sq. ; 90 ; appoints Martignac to succeed 
VilWe, 92; and Martignac, 93 sq. ; and 
the Polignac ministry, 96-8; character 
and policy of, 97; 98; and the address 
of the Liberal deputies, 99; publishes 
ordinances of July 25, 1830, ib. ; 162 ; 
and the Greek Question, 189, 193 ; Metter- 
nich and, 371; and Revolution of 1830, 
476; 477 sq.; 481 sq. ; 486; xi 22; 682 

II, King of Naples, i 108 

Ill (the Little), Prince of Durazzo, 

King of Naples and Hungary, i 108 

King of Roumania, xi 645 sq. ; xii 

341; 387 sq.; 397; 410; 414 

King of the Two Sicilies. See 

Charles III, King of Spain 

II, King of Spain, character and 

rule of, v 34 sq. ; marriages of, ib. ; 45 ; 
49; 62; and William of Orange, 244; 



General Index, 



289 



338; 349; accession of, 373; adminis- 
tration under, 374 sqq. ; 377 ; infirmity 
of, 379 sq. ; 381 ; 383 ; and the succes- 
sion, 384 sq., 391 sq.; death of, 393; 
will of, 392 sqq., 401; 395; 459; 523; 
691; and League of Augsburg, 655; 
659; 664; vi 686 
Charles III, King of Spain (and of the Two 
Sicilies) (Don Carlos), vi 62 ; 126 ; Italian 
claims of, 138 sqq. ; 147 sq. ; succeeds 
to duchy of Parma, 149 sqq.; 152; 
conquers Naples, 153 ; 155 ; marriage of, 
156 ; 167 ; 202 ; the Two Sicilies ceded to, 
203 ; 237 sq. ; 241 ; 342 ; and the Family 
Compact, 344; 346; 351; 363; reign 
of, in Spain, 366 sqq.; 443; 688; and 
Benedict XIV, 590; and the Jesuits, 
692 sqq. ; rule of, in Naples, 696 sqq. ; 
death of, 382; vin 778, 782; x 142; 
206; and reforms in Spanish America, 
274 sq. 

" IV, King of Spain (Prince of the 

Asturias), vi 366; 374; 381; 384; vm 
189, 782; ix 72; 302, 428; arrests his 
son Ferdinand, 429; and the revolution 
of Aranjuez, 430 sqq. ; forced abdication 
of, 433; X 232; 283; and Mexico, 303 

VIII (Karl Knudson), King of Sweden 

and Norway, n 600 

IX, King of Sweden, n 630, 632 sq. ; 

Sweden delivered by, iv 158; 160 sq., 
164; organises a revolt, 165; rule of, 
166 sq. ; 169 sq. ; concludes Peace of 
Teusin, 171; attacks Finland, 172; be- 
comes King, 173 ; invades Livonia, 174 ; 
government of, 176 sq. ; death of, 177; 
178; 179; martial reign of, 180; 183; 
565; patriarchal government of, 568; 
576; V 578 

X Gustavus, King of Sweden, at 

Prague, iv 394; 426; accession of, 427, 
676; at Warsaw, 428; first Danish war 
of, 429; second Danish war of, 432; 
England and, 429, 541 ; reign of, 576-91 ; 
620 ; and Baltic struggle, v 146 sq. ; and 
Denmark, 344, 562; and Poland, 344, 
349, 505 ; 558 ; and the succession, 563 ; 
and Hetman Chmielnicki, 599; 643; 
death of, iv 433, 589, v 147, 344; vi 
664 

XI, King of Sweden, v 49; 627; 

563; government of, 567; 568; and war 
of Scania, 569 sq. ; and peace treaties 
of 1679, 571 ; character of, 572 ; and his 
advisers, 573 sq. ; and "Reduction" of 
1680, 574 sqq. ; domestic policy of, 576 
Bqq. ; and Gottorp, 580 ; and Charles XII, 
684 sq. ; and Patknl, 586; and League 
of Augsburg, 655 ; death of, 576, 579, 584 

XII, King of Sweden, v 417; 527; 

672; birth of, 576; 679; and Denmark, 
580 sqq. ; invades Norway, 583 ; character 
and training of, 584 sq. ; coronation of, 
585; 586; and Duke of Gottorp, 680, 
687; and the great Northern War, 587 



sqq. ; at Narva, 588 sq. ; and Augustus II, 
589, 692; invades Poland, 592; and 
Stanislaus Leszczynski, 593; Treaty of, 
with Augustus II, 595 ; and the Russian 
peace overtures, 596; enters Grodno, 
597; at Holowczyn, 698; and Mazepa, 
699 sq. ; in the Ukraine, 600; defeated 
at Poltawa, 601; in Turkey, 602 sqq.; 
at Bender, 606; rejects neutrality com- 
pact, 607; 680; and "Stettin Seques- 
tration," 609; at Stralsund, 610 sq.; 
and the third anti-Swedish league, 611; 
in Scania, 612; and peace negotiations 
with Russia, 613 sq. ; 659 ; and Frederick I 
of Prussia, 666 sq.; death of, 583, 614, 
VI 34, 104 ; ih. 23 sqq. ; 33 sqq. ; and the 
Old Pretender, 97; and the Jacobites, 
104 ; 125 ; 192 ; and Stanislaus Leszczyn- 
ski, 193, 196; 206; 695; 735; 741 
Charles XIII, King of Sweden (Duke of 
Sudermania), vi 779 ; vm 789 ; ix 37-8 ; 
323, 329 ; xi 677 ; xii 281 

XIV, King of Sweden (Jean-Baptiste- 

Jules Bernadotte), Marshal of France, 
vm 581 sq., 642; French Minister of 
War, 671, 673 sq., 676 sq. ; and Bru- 
maire, 678, 681 ; ix 21-2 ; commander of 
1st French army corps, 252 ; marches to 
Wiirzburg, 253 ; marches to Munich, 254 ; 
on Ingolstadt, 255 ; on Salzburg, 256 ; 
pursues Kutusoff, 257 ; at Iglau, 258 ; or- 
dered from Iglau, 260 ; at Austerlitz, 261 ; 
receives Ponte Corvo, 111 ; 268, 274; de- 
feats Tauenzien, 275; at Jena, 276; at 
Naumburg, 277 ; at Zehdenick, 279 ; pur- 
sues Bliicher, 280; at Thorn, 284; at 
Mohrungen, 285 ; 287 ; at Hamburg, 296 ; 
in Holstein, 298; 303; in Zeeland, 300; 
313 ; choice of, as Prince Royal of Sweden, 
321 sqq. ; in Jutland, 322 ; commands 
the French army, 358 ; becomes Prince 
Royal of Sweden (August, 1810), 379; 
relations of, with Alexander, 487 ; joins 
Allies, 521 ; and Reichenbach plan, 
622 ; character of, 525 ; attacks Oudinot, 
626 ; at Dennewitz, 630 ; crosses the 
Elbe, 532; 533; at Leipzig, 538; and 
the invasion of France, 542; 543; be- 
sieges Hamburg, 644 ; and French throne, 
655 ; and Congress of Vienna, 582 ; 
loses Ponte Corvo, 652; ambitions of, 
661 ; and European concert, x 19, 36 ; 
XI 677 ; character and influence of, 
678 sq. ; constitutional position of, 680 ; 
Norwegian policy of, 681 ; foreign policy 
of, 682 sqq. ; and the Tsar Nicholas, 684 ; 
domestic policy of, 684 sqq. ; death of, 
686; 688; xii 274; 282 

XV, King of Sweden, character and 

reign of, xi 688 sqq. ; death of, 690 ; xii 
273 sq. ; and Norway, 282 sq. 

Archduke (of Austria), 3rd son of 

Leopold II, VI 656 ; vm 336, 497, 579 ; 
in Italy, 581 sq.; 634; at Stockach, 
665 sq., 661, 663 ; ix 56 ; 68, 247, 250 ; 



290 



General Index, 



commander of the army of Italy, 250 
sqq. ; escapes to Bohemia, 255 ; in Italy, 
257 ; retreat of, before Mass^na, 258 ; 
259 ; advice of, to Emperor Francis, 
262 ; interview with Napoleon, ih.\ army 
gathered in Bohemia under, 283 ; policy 
of, 288; 342, 343; Minister of War in 
1805, 346 ; operations of, 347-55 ; 359, 
680 ; X 357 ; 473 ; and the Belgian throne,- 
639 ; XI 162 
Charles, Archduke (of Styria), and marriage 
with Mary Queen of Scots, ii 586 sq. ; 
m 165 sqq., 268, 698 sqq. 

Prince of Wales. See Charles I and 

Charles II, Kings of England 

Albert, King of Sardinia, x 114 sqq.; 

reforms by, 123; 129; 142; d'Azeglio 
and, XI 66 ; 70 sq. ; 75 sq. ; 78 ; grants 
Constitution, 80 ; and the war with 
Austria, 82 sqq. ; and Italian Federation, 
90 ; 121 ; 207 ; abdication of, 366 ; 367 ; 
379; 645; 547; and Pius IX, 706; 
death of, 93 

Albert, Elector of Bavaria. See 

Charles VII, Emperor 

Edward, Prince (the Young Pre- 
tender), VI 74; 91; 106; at Paris, 110; 
in Scotland, 111 sqq.; in England, 114; 
character of, 116; retreats to France, 
117; 160; 249; 817; death of, 118; 
X 625 

Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia 

(Prince of Piedmont), v 432 ; vi 30 ; and 
the war with Austria, 152 sqq.; and 
Preliminaries of Vienna, 155; 159 sqq.; 
and Maria Theresa, 236 sq. ; 239 ; 241 ; 
243 sqq. ; and Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
249 ; 362 ; 366 ; and the Papacy, 589 ; 
608 sq. 

Emmanuel IV, King of Sardinia, viii 

644, 654, 660 sq.; ix 41 ; 71, 73, 79 

Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy. See 

Savoy 

Felix, King of Sardinia, x 116-7; 

123 

Gustavus , Count Palatine . See 

Charles X Gustavus, King of Sweden 

Charles -Louis, Infante, son of the Prince of 
Parma, claims of, to Tuscany, ix 602 

Charles, Philip of Sweden, Duke of Soder- 
manland, iv 176 sq.; death of, 183 

the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. See 

Burgundy 

Madame de, ii 97 

Charleston (South Carolina), founded, vii 
35; threatened by Prevost, 219; siege of 
(1780), 222 sq.; Leslie at, 227; evacuated 
(1781), 231, 307; population of , 359 ; and 
the Tariff, 376, 382; and slavery, 387; 
Democratic National Convention at (1860), 
445; forts of, 446 sqq.; Sherman cap- 
tures (1865), 529, 652; 551; Federal 
attack on (1863), 553 sq.; naval opera- 
tions at, 665; banks of, 610; blockade- 
running at, 620 



Charlestown, settlement of, vii 16; forti- 
fied, 17 

Charlet, Nicolas-Toussaint, x 489; xi 24 

Charlevoix, Pierre FrauQois Xavier de, vii 
90, 93, 103 

Charlotte, Empress of Mexico, xi 484 

Tsaritsa of Russia, v 538 

Princess, daughter of George IV, 

engagement of, ix 690, x 641 

Sophia, Queen of Great Britain, 

consort of George III, vi 434; 474 sq.; 
IX 690 

Charlottenburg, convention signed at (1806), 

IX 282 
Charlottetown, Confederation conference 

at, XI 770 
Charnac^, Baron Hercule-Girard de, agent 

of Eichelieu, iv 117; missions of, 135,142 ; 

mediator between Poland and Sweden, 

187, 192; in Sweden, 194; Treaty of 

Barwalde and, 198; sent to Munich, 210; 

succeeded by d'Avaux, 402 
Charnock, Job, founder of Calcutta, v 

699 

Eichard, Prior of St Mary's, Ox- 

ford, I 643 

Charolais, and Treaty of the Pyrenees, iv 

620 
Charpentier, Jean de, geologist, xi 260 
Charras, Jean-Baptiste-Adolphe, French 

officer, XI 113; 136 
Charron, Pierre, in 70 
Charterhouse, James II and the, v 335 
Charters, fort at, xii 639 
Chartism, rise of, x 681 sqq.; the Charter 

itself, 683 sq. ; decline of, xi 19 
Chartley, Mary in custody at, in 291 
Chartres, siege of (1591), iii 50; assembly 

at, 659; coronation of Henry IV at 

(1594), 662; German force at, xi 607 

Charles-Franpois de Monstiers de 

M^rinville, Bishop of, vi 162 

Jean-Baptiste J. de Lubersac, Bishop 

of, VIII 156; 179 

Philip, Due de. See Orleans, Louis 

Philippe Joseph, Due de 

JDuke of (son of the Eegent Orleans). 

See Orleans, Louis, Duke of 

Sieur de Ferri^res-Maligny, Vidame 

de. Huguenot intriguer, iii 3, 15, 19 

Cliase, Salmon Portland, vii 428 sq., 445; 
Secretary of Treasury, 450, 568 sqq., 
599, 607; Chief Justice, 546, 633 sq., 
653 

Chashniki, Wittgenstein's advance to, ix 
501 

Chass^, Baron David Hendrik, Dutch 
general, x 537; 643 

Cbasseloup-Laubat, Jastin-N.-S.-P., Mar- 
quis de, XII 131 

Chassin, Charles-Louis, French journalist, 
XI 488 

Chaste, Aymard de, admiral for Don An- 
tonio, III 601 

Chastel, Jean, ui 664 



General Index, 



291 



Chastelain, Georges, historian, i 415, 433 
Ghastelard, Pierre de Boscobel de, in 

268 
Chasteler, J. G. J. A., Marquis du. See 

Du Chasteler 
Chateaubriand, FranQois-Auguste, Vicomte 
de, VI 40; 826; 830 sqq. ; x 4; Le ginie 
du christianisme, ix 130 sq., 188, x 5, 
53, 100; Reflexions politiques, 43; 44; 
47; 49; La Monarchie selon la Chartc^ 
51; 55; and the Dibats, 59; 60; states 
the demands of the Ultras, 62; 63; 
ambassador in Berlin, 68; influence 
of, 72; policy of, in Berlin, 73; ambas- 
sador in London, 74; advocates a war 
policy, 79 ; and Congress of Verona, ib. ; 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, ib.; dis- 
missed, 80 ; 82 ; opposes Vill^le's financial 
scheme, 83, 86; 89; and Vill^le, 90 sq.; 
and literature of Restoration, 100 sqq. ; 
Les Martyrs, 100, xi 523; x 103; am- 
bassador in Eome, 153 sq. ; confession 
of faith of, 159; and Spanish affairs, 
225 sq.; 230; and Spanish America, 
309; 490; 494; 508; 514; xi 508; 519; 
528; xn 829 
Chfiteaubriant, Treaty of (1487), i 393 
Chateau- Gontier, battle at, viii 355 
Chateauneuf, Catholic army at, in 11 

Charles d'Aubespine, Marquis of, 

imprisonment of, iv 142 ; excluded from 
general amnesty, 593; and the Duchess 
of Chevreuse, 596; exiled, 607; and the 
House of Conde, 609 ; recalled, 612; 613; 
dismissal of, 614 sq. ; death of, 618 

Paul de I'Hdpital, Marquis de, 

French ambassador at St Petersburg, 
VI 322 

Pierre-Antoine de Castagneres, Mar- 
quis de, French Minister at the Hague, 
V 610 

Chateauroux, Madame de, vi 330 
Chateau-Thierry, granted to John Casimir, 

III 30; Allies at, ix 547 
Chateau-Vieux, mutiny of regiment of, vin 

192, 226 
Ch&telet, Florent-Louis-Marie, Due de, viii 

162, 179 
Chatelherault, Assembly of (1605), in 

681-2 

James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, 

Duke of, II 454; made Regent of Scot- 
land, 456 sq. ; treaty of with Henry VIII, 
458, 460; regency, 655-9; 673 sq., 575; 
III 261-3, 270 

Chater Sing, Sikh officer, xi 741 
Chatham, v 169; Dutch attack on (1667), 
160 sq., 154, 188 

John Pitt, 2nd Earl of, vm 294, 

297; lieutenant-general, commander of 
Walcheren expedition, ix 239, 358; and 
Catholic emancipation, 678; 681, 682 

William Pitt, 1st Earl of. Vol. vi, 

Chap, xin (1); 40; 42; 66; 62; 71; 
early years of, 73; advent to power of, 



74 sqq.; 81; 87; 263; 272; Frederick 
the Great and, 298, 324, 328; policy of, 
in the Seven Years' War, 342a sqq. 
(in Vol. xiii) ; and the negotiations with 
France, 343, 345, 425 sq.; fall of, 346; 
352; 365; 367 sq.; 423 sqq.; and Peace 
of Paris, 429; 430; and Wilkes, 431; 
and colonial policy, 433; 434 sq. ; created 
Earl, 436; administration of, 436 sqq.; 
resigns, 439; 442; and America, 447; 
448; 450; and Reform, 465; and Indian 
affairs, 567; Clive and, 670; 597; in 
power (1757), vn 131 sq., 137, 146 sq.; 
and Stamp Act, 150 ; 152 ; retirement of, 
154; 165; 162; x 699; 605; 703 
Chatillon, the family of, in 6, 8 

Gaspard III de Coligny, Marshal de, 

at Maestricht, iv 697 

Isabelle de Montmorency, Duchess 

of, influence of, on Cond^, iv 609, 616 ; 
exiled, 617 

Odet de Coligny, Cardinal de. Bishop 

of Beauvais, Archbishop of Toulouse, u 
300; ni 11 

See also Coligny and D'Andelot 

Chouan leader in Anjou, ix 2; 14 

Chatillon-sur-Seine, Conference at (1814), 

IX 481, 546 sqq., 552, 577, x 9 
Chatillon-sur-S^vre, Westermann defeated 

at, VIII 353 
Chattanooga, Buell ordered to, vn 500 sq., 

606; Confederates at, 508; evacuated, 

609; Rosecrans blockaded in, 610 sq.; 

battle of, 612 sq., 616; and the campaign 

of the West, 520; 561 
Chatterton, Thomas, poet, vi 831; 832; x 

698; 710 
Chaumette, Pierre- Gaspard, Vice-President 

of the Conseil General of the Commune, 

vm 261 ; Procureur, 252, 338, 349, 356, 

359 
Chaumont, Treaty of (1814), vn 366, ix 

660, 676 sqq., 589, 605, 646, 666-7, X 

7, 9, 11, 16, 481, 619 

Marquis de. See Amboise 

Chauncey, Isaac, American naval officer, 

vn 341 
Chauvelin, Franpois-Bernard, Marquis de, 
French ambassador, viii 296 sqq., 301 
sqq.; ordered to leave England, 305; x 91 

Germain-Louis de, French Foreign 

Minister, vi 147; 149; 156; 160; career 
of, 162 sq. ; disgrace of, 163 

Chaux de Fonds, Republican movement 

in, XI 263 
Chaves, Soult crosses the Portuguese border 

near, ix 449 

Friar Diggo de, confessor of Philip II. 

m 518 ^ 

Manuel de Silveyra Pinto de Fon- 

seca. Marquis de, x 321 

Chavigny, L6on Le Bouthillier, Comte de, 
rival of Mazarin, iv 593; driven from 
the Council by les Importants, 596 ; im- 
prisoned, 607; attached to Cond6, 609; 



292 



General Index. 



reappears at Court, 612 ; Cbief Minister, 
614; removed, 615; death of, 617 sq. 

Chavigny, French diplomatist, vi 615 

Chazal, Jean-Pierre, member of the Con- 
vention, viii 515, 677, 684, 686 

Chebreiss, repulse of the Mamelukes at 
(1798), VIII 601 

Chechen river, Russian troops on, xn 581 

Chefkin, Constantine, xi 614 

Cheke, Sir John, Greek professor at Cam- 
bridge, I 580, 581; committed to the 
Tower, ii 518 

Ch6khoff, Anton P., Russian poet, xii 317 

Chelm, diocese of, x 449; added to West 
Prussia (1815), 463 

Chelmsford, Frederic Augustus Thesiger, 
2nd Lord, xn 35 

Chelnokoff, and Russian economic reform, 
xn327 

Chemin, Nicholas du, Calvin and, ii 352 

Chemistry, history of. See Science 

Chemnitz, Ban6r defeats Archduke Leopold 
William near, iv 379; Austrians in, vi 
297 

Friedrich, poet, xi 412 

Martin, theologian, ii 714; in 704 

Philip Bogislav von, Swedish historio- 
grapher, sent to Niirnberg, iv 216; and 
De ratione status in Iniperio, 384 

Chemulpo, Russia and, xii 507; 522; 579; 

Russian ships captured at, 580; 581 
Ch^nedoll^, Charles Julien Pioult de, ix 132 
Cheng-Kwang Hall, at Pekiug, xii 504 
Cheng-tu-fu, travellers at, xii 797 
Chenier, Andr6-Marie de, poet, vi 834; 

XI 520; 549 

Marie-Joseph de, poet, Fenelon, vi 

823; viii 28, 366, 387; Theophilan- 
thropist, 501; 515 

Chenonceau, meeting of Don John and the 
Queen-Mother at, iii 31 

Cherasco, Peace of (1631), iv 60, 115, 117, 
138, 226; and Treaty of Westphalia, 
405; armistice of (1796), viii 567 

Cherbourg, British attacks on (1758), vi 
342& (in Vol. xiii); port improvements 
at, IX 120; French flotilla at, 209; xi 
31; naval works at, 332; 582; 587 

Cherchen, Russian explorer at, xn 799; 
803 

Chereia, Oudinot at, ix 501 

Cheriton (near Alresford), Royalists de- 
feated at, rv 323 

Cherkasky, Alexander, Prince, at Astrakhan, 
v544 

Alexis, Prince, v 557 ; councillor, vi 

303 

Vladimir, Prince, xi 615; 629; xii 

298; 336 

Cherkesses, The, and Russia, xi 274 

Chernaieff, Michael, Russian general, xi 
630 sq. ; Commander of Servian army, 
xn 386 

Chernaya Dolina, Tartars repulsed at, ti 
305 



Chernaya Napa, Swedish reverse at (1708), 

V 598 

river, battle on, xi 322; 373 

ChernigoS, annexed by Ivan the Great, 

V 479 sq. ; 504; trade depression in, xii 
319; 322; 327; disorder in, 353 

Prince of, v 481 

Cherniskevsky, Nicholas, Russian socialist, 

XI 630; xn296 sq.; 302 
Chernuisheff, Count Zachary, general in 

Seven Years' War, vi 294, 299, 326, 

328; and Poland, 668 sq., 671; 697; 

731 
Chernysheff, Russian Minister of War 

(1830), X 465 
Cherson, Catharine II at, vin 315 
Chertkoff, Governor-General of KiefE, xn 

307 
Cherubini, M. L. C. Z. S., ix 135 
Chesapeake and Leopard, naval fight, vn 

329 sqq., 333 sqq. 

and Shannon, naval fight, vn 342 

Chesapeake Bay, French fleet defeats the 

English at (1781), vi 453, vn 230; in the 

Civil War, 452, 470 
Cheshire, petitions to Parliament from, 

IV 291; Royalist rising in, 540 
Chesnelong, Pierre- Charles, French poli- 
tician, XII 109; 116 
Chesney, Francis Rawdon, General, x 558 
Chester, James II and Tyrconnel at, v 307; 

William III sails from, 313; Fenians in, 

XI 344 
Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th 

Earl of, V 70; vi 70; 77; 79; 84; vin 

21 
Ch^tardie, M?irquis de La. See La Ch^tardie 
Chevalier, Etienne, French Minister, i 

409 

Michel, political economist, xi 298; 

470; 637 

Chevaliers de la Liberte, x 68 
Chevert, French ofiicer, at Prague, vi 236 
Chevreul, Michel Eugene, ix 133 
Chevreuse, Marie de Rohan, Duchess of, 
marriage of, to Luynes, iv 125; exiled, 
131; and Chateauneuf, 142; excluded 
from general amnesty, 593; returns to 
Paris, 596; 697; De Retz and, 609; 
offended by Cond^, 612 
Cheynell, Francis, and Chillingworth, v 

746 
Chiabrera, Gabriello, Italian poet, v 69 
Chiana, Val di, drainage of, vi 603 
Chiaramonti, Gregorio Bernabd. See Pius 

VII, Pope 
Chiari, Imperial army at, v 402 
Chiasso, French army feints a crossing at, 

IX 61 
Chiavenna, early history of, iv 35 sq.; 44 
sqq.; march of Feria on, 55 sq.; 58; 
Treaty of Monzon and, 59; Rohan and, 
61; sovereignty of the Grisons in, 63; 
ceded to Austria, ix 660 
Chiavone, Italian brigand, xi 531 



General Index. 



293 



Chicago, growth of, vii 444; National Ee- 
publican Convention at (1860), 445; 
labour disturbance at, 669 sq., 707 

Chichegoff, General, Governor of Blago- 
vestchensk, xii 521 

Chicheley, Sir John, Eear-Admiral, v 196 

Chich6rin, Eussian politician, xn 311 sq. 

Chichester, William Chillingworth at, v 746 

Arthur, Baron Chichester of Belfast, 

Lord Deputy of Ireland, 1603-15, m 588, 
612-6 ; nobility of the Pale and, iv 515 sq. 

Chickahominy river, McClellan's operations 

on, VII 475 sqq. 
Chickamauga, battle of (1863), vii 509 sqq. 
Chickasaw Bayou, unsuccessful assault on 

(1862), vn 502 
Chico, Francisco, chief of the Madrid police, 

XI 560 
Chieregati, Francesco, papal nuncio in 

Germany, n 32, 170 
Chieri, retained by France (1559), ii 94, 

III 400 
Chi^vres. See Croy 

Chifanoja (II Schifanoya), Venetian am- 
bassador to England, ni 264 
Chifu, negotiations at, xn 501; 512; 514 
Chigi, Agostino, and Leo X, n 10, 14; 17 

Fabio, Cardinal. See Alexander VII, 

Pope 

Chikuzen, daimio of, xi 846 

governor of, dismissed, xi 865 

Child, Sir Francis, banker, v 266 

Sir John, Governor of Bombay, V 

698 sq. 

Sir Josia, chairman of East India 

Company, v 699 sqq. 

Childers, Hugh C. E., Chancellor of Ex- 
chequer, XII 41 

Chili, the Spaniards in, v 683 ; Eepublic 
of, vn 368; trade of, with California, 
402; and the United States, 649, 666; 
British expedition to, ix 753 ; administra- 
tion of, X 248 sq. ; negroes in, 260; the 
Indians in, 268 ; French settlers in, 276 ; 
revolutionary developments in, 278, 282 ; 
independent government formed in (1811- 
2), 287; recovered by Peru (1816), 290; 
invasion of, by San Martin (1817), 291 sq. ; 
Lord Cochrane's services to, 292 ; royalists 
suppressed in (1830), 295; history of, 
after 1830, 300 sq. ; independence of, 
recognised by United States, 308 ; Mastai- 
Ferretti (Pius IX) in, xi 72; xn 672; 
affairs in (1833-1902), 677 sqq.; 684; 
689 sq.; foreign capital in, 694; arbi- 
tration by, 722 

(China), disturbances in, xn 517 

Chilianwala, battle at, xi 741 
Chillingworth, William, supports Laud, 

IV 280; 320; v 326; 332; 745 sqq. 
Chiloe, X 277 ; surrenders to Chilians (1826), 

295 
Chimkent, Eussian capture of, xi 630 
Chin Kiang, attack on foreigners at, xn 

517 



China, Dutch trade with, m 638; tea 
brought to Europe from, iv 712 ; route to, 

V 512; Eussia and, 544 ; U.S. treaty with 
(1868), vn 635, (1880), 649 ; South Ameri- 
can trade with, x 255 ; British trade with, 
760; intercourse of, with Western Powers, 
Vol. XI, Chan, xxvni (1); 259; Treaty 
of, with Eussia (1858), 273; England and 
France and, 308 ; Napoleon III and, 476 ; 
and Japan, 823 sq. ; affairs in (1858- 
1909), xn 500 sqq. ; 4; 9 sqq.; war of, 
with Japan, 52 ; and France, 131 sq. ; 
345; 485; and Tibet, 490, 492; Indian 
troops in, 493 ; 498 ; and Annam, 524 sqq. ; 
543; Japan and, 652, 557 sq.; and the 
Macao coolie trade, 555 ; 556 ; and Korea, 
567, 569 sq. ; and Formosa, 572 ; treaty 
of, with Eussia (1902), 576 ; 625 ; 644 ; 
761 ; exploration in, 792 ; 793 ; Eussian 
trade with, 795; the unveiling of, 796 sqq.; 
801 sqq. 

Company (French), vi 173; 533 

Sea, Eussian fleet in, xn 699 

Chincha Islands, Spanish occupation of, 

XII 678 
Chinchon, Count of, Councillor of Philip II, 

in 514 
Ching, Prince, xn 620 
Chingis Khan. See Genghis Khan 
Chinhai, capture of, xi 809 
Chinhat, Sir Henry Lawrence at, xi 748 
Chining Chow, missionaries murdered near, 

xn 513 
Chinkiang, attack on, xi 809 
Chinnampo, Japanese troops at, xn 581 ^ 

585 
Chinon, Catholic force at, in 11 
Chinsura, capitulation of (1759), v 697, 

VI 566, 558 

Chioggia, War of, between Genoa and 
Venice, i 258 sq. ; 264 

Bishop of (Jacopo Nacchianti), n 666 

Chios, attacked by the Venetians, v 365 
Chippenham election petition, vi 72 
Chippewa, American victory at (1814), vn 

343 
Chisholm of Strathglass, vi 105 
Chitral, annexed by Great Britain, xn 52, 

487; 458; 489; 802 
Chittagong, xi 727 sq. 
Chitu, leader of Sindhia levy, xi 725 sq. 
Chiulien-ch'Sng, Chinese retreat from, xn 

511 
Chivasso, retained by France (1559), ii 94, 

in 400 
Chiverny, Philippe Hurault, Comte de. 

Chancellor of France, m 42, 44 
Chlapovski, Stanislas, Polish general, x 472 
Chlopicki, Joseph, Polish general, and the 

Polish revolution, x 465 sqq. 
Chlum, Prussian army at, vi 242; 279 
Chmel, Josef, Austrian historian, xn 829 
Chmielnicki, Theophilus or Bogdan, Cos- 
sack leader, iv 580; Hetman of Little 

Eussia, V 604 sq.; 599 



294 



General Index. 



Choate, Eufus, American lawyer, vii 744 

Chobrakit. See Chebreiss 

Choczim. See Khoczim 

Chodkiewicz, Jan, Palatine of Samogitia, 

ra 89 
John Charles (son of Jan), Polish 

general, vr 174 sq. ; in Livonia, 176 ; 

heroic defence of Khoczim by, 189 
Choiseul, C^sar, Due de, Sieur du Plessis- 

Praslin, Marshal of France, in Italy, 

IV 601 
Etienne-Fran(?ois, Due de, French 

Minister of Foreign Affairs, vi 323 sq. ; 

330 ; 341 sqq. ; and the Family Compact, 

344 sq, ; 346 sq. ; and the Jesuits, 348, 

592; foreign policy of, 349 sqq.; 353; 

Polish policy of, 354 ; fall of, 355 sqq. ; 

358 sq. ; and Spain, 367 sq. ; 373 ; and 

the negotiations with Ent^land, 418, 425 

eqq. ; and Corsica, 439; 594 sq.; vn 97; 

VIII 51, 82, 400 

Count de, at Vienna, vi 343 

Choiseul-Praslin, Due de, French Minister 

of Foreign Affairs, vi 348 
Cboiseul-Eomanes, Madame de, vi 341 
Choisy, de. State Councillor, at Breisach, 

IV 382 

French officer, vi 355 

Cholat, FranQois-Joseph-Eug^ne, French 

politician, xi 136 
Cholet, Republican siege of, viii 354 
Cholmley, Sir Hugh, betrays Scarborough 

Castle, IV 313 

Sir Roger, Lord Chief Justice, ii 518 

Choshiu, clan and daimios of. Vol. xi. Chap. 

XXVIII (2) passim; xii551 sq., 562 

Chotek, Count Rudolph Christian, Chancel- 
lor of Bohemia and Austria, vi 639 

Chotusitz, battle of, vi 234 sq. 

Ghouans, The, ix 2; in the West, 13; 
suppression of, 16 sq. 

Chouet, Robert, Cartesian philosophy and, 
IV 791 

Chow Han, Chinese writer, xii 516 

Chrapovitzki, Alexander Wassiljewitch, pri- 
vate secretary to Catharine II, vi 699 

Chrestien, Florent, iii 69 

Chretien, Michael, and Gallicanism, v 76 

Christ Church (Oxford), founded by Wolsey, 
II 484 

Christensen, Jens Christian, Danish states- 
man, XII 293 

Christian Brothers, French religious associa- 
tion (1680), V 79 

Union, of Swiss Catholic States 

(1527), II 329 sq. 

Christian I (of Oldenburg), King of Den- 
mark, Norway and Sweden, n 600 ; Duke 
of Schleswig and Count of Holstein, 601 ; 
accession of, iv 563 ; xi 226 

II, King of Denmark, Norway and 

Sweden, ii 144; Lutheranism adopted by, 
169; 203; 217; defeated by Liibeck, 
228 sq.; Reformation in Denmark and, 
601-8; Stockholms Blodbad and, 604; 



flight of, 608; attempted restoration of, 
614; IV 158 
Christian III (Duke of Schleswig and Hol- 
stein), King of Denmark and Norway, ii 77, 
220, 229 sqq., 250, 444; becomes Lutheran, 
611 ; and the struggle for the Crown, 614 ; 
accession of, 615 ; the Reformation in 
Denmark under, 615 sq. ; reign of, in 
Norway, 619 ; peasant servitude and, iv 
662 ; partition of Schleswig- Holstein and, 
663; 564 

IV, King of Denmark, and James I, 

ra 669, 572 ; 644 ; 656 ; visions of, rv 6 ; 
8 ; and German Protestantism, 26, 33, 70; 
and the war of 1623-9, 85-109 passim, 
191 ; Richelieu's grant to, 129 ; seeks 
peace, 135 ; war of, with Sweden, 176 sq., 
179 ; and Gustavus Adolphus, 179 sq., 
182 sq., 186, 194, 211, 660; and the 
Peace of Liibeck, 192 ; offers mediation 
at Danzig, 193 ; John George of Saxony 
and, 225 ; 233 ; 365 ; mediates at Ham- 
burg, 387, 396; and at Osnabriick, 398, 
402; signs Peace of Bromsebro, 390; 
minority of, 664 ; character of, 665 ; 
relations of, with Sweden, 666 ; failure 
of, as reformer, 567 ; 568 ; 670 ; heroism 
of, 571 ; decline of, 672 sq. ; death of, 
573 ; 585 ; 676 ; compelled to lower 
Sound dues, 703 ; 706 ; vi 735 

V, King of Denmark, accession and 

character of, v 561 ; war of, with Sweden, 
44, 568, 570; and the Treaty of Fon- 
tainebleau, 571 ; 578 sq. 

VI, King of Denmark, vi 738 sq.; 

741 sq. 

VII, King of Denmark, vi 742 sqq. ; 

746 sqq.; 755; viii 279; ix 48- 

VIII, King of Denmark, xi 226 ; and 

the crown of Norway, 680 sq. ; accession 
and reign of, 693 sq. ; death of, 64 

IX, Prince of Gliicksburg, afterwards 

King of Denmark, named successor by 
the London Conference, xi 226 sq. ; 338; 
andSchleswig-Holstein,438sq., 696; 641; 
XII 292 sq. 

Prince of Denmark, death of (1647), 

IV 573 

Cistercian monk, first bishop of 

Prussia, v 629 

Christianae Religionis Institutio, by John 

Calvin, ii 287 sq., 356 sqq., 363, 376 
Christiania, occupied by the Swedes, v 583 ; 

Charles XIV in, xi 681 ; 688 ; University 

of, 700 
Christianismi Restitutio, of Servetus, u 

411 
Christianopel, Peace of (1645), iv 572 
Christiansborg, Slave Coast station, v 691 
Christianstadt, Scanian fortress, vi 770 
Christie, Charles, traveller in Asia, xii 800 

Thomas, writer, viii 758 

Christina, Queen of Sweden, birth of, iv 

186 ; accession of, 223 ; Oxenstierna and, 
224 ; instructions of Gustavus and, 220 ; 



General Index, 



296 



Treaty of Wismar and, 370; 381; Fre- 
derick William and, 384; Imperial over- 
tures for Peace transmitted to, 391 ; 
favours Salvius, 402 ; " satisfaction " of 
militia of, 404 ; minority of, 568 sq. ; 
Swedish finances under, 670; 572; 
character of, 574 sq. ; and the Swedish 
succession, 575; coronation of, 576; 
abdication of, ih., v 146; iv 690; a pupil 
of Descartes, 779, 786 sq.; v 564; 744; 
and the Great Elector, 639, 641 ; ix 44 
Christina of Schleswig-Holstein, Queen-con- 
sort of Charles IX of Sweden, carries on 
the government on death of Charles, iv 
177; death of, 183 

of Denmark. See Milan, Duchess of 

of France, daughter of Henry IV, 

III 685; marriage of, with Prince of 
Piedmont, iv 129 ; Duchess of Savoy, 148 

■ Princess Palatine (sister of Elector 

Frederick IV), in 710 
Christliches Biirgerrecht (league between 

Zurich and Constance), ii 328-9 
Christopherson, John, Bishop of Chichester, 

editor of Philo, i 613, 616 
Chrudim, Prussians at, vi 234 
Chrysoloras, Manuel, Greek scholar, i 541 

sq., 546 
Chrzanovski, Adalbert, Polish oflBcer, x 468 ; 

470; commands the Piedmontese army, 

XI 93 
Chuartschen, bridge of, destroyed, vi 282 
Chuguchak, Eussian factories at, xii 796 
Chuguieff, military insurrection in (1819), 

X 438 
Ch'un, Chinese prince, xii 501; 521 
Ch'ung Chi, Manchu official, xii 501 
Chung K'ing, opened to trade, xii 508, 512 
Chunghow, Chinese ambassador to Eussia, 

xii 503 
Chuquet, Arthur, historian, xii 834 
Ciiur, flight of Giammastino Visconti to, 

rv 35 ; the Gotteshaus at, 36 sqq. ; Diet 

at, 42; Catholics march on, 43, 44; 

Protestants attack, ib.; Strafgericht in, 

46 ; 47 sq. ; 52 ; Baldiron's march on, 

65, 56; Eohan at, 61, 63 
Carl Eudolf von Buol-Schauenstein, 

Bishop of, deported, ix 202 

Hartmann II, Bishop of, iv 35 sq. 

• Freiherr Ortlieb von Brandis, Bishop 

of, IV 36 

Paul Ziegler, Bishop of, claims the 

Valtelline, iv 36 

Church Militant, The (by G. Herbert), it 
768 

Church rates, English, legislation concern- 
ing, XI 345 

Sir Eichard, x 176 ; joins the Greek 

insurgents, 182; 202 

Eichard William, Dean of St Paul's, 

History of the Oxford Movement, xii 
841 

Churchill, John , Duke of Marlborough. See 
Marlborough 



Churchill, Lord Eandolph Henry Spencer, 

Chancellor of the Exchequer, xii 45; 

46 
Churrem. See Eoxolana 
Churubusco (Mexico), Scott's victory at 

(1847), vn 396 
Churwalden, Catholic district of, iv 43 sq. 
Chusan, British occupation of, xi 808 sq. ; 

818 
Chuvas, rising of, vi 681 
Chytraeus, David, Lutheran divine, in 174, 

704 ^ 
Cialdini, Enrico, Italian general, xi 469; 

534; 536; 642 
Ciampini, Giovanni Giustino, founder of 

the Accademia Jisico-matematica, v 740 sq. 
Cibber, Colley, dramatist, v 129 
Cibd, Caterina, Italian reformer, ii 392 sq 

Francheschetto, i 110; 227; 233 

Giovanni Battista. See Innocent VIII, 

Pope 

Giulio, plots against Genoa, ii S4 

Ciceruacchio. See Brunetti, Angelo 
Cienfuegos (Cuba), port of, blockaded, vii 

678 
Cilento, revolt at (1828), x 119 
Cimarosa, Domenico, x 131 
Cincinnati, settlers at, vii 357; trade of, 

360; Abolitionists in, 387; threatened by 

Confederates (1862), 507; Convention at 

(1872), 640, (1876), 645 
Cinq-Mars, Henry Coiffier de Euz^, Marquis 

of, conspiracy and execution of, iv 151 sq.; 

155 
Cinthio. See Giraldi, Giovanbattista 
Cintra, Convention of (1808), ix 137, 318, 

441; revolt at, xi 573 
Circassians, Eussians and, vi 674 
Circles of the Empire {Reichskreise), i 294, 

320 sq., 459 
Cirillo, Neapolitan lawyer, vi 599 
Cirilo, Fray, ex-General of the Franciscans, 

X 222 
Cisalpine Club, formation of, x 626 

Eepublic, viii 589 sqq., 633, 639, 

645; fall of, 657; frontier of, ix 69; 
organisation of, 83 sqq. ; x 131 sq. 

Cisneros, Garcia di. Abbot of Monserrat, 
I 651; the Exercitatorio de la Vida 
Espiritual, ii 657 

Leonor de, Spanish martyr, ii 408 

Marqu6s de, Spanish admiral, x 

285 sq. 

Ximenes de. See Ximenes, Cardinal 

Cispadane Eepublic, viii 683, 588 
Cistercians, 15th century reform of the, 

in Spain, ii 399 ; in Brandenburg, v 619 
Cisterna, Prince Emanuele della. See 

Delia Cisterna. 
City Point, held by Butler (1864), vn 616; 

Grant at, 520; Lincoln at, 537, 644 
Ciudad Eeal, Sebastiani defeats Cartaojal 

at (1809), IX 450 

Eodrigo, captured (1706), v 416; 

del Parque's army falls back on, ix 466 ; 



296 



General Index, 



besieged by Ney (1810), 458 sq. ; Mass^na 

retreats to, 462, 463, 465 ; Wellington at, 

468; revictualled by French, 469; Wel- 

linRton again attacks, 470; capture of 

(1812), 471 
"Civil script," introduced into Eussia by 

Peter the Great, v 631 
Civilta Cattolica, Jesuit journal, xi 714 ; 

718; 721 
CivitEb Castellana, Neapolitan defeat at 

(1798), VIII 652 
Vecchia, occupied by the Imperialists 

(1527), 11 56; water supply of, iii 438; 

Stukeley sails from (1578), 597; Jesuits 

land at, vi 372 ; 598 ; seized by Joseph 

Bonaparte, ix 194 sq. ; xi 71 ; 122 ; 

French troops recalled from, 496; xii 

213; French frigate at, 239 
Civitella, siege of (1527), u 91 
Clameey, seized by the Democrats, xi 137 
Clam-Martini5, Count, Bohemian politician, 

XII 177; 188 
Clancarty, Kichard le Poer Trench, 2nd 

Earl of, at the Congress of Vienna, ix 

580 ; 585 sqq. 
Clan-na-Gael, in America, xii 75 sq. 
Clanricarde, Ulick de Burgh (Bourke), 1st 

Earl of, the MacWilliam, iii 584 

Ulick Bourke (de Burgh), 5th Earl, 

1st Marquis of, succeeds Ormonde as 
Deputy (1650-2), iv 535 

Clapperton, Hugh, African explorer, xii 807 
Clare election, x 645 sq. 

John Fitzgibbon, Earl of (Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland), and Catholic Emanci- 
pation, IX 678; Attorney-General, 693; 
697 sqq., 701, 706 

Clarenbach, Adolf, Lutheran martyr, ii 202 
Clarence, George, Duke of, i 464 sq. ; u 
447 

William, Duke of. See William IV, 

King of England 

" Clarendon Code," v 97-103 

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of, Koot- 
and-Branch petition and, iv 292; 293; 
on the attempt on the Five Members, 298 ; 
on parties, 305; on the Ironsides, 312; 
on Newcastle, 322; on the Self-denying 
Ordinance, 326; with Prince of Wales at 
Bristol, 328; on the troops, 334; 554; 
King submits Monck's proposals to, 555 
sq. ; on parliament, 558 ; on Monck, 559 ; 
party of, 620 ; v 93 sq. ; and the religious 
settlement, 96; 97; 100; charged with 
high treason, 101 ; and Parliament, 102 ; 
opposes acts against Irish trade, 104; 
foreign policy of, ib. ; and the marriage 
of Charles II, 105; 106; and the Dutch 
war, 108; 113; the fall of, 114; exile of, 
115; 136; 198; policy of, 199; 201 sq.; 
231 ; Scottish Privy Councillor, 280 ; 305 ; 
333; 745 

Edward Hyde (Viscount Cornbury), 

3rd Earl of, v 255; vi 17; Governor of 
New York and New Jersey, vn 48 



Clarendon, George William Frederick 
Villiers, 4th Earl of (2nd cr.), vii 636 ; 
British ambassador at Madrid, x 237; 
Viceroy of Ireland, xi 13 ; Foreign Minis- 
ter, 309; 313; 322; 632; and China, 
822; XII 21; 23; 28 

Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of. Lord 

Lieutenant of Ireland, v 284, 306; 247; 
and the Revolution settlement, 249 sq.; 
255 sq. 

Clarete, Ibrahim. See Gonzalez Bravo 
Clark, William, explorer, vii 326, 364 

William Tierney, engineer, x 744 

Clarke, Sir Alured, in Cape Colony, ix 

749 

Sir Andrew, Governor of the Straits 

Settlements, xii 532 sq. 

■ George Eogers, American general, 

VII 221 sq. 

Sir George Sydenham, xii 59 

Henri-J.-G., Comte d'Hunebourg, 

Marshal of France, Duo de Feltre, viii 
582 ; receives the duchy of Feltre, ix 111 ; 
136, 271; Minister of War, 303; 307; 

X 47; 54 

Richard, Major, defeats Karim Khan, 

XI 726 

Samuel, vi 77 sq. 

Father, confessor of Philip V of 

Spain, VI 145 

Clarkson, Thomas, and the slave trade, 

VI 188, 472 
Clary, Count, Austrian statesman, xn 202 
Classics, Renaissance discoveries and print- 
ing of, I 550, 561 sq., 566, 576. See also 

Renaissance 
Clauberg, Johann, Cartesian philosophy 

and, IV 789, 791 
Claude, daughter of Louis XII of France, 

afterwards Queen-consort of Francis I, 

I 395, 454 
Claudia, Archduchess, widow of Archduke 

Leopold (1637), iv 375 

Felicitas, Empress, 3rd wife of Leo- 
pold I, V 211 

Clausel, Comte Bertrand, Marshal of France, 
pursued by Wellington, ix 473 ; 478 ; re- 
tires to the Ebro, 474; pursues Mina, 
476; opposed at the Dordogne, 617; 
command of, 624; x 496; and the colo- 
nisation of Algeria, 502 sqq. 

Clausius, Rudolph Julius Emmanuel, and 
the theory of heat, xii 784 sq. 

Clavering, , Sir John, general, vi 571 sq. 

Clavi^re, Etienne, assistant to Mirabeau, 
viii 150; Minister of Finance, 223 sq., 
263, 339; suicide of, 357; 702 

Clay, Henry, American statesman, vii 
350, 367, 373 sq., 378; Tariff bill in- 
troduced by, 382; 383 sq.; and Texas, 
393 ; compromise resolutions of, 403 sqq.; 
death of (1852), 418; 419 

Clayborne, Maryland trader, vii 32 sq. 

Clayton, John Middleton, American poli- 
tician, vu 434 



General Index, 



297 



Clayton -Bulwer Treaty (1850), vii 434, 
649, 656 

Clemanges, Nicholas de, i 618 

Clemenceau, Georges - Benjamin - Eugene, 
French statesman, xii 112 sq.; and the 
Dreyfus affair, 120; 122; opposes social- 
ism, 124; 126; 128 

Clement V (Bertrand de Goth), Pope, i 
620 

VII (Giulio de' Medici), Pope, i 

250, 353; ii 4-20; pontificate of, 21-8, 
48-58; 143; Luther and, 171 sq. ; Charles 

V and, 197, 203, 210, 219, 439; dislike of, 
to the General Council, 216 sq. ; Francis I 
and, 220, 440; Zurich and, 322 ; JoaoIII 
and, 412, 414; 423 sq. ; the divorce of 
Henry VIII and, 430-41 ; the Archbishop- 
ric of Lund and, 610 ; church reform and, 
642; the question of prohibited books 
and, 687 ; iii 105 ; friendship with France, 
110, 186; and Florence, 388, 470; 460; 
466; 479; xii 705 

VII (Kobert of Geneva), anti-Pope, 

I 108 

VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini), Pope, 

the Index and, ii 687 sq.; iii 397; 416; 
418; 445; 450; James I and, 554 sq.; 
608; Henry IV and, 660, 667, 671, 677; 
702; 710; 719; and Sweden, iv 170; 
elected, 666; policy of, 667 sq.; death 
of, ih.\ 686 

IX (Giulio Kospigliosi), Pope, and 

Charles II, of England, v 202 ; and Jan- 
senism, 84, 89 sq.; 202; 420; and the 
Peace of Baden, 454 sq. ; and the Prussian 
monarchy, 665 sq. ; 743 

XI (Giovanni Francesco Albani), 

Pope, VI 97 ; 124 ; 131 ; 686 sq. ; and the 
Bull UnigenituSf 688; 689; death of, 
125 

XII (Lorenzo Corsini), Pope, vi 

150; 587 sqq. 

XIII (Carlo Eezzonico), Pope, vi 

421 ; 592 sq. ; death of, 594 ; Febronius 
condemned by, x 158 

XIV (Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio 

Ganganelli), Pope, vi 348; 594 sq. 

Bulgarian Metropolitan, xn 409 

Saxon agent in Berlin, vi 206 sq. 

Clement, Jacques, ni 47, 453, 766 
Clercq. See Du Clercq 

Clerfayt, Franpois-S.-C.-J. de Croix, Comte 
de, Austrian general, viii 408, 417, 420, 
435; succeeds Coburg, 436 sq., 442 sq. 

Clerke, Sir Philip Jennings, vi450; 455 sq. 

Clerkenwell, Fenian outrage in, xi 344, 
xn 65, 75 

Clermont, county of, ceded to France, v 
33; rising at, x 492 

Clermont, The famous voyage of (New York 
to Albany, 1809), vii 692 

Clermont, Jean-Baptiste Massillon, Bishop 

of, V 80 
Louis de Bourbon- Cond6, Count de, 

VI 246; 248 



Clermont-en-Auvergne, royal commission 

at, V 16 
Clermont-Tonnerre, Jules - Charles - Henri, 

Due de, Commandant of Dauphin6, viii 

112 

Comte Stanislas de, and the elec- 
tion of the States General, viii 131, 
158, 173, 178, 183, 187; Report of 1789, 
689, 733 

Cleveland, Stephen Grover, President of 
the United States, vii 653 sqq. ; and the 
currency, 656 sq., 659 sq., 665, 668; 669; 
and the Venezuelan dispute, 670 sqq.; 
and Cuba, 675 ; xn 56 ; 687 sq. 

Cleves, war of Charles V with (1543), n 77, 
244; the French in, v 406, 650; 627 sq.; 
640 sq. ; acknowledges sovereignty of 
Brandenburg, 645; religious tolerance 
in, 649; 655; 668; evacuated by the 
French, vi 300; ceded to Murat, ix 262, 
267, 409; democratic land reform in, 
410; 624 

Treaty of (1666), iv 408, v 645 

. Adolf II, Duke of, i 424 

Adolf of. See Eavenstein 

Anne of. Queen of Henry VIII. See 

Anne of Cleves 

John I, Duke of, i 441 

John (III) de La Marck, Duke of. 

See Jiilich-Cleves-Berg 

Philip of. See Eavenstein 

Sibylla of. See Saxony 

WilUam (V) de La Marck, Duke of. 

See Jiilich-Cleves-Berg 

Clifford, Sir Conyers, Governor of Con- 
naught, m 323, 606-7 

Lady Margaret, married to Andrew 

Dudley, ii 511 

Sir Eobert, i 468 

of Chudleigh, Thomas, 1st Baron, 

V 198; 201 sq. ; signs the Treaty of 
Dover, 204; 205; Lord Treasurer, 207; 
209; and the Test Act, 210; resigns, 
333 

Clifton, Jacobite force at, vi 115 
Clinton, Edward Fiennes de Clinton, 9th 
Baron, ii 545, 567 

George, American statesman and 

general, vii 373 

■ Sir Henry, General, vn 173, 211, 215 ; 

succeeds Howe (1778), 217; 220, 222, 
224 sqq., 230 

Henry Fynes, historian, xii 836 

Sir William Henry, ix 297 ; general 

in Portugal, x 321 

Clive, Eobert Clive, Lord, in India, v 697 ; 

Vol. VI, Chap. XV (3) passim: 438; death 

of, 566 
Clones, Owen O'Neill defeated at, iv 526 
Clonmacnoise, meeting of Catholic clergy 

at, IV 634 "^^ 

Clonmel, captured by William III (1690), 

V 315 ; Eeconciliation meeting at (1828), 

Clontarf, meeting at, prohibited, xi 8 



298 



General Index, 



Clootz ('* Anacharsis"), Baron Jean Baptiste 

du Val de Grace, leads a deputation to 

the National Assembly, vm 171 ; ix 363 

Clot Bey, and vaccination in Egypt, xii 451 

Clouet.Jean-FranQois, professor of chemistry 

at Mezieres, viii 483 
Clough, Arthur Hugh, xi 352; 354 
Clozel, African explorer, xii 130 
Clubs, French Revolutionary. See Jacobins, 

Feuillants, etc. 
Clugny, William de, i 441 sq. 

de Nuis, Jean-E.-B,, French Comp- 
troller-general, VIII 74,^88 

Clusius, Carolus. See L'Ecluse 

Cluverius, Philip, iv 717 

Clyde, Colin Campbell, Lord, at Balaklava, 
XI 319; 741; 746; at Lucknow, 748 sq. 

Cnossus, discoveries at, xii 846 

Coahuila, State of, vii 392, 394 

Coalitions (against the French Revolution), 
the first. Vol. viii. Chap, xiv passim, 398- 
446 ; the second, Chap, xxi, 633-64 ; the 
third. Vol. ix. Chaps, ix, x 

Cobb, Howell, U.S.A. Secretary of the 
Treasury, vii 447; 605 

Cobbett, William, Political Register, ix 
688 ; X 576 sq. ; 580 sq. ; in America, 
582; and Bentham, 598; 599; in Parlia- 
ment, 656; 675; and the growth of 
London, 742 

Cobden, Richard, x 680; 764; and Free 
Trade, 771; and Adam Smith, 777; xi 
2 sq. ; and the political parties, 20 ; 309 ; 
and the Anglo-French commercial treaty, 
333 sq., 470; 325 sq. ; 764; and China, 
815; XII 745 

Cobenzl, Count John Philip, Imperial Vice- 
Chancellor, vi 652 sq. ; vm 329, 419, 
536; and Partition of Poland, 548 sq., 
551; 591; at Rastatt, 641; succeeds 
Thugut, 642, 644 sq. ; ix 184 

Louis, Comte de, Austrian diplo- 
matist, at St Petersburg, ix 41; 65; at 
Paris, 66; 69, 79; Foreign Minister, 248; 
replaced by Stadion, 262 ; 315 

Coberger, Antony, of Niirnberg, printer, 

I 634, 641 
Cobham, Sir Henry, iii 34 

Richard Temple, Viscount, vi 35 ; 70 

Coblenz, Council of (1479), i 689; captured 

by the French (1794), vm 437; the Prince 
of Prussia at, xi 396 
Coburg, Luther at, ii 211-4; Lannes near, 
IX 275 

See Saxe-Coburg 

Cocceius (Koch), Johann, theologian, v 
754 sq. ; 757 

Cochabamba, province of, x 265; 268 

Cochelet, Adrien-Louis, French consul- 
general at Alexandria, x 567 

Cochin, fortified by Portuguese, i 30; com- 
mercial glory of, IV 743; lost to Portu- 
guese, 744 

Cocbius, Christian, Prussian Court preacher, 
7 071 



Cochlaeus, Joannes, German theologian, 

I 684-5; II 168, 212, 251 
Cochon de Lapparent, Comte Charles, 

Minister of Police, vm 490, 504 sq., SOS", 

610; transported, 512 
Cochrane, Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis, 

Lord, blockades Ferrol, ix 217; sails for 

West Indies, 224; Rear-Admiral, 234; 

attacks Brest, 238; harries Duhesme in 

Catalonia, 239 

John, explores Siberia, xii 794 

Thomas, Earl of Dundonald. See 

Dundonald 

Cockburn, Admiral Sir George, conducts 
Napoleon to St Helena, ix 757 

Cockerill, John, engineer, x 744 ; 753 ; 767 

Cocks, Richard, the Dutch and, iv 734; at 
Firando, 740 

Coconato, Count Annibale, adventurer, m 
23-4 

Coddington, William, founder of Aquednok, 
vu 20, 24 

Codes of law, English, Peel's reforms in 
criminal law, x 685; penal, in England 
and Ireland, 620 sqq. ; French, Code 
Louis, V 16; projects of the civil, at 
the end of the Revolutionary period, 

VIII 740 sqq.; penal, beginnings of, at 
the same time, 742 sqq. ; criminal, ib. ; 
of Napoleon : — the Civil, ix 150 sqq. ; 
the Criminal, 171 sqq.; the Penal, 175 
sqq. ; the Commercial, 176 sqq. ; Code 
Noir, French Canadian, vii 101 ; in Italy, 
the Napoleonic abolished, x 137; Con- 
salvi's attempt to get a new Civil Code, 
138 ; Russian, Catharine II's, vi 686 sqq. ; 
attempts at codification from 1804-15, x 
417 sq. ; Svod Zakonoff, xi 264 ; in Spanish 
America, Cedulas, x 250; 254 sqq.; Turk- 
ish, "Pearl" and Multeka-ul-Ubhar, i 98 

Codrington, Christopher, Governor of the 
Leeward Islands, v 690 

Sir Edward, British admiral, and 

the battle of Navarino, x 195-6; 197; 
201 

Sir William John, General, xi 322 

Codure, John, Jesuit, ii 652 sqq. ; iii 585-6 
Coeur, Jacques, French merchant, i 409, 

414, 503, 504 sq. 
Coeuvres, Annibal d'Estr^es, Marquis de, 

Marshal of France, occupies the Valtei- 

line, IV 58 sq,, 41, 129, 674 sq. 
Coeverden, Dutch success at (1672), v 160 
Cognac, Huguenot leaders at (1569), in 12; 

League of (1526), ii 24, 52; effect of, on 

Charles V's German policy, 197; 427, 512 
Coigni, Francois de Franquetot, Comte de, 

Marshal of France, vi 153 sq. ; 240 
Coimbra, University of, vi 388, xn 271; 

Moore's march into Spain by way of, 

IX 443 ; occupation of, by Mass^na, 461 ; 

X 315; 322; Dom Miguel at, 335; 3B6 
Coinage and currency, English, debased 

under Henry VIII, ii 470 ; English Mint 
and Re-coinage Act (1696), v 268 sq.; 



General Index. 



299 



currency difficulties between England 
and the American colonies, vii 68 sq. ; 
English (1793-7), ix 675 sq. ; settlement of 
(1819), X 587 ; the bimetallic question, xii 
60; French (c. 1792), vin 702 sq.; under 
Napoleon I, ix 121 sq. ; Indian, decline of 
silver and its results in India, xii 483 sq. ; 
Prussian, under Frederick the Great, 
VI 710 sq.; Eussian, reformed (1700), v 
628 ; after the revolutionary wars, x 414 
sq. ; after 1856, xii 323 ; Spanish, in the 
late 15th and early 16th centuries, i 357 ; 
in New Spain, x 258 ; Swedish, debased, 
II 622; in the United States during the 
Civil War, vii 569 sq., 607, 612 sq., 
616 sqq.; after the war, 631, 643; 657, 
668 sqq. 
Coke, Sir Edward, Chief Justice, and 
agrarian legislation, ii 469 ; iii 563 sqq. ; 
Parliament and, iv 263, 269 ; Petition 
of Eight and, 270; v 252; Hobbes and, 
VI 792 

Sir John, ni 567 sqq. 

Colalto, Count Eainbold von, Imperialist 

general, iv 60 ; besieges Mantua, 136 
Colberg, Gneisenau's defence of, ix 332 
Colbert, Charles. See Croissy, Marquis 
de 

Jean-Baptiste, Marquis de Seignelay 

(controleur general), Minister under Maz- 
arin, iv 621 sq.; under Louis XIV, v 1, 
4 sq. ; and Fouquet, 6 ; character and 
aims of, 6 sqq.; and taxation reforms, 
8 sq.; industrial and commercial pro- 
jects of, 10 sqq.; and war with Hol- 
land, 10; and French colonies, 13, 684; 
and internal customs of France, 13 ; 
and improvement of canals and roads, 
14 ; and French navy, 14 ; creates five 
new Academies, 15; and administration 
of justice, 16; rivalry of, with Louvois, 
16 sq. ; 22 ; 25 ; and the municipalities, 
27; 39; and the dispute with the 
Papacy, 85; 200; and African trade, 692 ; 
and India, 702; and the Academie des 
Sciences, 741; death of, 17, 28; vi 224; 
532 ; 639 ; and the (French) Company of 
the West, vii 70, 78 sqq. ; policy of, in 
Canada, 84 sq., 109; in West Indies, 
85 sq. ; viii 8, 37, 69 ; ix 176 ; 362 

Jean-Baptiste (the younger). See 

Seignelay, Marquis de 

Comte de, French ambassador at 

St Petersburg, ix 103 

Colbjornsen, Christian, Danish Procurator- 
general, VI 766 

Colborne, Sir John, 1st Baron Seaton, 
General, at Waterloo, ix 640 

Colchester, siege of (1648), iv 349 sqq.; 
the plague in, v 110 

Charles Abbot, 1st Lord, Chief 

Secretary for Ireland (1801), Speaker of 
the House of Commons (1802), ix 706; 
x634 

Cold Harbour, Sheridan seizes, vu 519 



Coldstream, Monck at, iv 547 

Guards, v 113 

Cole, Dr Henry, expelled from New Col- 
lege, II 501 ; at Colloquy of Westminster, 
568 

Colebrooke, 'Henry Thomas, xn 845 

Coleman, Edward, and the Popish Plot, v 
220 sqq. 

Colenso, British reverse at, xn 642 

John William, Bishop of Natal, xi 

788; xn774 

Coleraine, plantation of, iii 614 ; offered to 

City of London, 615 ; fugitives in, v 307 

sq.; 309 
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, v 122; vi 829; 

832; 836 sq. ; viii 641, 766 sqq.; x 600; 

704 sqq.; 710; 713 sq. ; 716; 720; 722; 

725; XI 347; 365 
Colesberg Kopje, diamonds discovered at, 

XI 787 
Colet, John, Dean of St Paul's, i 491, 580, 

644 
Colettis, Joannis, Greek statesman, x 606 
Colfax, Schuyler, American statesman, vii 

653 
Coligny, Gaspard de. Admiral of France, 

I 48, 50, 56 ; ii 92, 295 ; at the Assembly 
of Notables, 298, 302 sq.; at St Quentin, 
647; in 2, 4, 6, 6-14, 16-20, 224, 232, 
285 

Louise de, 4th consort of William of 

Orange. See Orange 

Jean de Coligny- Savigny, Comte de, 

French general, v 347 

Odet de. See Chatillon 

Colladon, Jean Daniel, physicist, xi 260 
College, Stephen, conviction of, v 228 
CoUegiants, a community of Eemonstrant 

dissenters, v 754 
Collegium Germanicum, set up in Eome, 
n 655; (1552), ra 149, 161, 178; and 
the German Jesuit colleges, iv 4 
Romanum, founded under Julius III, 

II 655; in 424 

CoUegno, Giacinto di, x 114 sq. 
CoUenbach, Eeichsfreiherr Heinrich Gabriel 

von, Austrian diplomatist, vi 346 
Colletta, Pietro, Italian historian, x 111; 

113; 125; xii 842 
Colley, Sir George Pomeroy, in South 

Africa, xii 39; 637 
Collier, Sir George, vice-admiral, vi 449 

Jeremy, v 128; 130 

Eobert Porrett. -See Monks well, Lord 

CoUings, Jesse, xii 43 

Collingwood, Cuthbert, 1st Baron, viii 
454, 463; Vice- Admiral, ordered to sail 
for West Indies, ix 224; meeting of 
Nelson with, 225; blockades Cadiz, 227; 
commands half the fleet at Cadiz, 229; 
in command at Trafalgar, 230; 233; 
compared with Nelson, 233 ; 237 ; 239 

Collins, David, Lieutenant-Governor of 
New South Wales, ix 740 

Eichard Henn Collins, Lord, xu 721 



300 



General Index. 



Collins, Samuel, physician to the Tsar 
Alexis, V 613 

William, poet, vi 824; 828; 830; 

832; 834 sq.; x 698 sq. 

CoUi-Eicci, Baron Louis-L.-G. Venance de, 
Sardinian general, vm 438, 444, 668, 
665, 567 

Colloredo, Badolf, Graf von Waldsee, Im- 
perial Field- Marshal, iv 240 ; at Prague, 
394 

Colloredo-Mansfeld, Jerome, Count von, 
guards Bohemia, ix 633 

Colloredo-Waldsee, Count Francis C. von, 
Austrian diplomatist, xi 252 

Collot, French banker, viii 677 

d'Herbois, Jean-Marie, vm 226, 

246 sq., 264 ; on the Gomite de Salut 
Public, 344, 349 sqq., 358, 360, 362; and 
the fall of Kobespierre, 364 sq., 369, 374 
sq. ; trial of, 380, 384 ; deported, 385 

Colmar, ceded to the French, iv 143 ; Ber- 
nardino army at, 383 ; victory of Turenne 
at (1675), V 44 

Colocci, Angelo, Koman patron of literature, 
nl5 

Cologne, early political insignificance of, 
I 299; Diet of (1505), 316 sqq., (1512), 
320; Catholicism in, iii 156, 160; 
171, 180; Electorate of, invaded by 
Prince Maurice, 673; peace congress at, 
704-5 ; centre of Dutch immigration, 
705 ; troubles in Electorate of, 707 ; 
Canons of, at Strassburg, 709 ; Matthias' 
policy of repression in, iv 11; death of 
Mary de' Medici at, 139; congress at, 
398; and Avaux, 398; Chigi Nuncio at, 
402; commercial and industrial insig- 
nificance of, 420; conferences at (1636), 
688; treaty of, with Louis XIV (1671), 
V 42; peace conference at (1673), 43; 
election of archbishop of, 64 sq., 63; 
war of, with the United Provinces, 157 
sq.; peace signed (1674), 161; 435; cap- 
tured by the French (1794), vni 437; 
Electorate of, ix 93; Lutheran con- 
sistories at, 204 ; cessions to Prussia in, 
657; Cardinal Pacca at, x 134, 355; 
revolutionary movement at, xi 157 

Baron Clemens August von Droste- 

Vischering, Archbishop of (1835), x 381 ; 
XI 50 

Electors of: — 

Clement Augustus of Bavaria, vi 

202 

Ernest of Bavaria, election of, in 

708; obtains Miinster, 709; 711 sq.; 719; 
731 sq. 

Ferdinand of Bavaria, iv 83 ; 91; 210 ; 

appeal of, to France, 226; the peace 
negotiations of 1G34-5 and, 252 ; truce of 
XJlm and, 391; Maximilian of Bavaria 
and, 398; Hildesheim ceded to, 408 

Frederick III of Saarwerden (1372), 

I 669 

Gebhard I von Mansfeld, in 166 



Cologne, Electors of (contd.) : — 

Gebhard II Truchsess von Wald- 

burg, III 707, 709 

Hermann of Hesse (d. 1508), 3rd son 

of Landgrave Louis II (d. 1458), i 316 

Hermann von Wied, n 40, 239, 243, 

251 sq., 259, 682; iii 707 

Joseph Clement, v 53 sqq.; 404; 455 

Maximilian Henry, Bishop of Hil- 
desheim and Li6ge, iv 426; supports 
Ferdinand Maria of Bavaria, 430; v 64 

MaximiHan, Archduke of Austria, 

vm 313 

Salentin of Isenburg resigns, iii 707 

Coloma (California), gold at, vn 400 
Colombe, Michel (French sculptor), i 414 
Colombey, battle of, xi 689 

Colombia, Bepublic of (New Granada, 
Venezuela and Ecuador), vii 368; pro- 
claimed by Bolivar (1819), x294; 295 sq.; 
divided into three Eepublics, 297 ; attitude 
of the Indians in, 299 ; independence of, 
308 sq. 

Kepublic of (New Granada), U.S. 

Treaty with, rejected (1869), vii 637; 
purchases Swedish war-ships, xi 683 ; xii 
672 sq.; 684; and the United States, 
685 sq.; 690; 692 sqq.; 696; and the 
Panama Canal, 698 sqq. 

Colombo, held by the Portuguese, rv 744 

Bartolomeo, i 21 sq. 

Cristoforo, discovery of New World 

by, I 7, 21-4; 11, 34 sqq., 65 

Colombus, Eealdus, v 725 

Colomera, Martin, Spanish general, vm 440 

Colon, railway in, xii 685 

Colonia del Sacramento, settlement of, vi 

391 ; smuggling post, x 258 ; captured by 

Indian militia (1706), 270 
Colonial Association (German), xn 159; 658 
Colonisation and Colonies, Belgian, King 

Leopold II and, xii 255 sq.; of late 

years, ib., Chap, xx passim 

Danish, in the West Indies, vi 186 

Dutch, in the earlier half of the 

17tli century, iv 703 sqq. ; see Chap, xxv. 
The transference of colonial power to the 
United Provinces and England, 728-59; 
Vol. V, Chap. XXII passim; in the 18th 
century, vi 186 sqq. ; in East India, in 
the 19th century, xi 667 sq. ; in S. Africa, 
778-89 ; of late years, see Vol. xii, Chap. 
XX passim 

English, early schemes of colonisa- 
tion in the New World, see Vol. i, Chap, n ; 
see Vol, IV, Chap, xxv. The transference of 
colonial power to the United Provinces 
and England, 728-59 : toleration in, v 101; 
Council for Foreign Plantations formed 
(1660), 107; Chap, xxupassim; Walpole's 
policy in regard to, vi 50 sqq.; after 
Walpole's fall, 53 sqq. ; Chap, vi, Finan- 
cial experiments and colonial develop, 
ment, 168-90; and their relations with 
the French in India and America, Vol. 



General Index, 



301 



Colonisation and Colonies {contd.) 

VI, Chap. XI passim, 329-60; in America, 
and French rivalry, 410 sqq.; schemes 
of colonial federation, 412 sq.; in America, 
18th century fiscal policy and its results, 
Chap. XIII (2) passim, 423-56 ; in America, 
see Vol. Yii, The United States, Chaps, 
i-vu ; see Vol. ix, Chap, xxiii (ii) (1783- 
1815); removal of trade restrictions con- 
cerning, X 586 sq. ; Chap, xxi, Canada, 
passim, 685-95; Adam Smith and, 765; 
policy of 1841-52 concerning, xi 16 sq. ; 
and Mr Joseph Chamberlain's policy, xii 
57 ; in the Malay Peninsula, 531 sqq. ; 
see Vol. XI, Chap, xxvii, Great Britain 
and her Colonies, 754-801 ; of late years, 
see Vol. XII, Chap, xx passim, 602-71 ; 
boundary of British Guiana, 687 sq. 

European in general, preparation 

for the wide extension of, in Africa, the 
East and America, Vol. i. Chap, i. The 
Age of Discovery, 1-36; characteristics 
and fate of first schemes of colonisation ; 
see Chap, n. The New World, 37-66; 
reaction of, on the Old World, i6. 47 sqq.; 
Vol. VI, Chap. VI, Financial experiments 
and colonial development, 168-90; of 
late years, see Vol. xn. Chap, xx, 602-71 

French, early schemes of colonisation 

in New World, see Vol. i. Chap, ii ; under 
Colbert, v 12 sqq. ; Chap, xxn passim ; 
Vol. VI, Chap. VI, Financial experi- 
ments and colonial development, 168-90 ; 
and their relations with the English 
in India and America, Chap, xi passim, 
329-60; Choiseul's relation to, 351 sq. ; in 
America, and English rivalry, 410 sqq.; 
Vol. vn, Chap, iii, The Fren«h in America 
(1608-1744), 70-113; Chap, iv, Conquest 
of Canada (1744-61), 114-43; effects of 
the Bevolution in, viii 193 sq.; taken by 
English (1803-15), xx 240 ; projects of the 
Consulate, 419 sqq., see also L'Ouverture, 
Toussaint; in N. Africa from 1834), x 603 
sqq. ; since 1870, especially in Africa and 
Indo-China, xii 128 sqq. ; in Annam, 523 
sqq.; colonial policy in Siam, 536; of 
late years, see Chap, xx passim, 602-71 

German, early colonial activity of 

Brandenburg, v 646-7; beginnings of 
modern German colonial policy, xn 159 
sqq. ; see Chap, xx passim 

Italian, in Africa, the Colonia Eritrea, 

xn 240 sq. 

Japanese, in Formosa, etc., xn 572 

sqq. 

Portuguese, in the Age of Discovery, 

see Vol. I, Chap, i; in New World, see 
Chap. II ; see Vol. iv, Chap, xxy passim. 
The transference of colonial power to 
the United Provinces and England, 728- 
69 ; Vol. V, Chap, xxn passim ; in the 18th 
century, vi 187, 189; see also Brazil; 
in the 19th century, xi 575 ; from 1875, 
xn 270 ; of late years, see Chap, xx passim 



Colonisation and Colonies (contd.) 

Scottish, in New Jersey, vn 47 sq. ; 

in the Carolines, 56; in Georgia, 62; in 
Acadia, 75, 112 sq. ; Darien Scheme, v 
296 sq. 

Spanish, in the New World, see Vol. 

I, Chap. II ; under Philip IV and Olivares, 
IV 655 sq. ; see Chap, xxv passim. Trans- 
ference of colonial power to United 
Provinces and England, 728-59 ; Vol. v, 
Chap, xxn passim ; declining energy 
of, VI 186; 189; under Charles III, 373*; 
Falkland Islands dispute, ib.; condition 
of, and Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle 
(1818), vn 366 sq.; Vol. x, Chap, vra, 
Spanish Dominions in America, passim, 
244-79; Chap, ix, The establishment of 
independence in Spanish America, passim, 
280-309; loss of remainder of, xii 264 
sqq.; in Philippine Islands, 528 sqq.; of 
late years, see Chap, xx passim, 602-71; 
end of Spanish dominion in Continental 
America, 689 sqq. 

Swedish, in America, vn 40, 55, 57, 

702 

Venetian, see Vol. i, Chap, vin passim 

Colonna, family of the, attack on Borne by, 
II 53 sqq. 

Fabrizio, 1 124; captured at Bavenna, 

137, 250 

Fadrique, Prince of Butera, at 

Tarragona, rv 649 

Marco Antonio, Cardinal Archbishop 

of Taranto, ni 135 ; 431 ; 444 

Pompeio, Cardinal, Bishop of Bieti, 

I 249 ;n 21, 57, 67 

Prospero, and Lombardy campaign, 

n 44, 47 sq. 

Vittoria. See Pescara, Marchioness 

of 

Colorado, part of, ceded to United States, 

VII 397 ; and the currency question, 673 ; 

population of, 711; women's franchise 

in, XII 763 
Colorno, Austrian check at, vi 154 
Colpoys, John, Admiral, vm 473, 475, 478 
Colquhoun, Archibald Boss, in China, xn 

796 sq. 
Colson, John, mathematician, v 718 
Coltbridge, Gardiner's Horse at, vi 112 
Columba, St, at lona, i 535 
Columbanus, St (d. 615), i 535 
Columbia, district of, vn 316; slavery in, 

388, 402 sqq., 685 sqq.; Volunteer Militia 

of, 448 

(S. Carolina), Sherman at (1865), 

vn 528 sq.; Sheridan at, 537 

Biver, exploration of, vn 326, 364; 

371, 395; operations on (1861-2), 494 

Columbus (Kentucky), occupied by Con- 
federates, vn 462 sq. , 492 sqq.; evacuated. 
495, 497, 559 

Christopher. See Colombo 

Colyille, Sir Charles, General, at Hal, xx 

via 



0. M. H. 



19 



302 



General Index, 



Golvin, Sir Anckland, Financial Adviser to 
the Egyptian Government, xn 438 

Colyer, Count, Dutch diplomatist, vi 32 

Comacchio, occupied by Austrians, vi 686 
sq., X 137, 155 

Combe, Abraham, and socialism, xii 758 

Combermere, Sir Stapleton Cotton, Vis- 
count, Commander-in-chief in India, xi 
729 

Combes, Justin-Louis-Emile, French states- 
man, xn 113; 121 sq. 

Combination, repeal of laws concerning, 
X 585; modification of the repeal, ib. 

Combray, Marquise de, ix 136 

Comenius, John Amos, educational in- 
fluences of, IV 424 

Comere, Mahy de, Baron de, treatise on 
finance of, viii 69 

Comite de Defense Generale, formed, vin 
263; 268 sq. 

de Salut Public, first (April 6, 1793), 

VIII 269, 274 sq., 338 sqq., 426; second 
(July 10, 1793— July 27, 1794), 343 sqq., 
Chap. XII passim; reconstructed (July, 
1794), 375; sphere of, reduced, 376; 
members of, increased to sixteen, 385; 
power of, increased, 387 sq., 393; and 
military affairs, 426; 465, 472; and the 
conquest of Italy, 556, 561 sqq. 

de Burets Generale, vni 349 sq., 

356, 360, 362, 364, 367, 376 sq. ; sphere 
of, reduced, 376 

Commendone, Giovanni Francesco, Car- 
dinal, Bishop of Zante, Queen Mary and, 
II 519 ; mission to Poland of, 637 ; 681; 
papal nuncio, in 82 sqq. ; 172, 176 

Commines, Jeanne de. Dame de Hallewin, 
I 439 

Philip de, i 109; ambassador to 

Venice, 115, 282; cited, 200, 228; 393, 
403 ; as historian and prose-writer, 415 ; 
422, 426, 430, 438, 440; xii 830 

Commission de Douze, viii 272 sqq. 
Committee on the Conduct of the War 

(U.S.A. 1861), VII 469 
Common Life, Brethren of the. See Brethren 

of the Common Life 

Penny {Gemeiner Pfennig), 1 304 sqq., 

317 

Commonwealth, the English (1649). See 
under England, Vol. iv 

Commune of Paris, viii 225 sq., 228, 
230, 235, 238, 240; dissolved (Aug. 30, 
1792), 241; reinstated (Sept. 1), 242, 
245; struggle of the Gironde and, 250 
sqq., 272 sq.; and the maximum, 271; 
338 sq. ; power of, 358, 360 

Communes, French, duties and powers of, 
before the Eevolution, viii 41 sq. 

Eussian, in the 15th and 16th cen- 
turies, V 492 sq. 

Comnenus, David, last Emperor of Tre- 

bizond, i 78, 82 
John IV, Emperor of Trebizond, 1 78 

Manuel I, Emperor of the East, i 271 



Como, Cardinal of, Tolomeo Gallio, Bishop 
of Martarano, Secretary of State under 
Philip II, m 288 

Compagnacci (Florentine faction), i 169, 
174 sq., 181 

Company of Equinoctial France, vii 79 

of Foreign Merchants, the Dutch, 

formed in 1594, iv 729 

of the Indies. See East India Com- 
pany (French) 

for the Islands of America, the 

French, iv 758; vn 70, 74, 78 

of New France, vii 70, 73 sq. 

of Eoyal Adventurers trading to 

Africa, v 691 

of St Domingo, vii 91 

of Scotland trading to Africa and 

the Indies, vi 91 

of the West, Colbert's (1664), vn 

70, 79, 90. See also East India Com- 
pany (French) 

of the West (Law's). See Missis- 
sippi Company 

Compi^gne, Edict of (1557), ii 294; the 

Queen-Mother at, iv 139; treaty at 

(1635), 144, 251, 365, 370; treaty at 

(1624), 675; negotiations at (1756), vi 338 
Complutensian Polyglot, i 380, 578, 603, 

640, 651; ii 400 
Compostella, fifteenth century pilgrimages 

to, n 105 sq. 
Comprehension Bill (1689), failure of, v 337 
"Compromise," The (1566), m 201-3 
" Compromise of 1850," The, vii 403 sqq. 
Compte Rendu, Necker's (1781), vni 74, 77, 

94; Lambert's (1788), 75 sq., 109 sq. 
Compton, Henry, Bishop of London, v 233 

sq.; 242; 255; suspended, 335; vii 59 
Comte, Auguste, xi 365; 626; 707; xii 

93; 850 
FrauQois-Charles-Louis, editor of Le 

Censeur, ix 569-70 
Comuneros (Spanish), revolt of the, i 367, 

372 sqq. 
Concha, Jos^ Gutierrez de La. See La 

Havana, Marques de 

Manuel de La. See Del Duero, 

Marques 

Conciliatore, Italian review, x 124 
Concini, Bartolomeo, Minister of Cosimo I, 
m 388 

Concino, afterwards Marquis of 

Ancre, and the Princes, iv 121 ; receives 
Normandy, 122 ; Eichelieu and, 123 sq. ; 
murder of, ib.; 128 

Leonora, iv 121 

Condone (Venetian Assembly), i 270 
Concord (Mass.), stores at, captured (1775), 

VII 165 
Concordats, political theory underlying, in 
758; era of, from 1816, x 139 sqq.: of 
the Emperor Frederick III and Pius II 
(1448), I 299, 687 sqq.: French, of 
Francis I and Leo X (1516), 388 sq. ; 
II 32, 38, 95, 281; abolished (1561), 300; 



General Index. 



303 



III 659; V 77; Napoleon I's, Vol. ix, 
Chap, vn, 180-207; remains in force 
(1818), X 56; and Jules Ferry, xn 116: 
Italian, of 1803, ix 189 sq. : Neapolitan, 
negotiations for, begun (1738), vi 588; 
590: with the Kingdom of the Nether- 
lands (1827), X 527: with Eussia, Alex- 
ander I's in regard to Warsaw, etc., 424 : 
Sardinian (1727), vi 589 sq. : Spanish, 
of 1851, XI 558, 709 

Concordia (Lutheran), drawn up by Jacob 

Andreae, ni 173 
CJond^, taken by the French (1676), v 44; 

45 ; and the Barrier Treaties, 457 sq. ; 

captured by the Allies (1793), viii 347, 

430 ; claimed by Austria, ih. ; recaptured 

by France (1794), 436 

Charlotte (de Montmorency), Prin- 
cess of, wife of Henry II, in 643, 692 

Claire-C16mence (de Br6z6), Princess 

of, wife of Louis II, conduct of, during 
the Fronde, iv 610 ; 613 ; follows Cond6 
to Flanders, 618 

Henry I de Bourbon, Prince of, iii 

12, 19, 25 sqq., 155, 174, 224, 451 

Henry II de Bourbon, Prince of, in 

668 sq. ; joins League of Princes, iv 119 ; 
marches to Poitou, 121; arrested, 122 
sqq. ; release of, 126 ; in central France, 
127; sent against Eohan, 133; adheres 
to Bichelieu, 134; at Eoussillon, 148, 
645; member of Council of Eegency, 
593; and New France, vii 72 

Henri-Jules de Bourbon, Prince of 

(Due d'Enghien), v 349 

Louis I de Bourbon, Prince of, 

becomes a Huguenot, ii 295, 297; ar- 
rest and condemnation of, 298 sq., 302; 
and the tumult of Amboise, 576; in 1 
sqq.; killed at Jarnac, 12 

Louis II de Bourbon (Due d'Enghien) , 

Prince of, trained in wars of Louis XHI, 

IV 149 ; besieges D61e, 370 sq. ; victory of, 
at Eocroi, 388, 594, 659 ; and Mercy, 389, 
597; victory of, at Allerheim, 390, 697; 
542 ; takes Thionville, 595 ; Orleans and, 
596 ; in sole command, 598 ; at Dunkirk, 
599, 703; rival of Yen dome, 601; at 
Court, 606 sq.; character of, 608; Eetz 
and, 609; 610; First Fronde and, 611; 
imprisonment of, 612 sq, ; supremacy of, 
614 ; Second Fronde and, 615 sqq. ; Spain 
and, 619, 660; Treaty of Pyrenees and, 
620 ; at Seneff , v 44, 161 ; 45 ; in Franche 
Comte, 200, 373; 256; 340; and the 
Polish Crown, 349 sq.; 411; 650; vi 191 

Louis-Joseph de Bourbon, Prince of, 

emigrates (1789), viii 165; 511; ix 40 

Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de, French 

philosopher, vi 825; xi 520 
Condi vi, Ascanio, ii 34 
Condorcet, M.-J.-A.-N.-Caritat, Marquis de, 

viii 214, 249 ; at the King's trial, 259 sq. ; 

suicide of, 357 ; Avii aux EspagnolSy 783 ; 

700; xn 817 



Condore, English victorjT at, vi 548 
Conegliano, Austrian army at, xi 86 

Cima da, Venetian artist, i 284 

Confalonieri, Count Federigo, x 117-9; 

124; XI 75 sq. 
Confederate States of America, formed 

(1861), vn 449; leaders in, 603 sqq.; 

finance in. Chap, xix 
Confederates, Irish Catholic organisation, 

IV 625 sqq. 
Confession of Augsburg. See Augsburg, 

Confession of 

of Faith, Calvin's, n 295 

Conflans, Treaty of (1465), i 389 

Hubert de Brienne-Conflans, Comte 

de (Marshal Conflans), in the Northern 
Circars, vi 548 

Confraternities, religious, in Germany, n 

108, 122 
Confutatiomhuch (1559), m 163 
Congo, French, xn 130; 343 

Conference, xn 161 

Free State, xn 3; 5; 130; Leopold II 

and, 255 sq. ; 658 ; 661 ; administration 
of, 662 sq. ; 810 

Eeform Association, xn 663 

river, discovery of, i 17; vi 187; 

the French on, xn 3, 130; 658 sqq.; 
explorers on, 806, 810 sq. 

Congregation of Jesus Christ, n 658, 573 
sqq. 

Congregations of Cardinals, instituted by 
Sixtus V, m 446 sq. 

Congress, of the (later) United States, First 
Continental (1774), vn 160 sqq., 181 sq., 
187 sq., 201; Second (1775), 166 sq.; 
Third (1776), 173 sq., 207, 209, 235; 
composition of the, 237 

Congresses (Confederate), vn 605 sqq. 

Gongressi degli Scienziati, xi 68 

Congreve, William, dramatist, v 128 ; 130 ; 
132 sq. ; Incognita by, 136 

Coni, defence of, vi 241; occupied by the 
French, vni 567 

Coningsby, Thomas, Baron {afterwards 
Earl) Coningsby, Irish Lord Justice, v 
320 

Conjeveram, Munro at, vi 676 

Conjuration du 9 Mars^ vni 267 sq. 

Conkling, Eoscoe, American politician, vn 
649 sq., 653 

Connan, Franpois, Calvin and, n 351 

Connaught, religious affairs in, ni 593; 
condition of (1592) , 604; and the ' * Graces," 
IV 517; and the rebellion of 1641-2, 
523 sqq. ; Parliamentary party in, 630 ; 
O'Neill withdraws to, 631; final settle- 
ment of, 536 sq.; remains tranquil in 
1798, IX 702 

Prince Arthur, Duke of, visits China, 

xn 508 

Conuecte, Thomas, Carmelite and wander- 
ing preacher, i 676 sq. 

Connecticut, English colony of, rv 747; 
trade of, vi 447 ; settlement of, vn 18 sq., 

19—2 



304 



General Index, 



22; regicides in, 26; charter of, ih., 31; 
and Governor Andros, 29 ; defence of, 42 ; 
53; population of, 54; religions conditions 
in, 57; education in, 58; effect of the 
Stamp Act in, 149 ; disaffection in, 163 ; 
British raid into (1779), 220; constitution 
of, 237; and custom dues, 243; and the 
Constitutional Convention, 246 sq., 250, 
258, 260, 271, 281, 283 ; cessions in, 308 ; 
336; trade of, 355; Abolition in, 361, 
377, 388 ; negro suffrage in, 629 ; Demo- 
crats in, 631 
Gonnello, "undertakers" in, in 599 
Connewitz, engagement at (1813), ix 535 
Cono, Johann, edits St Jerome, i 607 
ConoUy, Arthur, in Central Asia, zn 

800 sq. 
Conqueret, College of, in 54 
Conquistador 68, the Spanish, in 546 
Conrart, Valentin, literary meetings at 

house of, in Paris, iv 156 
Conring, Hermann, German historian and 
jurist, scientific work of, iv 424; xn 
816 
Consalvi, Ercole, Cardinal, comes to Paris 
(1801), IX 184; 191; claims homage for 
Naples, 194; resignation, i6. ; refuses to 
be present at Napoleon's marriage, 197; 
603; at Congress of Vienna, 586, x 2, 
134 sq. ; career of, 131 ; Secretary of Papal 
Conclave (1800), 132; position, influence 
and character of, 132 ; first administration 
of, 133 ; at Paris and Reims, ih. ; opposes 
Napoleon, i6. ; reinstated as Secretary of 
State, 134; opposes reactionary measures, 
ib. ; and Metternich, 135 sq. ; and the 
secret societies, 135; and administrative 
scheme of (1816), 136; and the brigands, 
138; opposition to, 139; foreign policy 
of, 139 sqq. ; and the revolutionary move- 
ments, 150 ; and the policy of non-inter- 
vention, ih. ; death of, 151 ; and Leo XII, 
152; 153; 165; O'Connell and, 635 
Conscience, Hendrik, Flemish novelist, xi 

673; 676 
Conscription. See Armies 
Conseil d^Etat^ v 3 

des Anciens, formed, vm 393 sq., 

489 sq. ; chief members of, 507 ; and the 
Coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor, 509, 512; 
670 sqq.; and Brumaire, 676 sqq., 680 
sqq. See also Corps L€gislatif 

des Cinq-Cents, formed, vm 393, 

395, 489, 492; prominent members of, 
506 ; and the Coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor, 
509, 512 ; 670 sqq. ; and Brumaire, 677 
sq., 680 sqq. See also Corps L6gislatif 

des Depeches, v 3 

des Finances^ v 3 

Prive, V 3 

Consensus Tigurinus, of Bullinger and 

Calvin (1549), u 340 
Consid^rant, Victor- Prosper, x 499 ; xi 113 
Consiglio dei Fregadi (Venetian Senate), 

I 271 sq. 



Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia (1537), 
n 33, 379, 643 

super Reformatione Sanctae Romanae 

Ecclesiae (1537), n 614 

Consistory, The, of Calvin, n 374 sq. 

Consolato del Mare^ ix 43 

Constance, Council of (1414-8), i 295, 620, 
623, 655, 677; n 107, 128, 281; Diet of 
(1507), I 317 ; refuses to publish the Edict 
of Worms, ii 160; the Peasants' Bevolt 
and, 179; the TetrapoUtana and, 212; 
the fathers of, m 758, 764 ; Horn at, iv 
231, 232; ix 67; bishopric of, ceded to 
Baden, 94, x 361 ; and the revolutionary 
movement, xi 145; 221 

Hugo von Hohenlandenberg, Bishop 

of, n 316, 324, 328, 329 

Constans, Jean - Antoine - Ernest, French 
statesman, xn 112; 119; 125 

Constant de Eebecque, Ilenri-Benjamin, 
vm 507; 677; ix 16; 24, 427; and Le 
Censeur, 669-70; x 40; political views 
of, 41; Acte-Additionnel drafted by, 42; 
45; supports the Government, 51, 60; 
64; and the Minerve, 65; 69; 61; and 
the new electoral schemes, 64; 67; opposes 
new Press Law, 77, 89; opposes com- 
pensation for the emigres, 86; Adolphe, 
102; 103; and the Eevolution of 1830, 
477; XI 519 

Constantino, taken by the French (1837), x 
604; province of, xn 129 

" Constantiue, Donation of," proved spurious 
by Valla, i 546, 602 ; ra 760 

Constantino VIII and Constantino IX 
(Monomakhos), Emperors of Rome, and 
the Tsars, v 483 sq. 

XII, Palaiologos, Emperor of Rome, 

V 482 

Paulovich, Grand Duke of Russia, 

VI 674; 681; 696; 708; ix 291; policy 
of, 492 ; at Vienna, 581 ; Polish mani- 
festo of, 596; X 425; divorce of, 436; 
and the succession to the throne, 437 sqq.; 
441; and Poland, 447 sq., 451, 453 sq,, 
456 sqq. , 466 sq, ; opposes intervention 
in France, 465 ; xi 214 ; and the emanci- 
pation of the serfs, 615, 617; Viceroy of 
Poland, 629, 658 sq. 

Constantino. See La Fuente 

Constantinople, earthquake at (1609), i 89 ; 
fall of (1204), 255; captured by the 
Turks (1453), 281, 285; Franco-Turkish 
Alliance signed at, m 104; Ferdinand's 
embassies to, 106, 108, 118-20, 123-4; 
return of Solyman II to (1532), 107, 
(1636), 113, (1541), 119; negotiations at, 
115; arrival of Venetian ambassador 
Badoer in, 116 ; adorned and improved by 
Solyman II, 129 ; rebellion in, 130; 133-4 ; 
naval preparations in, 136-7 ; Dutch trade 
with, 631 ; Dutch mission to (1612), 645 ; 
Bohemian and Hungarian embassy to, iv 
64; Sir Thomas Roe at, 192; anarchy 
in, V 367; 368; 516; Treaty of (1724), 



General Index, 



305 



545, (1739), VI 308, (1781), vm 311; 
Greek Empire at, vi 506; Russian de- 
signs on, vni 278; dealings of Sweden 
with, IX 38 ; British fleet off, 236 ; Russian 
desire for, 306, 312, 313, 320, 385, 485; 
Queen of Naples goes to, 384; France 
and, 386 ; British fleet fails before, 388 ; 
Patriarch of, x 170, 182 ; Janissaries at, 
171, 192; 173; All of Janina at, 177; 
178; Russian ambassador leaves, 183; 
ambassadors of the Powers in, 185, 193, 
195, 197; withdrawn, 198; Russian de- 
signs on, 197, 202, 546 sq., 651, 554, 562, 
564; revolutions in (1808), 547; Canning 
in, 549; Russian fleet off (1833), 553; 
plots in, 656, 559 ; at mercy of Ibrahim, 
562, 569 ; 565 ; French influence at, 567 ; 
571 ; XI 276 ; Greek Church at, 313 ; xu 
33 sq. ; German influence in, 341 ; 382 ; 
revolution at, 385; conference of the 
Powers at, 387, 403 ; 389 sq. ; 410 ; Ar- 
menian massacre in, 417; 422; revolution 
in (1908), 427 sq.; 435 sq.; Lord Dufferin 
at, 438 ; Young Turk party in, 455 

Constantsa, port of, xn 397 

Constituent Assembly. See National As- 
sembly 

Constitution of the Year III, rai 392 sqq., 
487 

VIII. See Consulate 

X, n 22 sqq. 

XII, IX 108 sqq. 

of Malmaison, drawn up by Bona- 
parte for Switzerland (1801), ix 98 sqq. 

Constitutional Act, of Canada (1791), ix 744 

sq. ; X 688 
Constitutional Church, of the French 

Revolution, civil constitution of, viu 

196 sqq.; 500 sq. See also Chap, vn. 

The Concordats, passim 

Society, revolutionary society (1788), 

VI 477 

Constitutionnel, Le, French journal, x 493 ; 

XI 292 
Constitutions, French, of 1791, Vol. vni, 

Chap. VII, 176-210 
Consulate, French, of 1799, Vol. ix. Chap. 

I, 1-33 
Consulta, Spanish, in the Netherlands, m 

198 
Contarini, Alessandro, Venetian admiral 

(1536), in 113 

Alvisi, papal representative at Miin- 

ster, IV 402 ; signs treaty between France, 
Venice and Sweden, 679 

Francesco, Venetian ambassador, 

n 381 

Gasparo, Cardinal, ii 23, 33, 75; at 

Diet of Ratisbon (1451), 240, 398, 650; 
386 ; Oratory of Divine Love and, 379, 
641, 642; church reform and, 643 sq., 
667; 648; death of, 660; in 75, 457, 
750 

Tommaso, Venetian ambassador, in 

645 



Cont6, Nicolas-Jacques, French chemist, 
vm 606 

Contemporary, Russian journal, xn 295 sqq. 

Conti, Armand de Bourbon, Prince of, and 
Duchess of Longueville, iv 609; joins 
rebels, 611; imprisoned at Vincennes, 
612 ; proposed marriage of, 613 ; Governor 
of Champagne, 614; Cond^ and, 615; 618 

Franpois-Louis de Bourbon, Prince 

of, V 370; 449; vi 191; 243; 246 sq.; 
340 

Louis-Franpois- Joseph de Bourbon, 

Prince of, emigrates (1789), vm 165 

General Torquato, commander of 

Imperial forces in Pomerania, iv 196 

Continental System, rx 122 sqq.; Chap. 

xm, 361-89 ; effects of, on British trade, 

240 sqq. ; and Switzerland, 425 sq. 
Contra-Remonstrants (Gomarists), in 647- 

55 
Contreras (Mexico), Scott's victory at 

(1847), vn 396 
— — Juan Senen de, Spanish general, 

defends Tarragona against Suchet, ix 465 
Contrition and attrition, distinction between 

doctrines of, ii 126 
Conventicle Act, the First (1664), v 103, 

333; the Second (1670), 202, 205, 333 
Convention Parliament, of 1660, v 94, 96 

sq. ; and church matters, 329; of 1689, 

249 sqq., 259 
•* Convention of the Straits," of 1841, x 

672 
Conversino da Ravenna, Giovanni di 

(Latinist), i 543, 656, 558 
Conway, Edward Conway, 2nd Baron, 

Royalist plot of, iv 314 

Henry Seymour, Field-Marshal, vi 

432; Secretary of State, 435 sqq.; 456; 
463 

Cony, London merchant, trial of, iv 441 
Conyers, Sir John, Byron replaced by, rv 

299 
Conz, Bridge of, battle at, vi 4 
Cook Islands, British protectorate over, xn 
667 

James, navigator, vi 182; xn 805; 

814 
Cooke, Edward, Under-Secretary for Ire- 
land, IX 703 

George, joint Paymaster of the 

Forces, vi 437 

Sir George, lieutenant-general, at 

Quatre Bras, ix 629 

Cook's Straits, xi 793 
Coolgardie, gold discovered at, xn 619 
Cooper, Anthony Ashley. See Shaftesbury, 
1st Earl of 

Fenimore, vn 742 

Peter, Greenback candidate for Presi- 
dency, VII 646 

Thomas, in China, xn 796 

Co-operative Wholesale Society, xn 740 
Cooper's Creek, exploration of, xi 795 ; 798 ; 

squatters in, xn 619 



306 



General Index, 



Coorg, annexation of, xi 730; 750 
Coomheert, Dirk Volkerts, Dutch scholar, 
ly 718 

Coote, Sir Charles, victory of, at Sligo, vr 
629; 532; in Ulster, 534; Athlone sur- 
renders to, 535 ; 538 ; in communication 
with Monck, 547 

Sir Eyre, general, vi 469 ; 548 sq. ; 

554 ; and Mir Jafar, 558 ; death of, 577 

Sir Eyre (nephew of above), vm 

618; IX 358 

Cop, Guillaume, royal physician, ii 351 

Jean, Canon, ii 351 

Michel, Protestant pastor, n 351 

Nicolas, Bector of University of 

Paris, II 285, 351; rectorial address of 
(1533), 354 

Cope, Sir John, lieutenant-general, vi 112 
sqq. 

officer in Indian army, vi 541 

Copenhagen, University of, ii 605, 617, 

VI 739 ; Herredag of (1530), ii 612 sq. ; 
recess of (1536), 620; Palatine agents in, 

IV 85, 89 ; abortive expedition of Charles 

X against (1658), 432, 541, 560, v 147; at 
Charles' mercy, iv 585 ; 587 ; relieved by 
Opdam, 588 ; negotiations at, 590 ; Dano- 
Swedish treaty signed at, 591; treaties 
at (1645), 602, (1660), 621, (1727), 

V 551; Estates at, 558; coup d'etat 
at, 559 sq.; 561; 581; the plague at, 
582 ; 583 ; 610 sq. ; Peter the Great at, 
612; VI 36; Bestuzheff at, 313; under 
Frederick IV, 737; under Christian VI, 
738; Bernstorff at, 740; 743 sq.; 746 
sqq.; 754; Conventions signed at (1780), 
IX 44; battle of (1801), 49 sqq., 49-50; 
effect of the news of, 70; bombardment 
of (1807), 236, 298 sq., 305; Congress 
proposed at, 287 ; important position of, 
296; slow recovery of, after Napoleonic 
wars, XI 691 ; port of, xii 291 ; 293 

Copernicus, Nicholas, i 638; ii 707; iv 

777; v708; 713; vi792; x 137 
Coppenole (of Bruges), rebel, i 446, 448 sq. 
Coppermine river, exploration on, xii 814 
Coppet, retirement of Madame de Stael to, 

IX 131 ; brilliant society at, 427 
Coppi, Antonio, Italian historian, xii 842 
Coram, Thomas, philanthropist, vii 61 
Corbeil, taken by Parma (1590), ni 49 
Corbet, John, Puritan author, v 331 

Miles, regicide, v 149 

Corbie, garrison at, ni 672-3 

Corbi^re, Comte Jacques-Joseph-Guillaume- 

Pierre de, x 47; supports reactionary 
measures, 49; 54; and Bichelieu, 57; 
61; and the new electoral scheme, 64, 
67; Minister of Education, 68; 70; 
appointed president of the Council of the 
University, 73; 74; 90 
Corbon, Claude-Anthime, French pohtioian, 

XI 111 

Corcelles, Claude-F.-P. Tircuy de, mission 
of, to Eome, xi 117 



Corday-d'Armans, Marie Anne Charlotte de, 
assassinates Marat, vm 346 

Cordeliersy Club des, vm 161, 200, 267, 272 

Cordier, Mathurin, French Protestant, u 
286, 351, 372 

Cordilleras, mineral wealth of the, xn 692 

C6rdoba. See also Cordova 
(Argentina), x 281 ; reactionary move- 
ment in, 286; 300; Treaty of (1821), 304 

Cordova, scholars of, m 545 ; sack of (1808), 
jx 437 ; troops at, xii 261 

(C6rdoba), Fernando Fernandez de, 

Spanish general, x 237, 239; xi 551; 
569 

Gonzalo Hernandez de. Prince of 

Venossa, Prince of Maratra y Corduba, 
♦♦The Great Captain," i 115 sqq.; cam- 
paign of, in Naples, 124 sq. ; 132 ; 196 ; 
233 ; 361-5 ; iv 78 ; 80 sq. ; 85 ; besieges 
Casale, 134 ; Ferdinand II and, 678 ; at 
Maestricht, 695 

Jos6 de, Spanish admiral, viii 461, 

463 

or Cordoba, Luis de, Spanish admiral, 

VI 376; 379 
C6rduba. See Cordova 
Corea, China and, xi 802; 824; 844 
Corfu, devastated by Turks (1537), iii 114, 
117 ; fleet of Triple AlHance at, 135-6 ; 
the French in, vm 590, 633 ; Kusso- 
Turkish blockade of, 607, 646; re- 
victualled, IX 237 ; 239 ; importance of, 
to Napoleon, 311 ; a centre of English 
commerce, 381 ; discussion of the fate of, 
604-5 ; placed under British protectorate, 
654 
Corinne, Madame de Stael's (1807), ix 131 
Corinth, siege of, by Venice (1463), i 79 ; 
occupied by the Venetians (1687), v 365 

(Mississippi), Confederates at (1862), 

vn 496 sq. ; Halleck's advance on, 498 
sq. ; battle of (1862), 601 

Cork, Spanish design to seize, in 532 ; 
trade in, 579; landing of Wolfe at (1561), 
592; siege of (1569), 595; O'Donnell 
executed at, 596; "undertakers" in, 699; 
James II at, v 308 ; taken by Marlborough 
(1690), 316; the provision trade of, ti 
490 ; Parliamentary reform in, ix 697 ; 
705 ; Parnell returned for, xii 77 ; 88 ; 
Queen's College, 29, 71 sq. 

Kichard Boyle, 1st Earl of, Irish 

finance and, iv 517; Wentworth and, 
518 

Cormatin-Desoteux, Baron Pierre -M.- 

Felicit^ de, Chouan leader, vm 379 
Cormenin, Louis-Marie de la Haye, Vicomte 

de, XI 115 
Cormoy, armistice of, xi 541 
Cornbury, Edward Hyde, Viscount. See 

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of 
Corneille, Pierre, v 66 sqq. ; 125 ; xi 528 
Cornelio, Tommaso, Cartesian philosophy 

and, IV 791 
Cornelius, Peter von, German painter, x 161 



General Index. 



307 



Cornet, Comte Matthieu-Augustin, President 
of the Commission of the Inspectors, vni 
677 sq. 

Corneto, Adrian© di, Cardinal. See Castel- 
lesi 

Cornic-Dumoulins, Pierre-Francois, French 
admiral, viii 466 

Cornish, Sir Samuel, Vice-Admiral, yi 369 ; 
427 

Corn-laws, English, of 1815, x 590 sqq.; 
Irish, of John Foster (1784), vi 603 sq. 
See also Trade 

Cornuda, Austrian success at, xi 86; 87 

Cornudet des Chomettes, Comte Joseph, 
vm 683, 686 

Cornwall, rising in (1549), n 485 ; Spanish 
expeditions to, ni 321, 673 ; condition 
of parties in (1642), iv 305, 314 ; Essex 
in, 323; Parliament's hold over, 332; 
Fairfax and Hopton in, 334; Duke of 
Ormond in, vi 102 ; parliamentary repre- 
sentation of, X 608 ; Liberalism in, xii 31 

Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, 2nd Earl, 
and 1st Marquis, vi 453 ; in India, 475, 
564, 568, 577, ix 710-5; vii 212 sq., 
223 sqq.; at Yorktown, 230 sq. ; vm 92 ; 
IX 76; Viceroy of Ireland, 702; 704; 
death of, 730; x 629; xii 498 

Edward, Governor of Nova Scotia, vn 

121 sq. 

Sir William, Admhral, vm 454, 471 ; 

in charge of the English squadron off 
Brest (1803), ix 210 sqq.; blockades 
Brest, 213 sqq. 

Coro, Miranda lands near, x 281; royalist 

city, 288 
Corocoro, siver mines at, v 682 
Coromandel, the Dutch and, iv 711; 

the Great Elector and, v 646 ; the Dutch 

in, 695, 697 ; coast, the, vi 534 sq. ; 538 ; 

547 ; 649 ; dynastic wars on, 551 ; 677 
Coron, seized by Andrea Doria, m 108 ; 

negotiations for surrender of, 109 
Coronel, Pablo, Spanish scholar, ii 400 sq. 
Corot, Jean-Camille-Baptiste, painter, xi 

528 
Corporation Act, of 1661, v 97; terms of 

the, 329 
Corps Legislatif, formation of, vm 393 sqq., 

Chap. XVI passim 
Corpus Christi (Texas), Taylor at (1846), 

vn 394 
Corpus Christi Day, observation of, ceases 

in England, n 503 
Corpus Inscriptionum Qraecarutn, xii 821 ; 

844 

Inscriptionum Latinarum, xii 843 

Juris Ganonicif new edition of, ZZ 

686; m 742 

Misniacum (1569), in 150 

Correro, or Cornaro, Giovanni, Venetian 

ambassador, in France, ra 275 
Correspondant, Le, French journal, x 500 
"Corresponding" Princes, in 716 sqq. 
Corrichie, battle at, m 268 



Corrientes, insurgents in, xn 681 

Corro. See Del Corro 

Corryarrack, Pass of, vi 112 

Corsica, given up by French (1558), n 54; 
offered to Cosimo de' Medici, iii 386; 
granted to the Genoese, 478; France 
and, VI 439, 610, 623 ; Jesuits in, 593 ; 
608 sq. ; blockaded by the British (1793), 
vm 458 ; evacuated (1796), 461 ; failure to 
grow cotton in, ix 125 ; bishops and 
priests transported to, 197 

Cort, Henry, and iron manufacture, x 733 

Corte, Bernardino de, betrays Milan, i 121 

Cortenberg, Letter of (1312), i 419 

Cortereal, Gaspard, Portuguese explorer, 
I 36 

Cortes, Hernan, invades Mexico, i 41 sqq. ; 
n 101 

Cortese, Gregorio, Abbot of San Georgio 
Maggiore, Venice, ii 33, 379 ; the Oratory 
of Divine Love and, 641 ; church reform 
and, 643 ; monastic reforms of, 647 

Corti, Count, Italian Foreign Minister, xn 
394 ; at Constantinople, 402 

Cortina, Manuel, Spanish statesman, xi 
551 

Cortois de Pressigny, Gabriel, Bishop of 
St Malo ; later Archbishop of Besangon, 
X 140 

Cortona, Silvio Passerino, Cardinal of, ii 
56 

Corunna, Spanish Armada at, in 310, 
606 ; sack of, 318 ; Irish refugees at, 
604 ; Irish Catholics at, 629 ; departure 
of new Armada from (1696), 529; vi 
105 ; blockaded, 125 ; French ships take 
refuge at, ix 211 ; Villeneuve reaches, 
226; Baird lands at, 443; 444; British 
retreat to, 445 sqq. ; battle of (1809), 446 ; 
revolt at (1820), x 216; and the West 
Indian trade, 275 

Corvetto, Count Luigi Emmanuele, French 
Minister of Finance, x 47 ; 50 

Corvey, Abbey of, ix 90; acquired by 
Prussia, 657 

Corvinus, Matthias. See Matthias Corvinus, 
King of Hungary 

Coryate, Thomas, traveller, vi 515 

Corzana, Count, Imperial plenipotentiary 
at Utrecht, v 439 

Cosa, Admiral de, xi 87 

Coscia, Cardinal, vi 587; 589 

Cosimo I. See Tuscany, Grand Dukes of 

Cosin, John, Bishop of Durham, Book of 
Devotions, iv 273 

Cosmao Kerjulien, Baron Julien-Marie de, 
Spanish commodore, ix 233 

Cosmati, The, ni 438 

Cossacks, rising of, vi 681; 696; Eussia 
and, XI 273 

Co8s6, Artus de, Comte de Secondigny, 
Marshal of France (Marshal Coss^, 
brother of Marshal Brissac), in 10 sqq.; 
22, 24 

Costa, Andrea, Italian socialist, xn 231 sq. 



308 



General Index. 



Costa, Isaac da, Dutch poet, xi 676 

de Beauregard, Count Henry of. Tin 

780 
Costa Bica, zii 672; and the Clayton* 

Bulwer Treaty, 686 
Coster, Samuel, Dutch dramatist, iv 720 
Cotes, George, Bishop of Chester, n 631 

Roger, mathematician, v 720 

Cotta, Johann Friedrich, Baron de Cotten- 

dorf (German publisher), ix 588; x 361 

Fran Ursula, Luther and, n 110 

Cottbus. See Kottbus 

Cotterau (Cottereau), Jean, Chouan leader, 

VIII 379 
Cotton, Sir Willoughby, General, xi 728 
Coucy, Edict of (1535), n 286 sq. 
Coulanges, Fustel de. See Fustel de 

Coulanges 
Coulmiers, German defeat at, xi 603 ; 

606 
Council, the Great (at Venice), closing of 

(1296), I 160, 271 sqq. 

of Blood (1567), III 216 sqq. 

of the Forty-eight at Florence, in 

387-8 

of Notables, tiii 66; summoned, 

100 sq., assembles (1787), 102 sqq., 
dissolved, 105; reassembled (1788), 116, 
dissolved, ib. 

of Regency. See Reichsregiment 

of Ten (at Venice), i 274 sq.; ni 

137-8 

of the Two Hundred at Florence, 

in 388 

of the North, instituted by Henry VIII, 

u 448, 471 
Counter-Reformation, preparation for the, 
see Vol. I, Chap, xviii. Catholic Europe, 
pctssim ; growth of the movement, 677 sqq. ; 
see Vol. II, Chap, i passim, but more es- 
pecially Chap. VI, Social Revolution and 
Catholic Reaction in Germany, 174-205 ; 
Chaps, vn and vni. Conflict of Creeds, 
etc., and War in Germany, 206-79; xn. 
The Catholic South, 377-415; xv, Philip 
and Mary, 612-49; xviii, The Church 
and Reform, 639-89; xix, Tendencies 
of European Thought in the Age of 
the Reformation, passim, 690-718; in 
Switzerland, n 338 ; in Poland, see Vol. 
Ill, Chap. Ill, The Catholic Reaction... in 
Poland, 73-103; in the Empire, etc., in 
Hungary, Bohemia and Austria, under 
Ferdinand I, see ib. Chap, v passim, 140- 
81; under Maxmilian II, f6. ; in the 
Netherlands, and its connexion with the 
revolt, 184 sqq. ; in Europe generally, 
260 sq. ; and Mary Stewart, Chap, viii 
passivi, 260-93 ; in Florence, under Co- 
simo de' Medici, 389 sq. ; Chap, xiii, 
Rome under Sixtus V, passim, 422-55; 
harsh side of, 466; in Ireland, importance 
of tbe movement, 587 ; 592 sqq. ; in the 
Empire under Rudolf II, Chap, xxi passim, 
696-735; and the outbreak of Thirty 



Years' War, see Vol. rv, Chap, i passim ; 

in re-conquered Bohemia, 73 sq. ; 676 sq. 

See also Reformation, Jesuits, etc. 
Country, Russian journal, xii 309; 837 
Count's War (Grevefeide) (1534), n 280, 

614 sq. 
Coup d'etat of 18 Fnictidor, vni 509 sq., 

615; of 22 Flor^al, 517; of 18 Brumaire, 

678-88 
Courbet, Am^d6e-A.-P., French admiral, 

captures Foo-chow, xn 131; 132 

Gustave, painter, xi 528 

Courcelles, French force at, xi 586 
Courier de M6r6, Paul-Louis, ix 270 ; x 103 ; 

XI 626 
Courier de Turin, newspaper provided by 

the French Government, ix 397 
Courland (Eurland), and Russia, n 144; 

a semi - independent duchy, m 73; 

Swedish veto upon Danish trade with, 

IV 177, 179; and Gustavus Adolphus, 
183, 185; Charles X and, 589; v 494; 
555; Charles XII in, 692; 594; Swedish 
occupation of (1701), 666; Prussia and, 
667; VI 302; 317 sq. ; 629; Russian in- 
fluence in, 665 sq. ; abolition of serfdom 
in, X 427; the Patriotic Society in, 454; 
Russian administration of, xn 335 ; 368 

Anne, Duchess of . /Se« Anne, Tsarina 

Benigna (von Treiden), Duchess of, 

VI 302 

Ernst Johann Biren, Duke of. See 

Biren 

Frederick William, Duke of, v 660 

Jakob III, Duke of, vi 301 

Cowrier, French journal, x 69; 81; 88; 102 

dcs Pays-Bas, x 532 

frangais, xi 486 

Courrieres, Count de, commissioner in 

England for Spanish marriage, ii 625 
Court, de, French admiral, vi 160; 236 
Courteen, Sir William, Assada Association 

and, IV 731 ; settlement of Barbados and, 

756 
Courtenay, Edward. See Devonshire, Earl 

of 
Courthope, Nathaniel, at Pulo Run, iv 736 ; 

745 
Courtney, Hugh, arrest of, rv 447 
Courtray, battle of (1302), i 426; taken by 

the French (1646), iv 598; Spain and, 

V 45, 63; taken by France (1667), 199; 
416; taken by Marshal Saxe, vi 240; 
French victory at, viii 435 

Courvoisier, Jean-Joseph-Antoine, x 67 
Cousin, Victor, excluded from the Sorbonne, 

X 73, 78; restored to his post, 93; 103; 

514; XI 23; 36; 120; as a philosopher, 

526 
Cousin - Montauban, Charles-G.-M.- A.-A. 

See PaUkao, Comte de 
Cousseau, Ant. Charles, Bishop of Angon- 

16me. See AngoulSme 
Coutances, A.-F. de Talaru de Chalmazel, 

Bishop of, vm 156 



General Index, 



309 



Couthon, Georges, one of the Enrages, viii 
213; on Comiti de Salut Public, 343, 
345 6q., 351, 364, 368 ; arrest and execu- 
tion of, 370 sq. 

Coutras, Huguenots' first victory at, in 43 

Couza, Alexander John, Prince of Moldo- 
Wallachia, xi 644 sq. 

Covenant, Solemn League and, adopted by 
Parliamentary party (1643), iv 317 sqq. ; 
and Westminster Assembly, 358; 488; 
National (Scottish), iv 488 sqq. ; character 
and early history of, 497 sqq. 

Coventry, Mary Queen of Scots, imprisoned 
at, ni 282; Cumberland's army at, vi 114 

Henry, envoy to Sweden, y 109; 

and the Treaty of Breda, 112 

Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron, ship- 
money and, IV 282 

Sir William, Secretary to the navy 

under the Duke of York, v 113, 183; 
210; 216 

Coverdale, Miles, Bishop of Exeter, transla- 
tion of the Bible by, ii 465; 501, 539; 
assists in Parker's consecration, 572 

Coveripak, Clive at, vi 541 

Covode, John, American politician, vn 
469 

Cowell, John, professor of law, vi 786 

Cowley, Abraham, succours Crashaw, iv 
772; not a Fantastic Poet, 773 sq.; v 
129 ; 132 ; and the Philosophical College, 
740; 745; vi 791 

Hannah, dramatist, x 699 

Sir Henry Wellesley, Ist Earl, sent 

to Lucknow, ix 724 sq. ; x 37 ; ambas- 
sador at Madrid, 211 sq.; ambassador 
at Paris, xi 333 

Captain, and the Falkland Islands, 

VI 373 
Cowpens, Tarleton defeated at (1781), vii 

227 
Cowper, Francis Thomas de Grey Cowper, 

7th Earl, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, xn 

40; 79; 81 

William, poet, VI 79 ; 826; 828; vni 

766; X 699; 724 

William Cowper, 1st Earl, v 446; 

465; 469 

Cox, Dr Richard, Bishop of Ely, n 657, 
565, 567, 575 

English colonel, defends Almeida, 

IX 459 

Crabbe, George, x 700 sq. 

Cracow, Compact of (1525), iii 73; Pro- 
testantism in, 74, 78, 84 ; Canons of, 75 ; 
76; University of, 77, 87, 102; corona- 
tion of Henry of Valois at (1574), 88-9 ; 
flight of Henry from, 90; Maximilian II 
declared King at (1575), 96; Bathory's 
supporters march to, 97; Stephen Bath- 
cry's state entry into (1576), 98; Arch- 
duke Maximilian defeated at, 450, rv 168 ; 
Palatine of, 189; taken by Charles X 
(1655), 681; v 480; the Swedes in, 505; 
692; Augustus U crowned at, vi 191; 



669; Russians expelled from (1794), viii 
542; surrenders to Prussia, 546, 648; 
ceded to Austria (1795), 649, 662; 
Schwarzenberg marches on (1813), ix 
611; declared a free city, 598; Republic 
of, 599, 647, 655, 670; Province of, 
formed, x 449 ; Patriotic Society at, 463 ; 
Republic of, 456, 460 sq. ; annexed to 
Poland, 461 ; annexed by Austria, xi 39, 
46 sq., 250; journal published in, xii 
339 
Cracow, Franciscus Krasinski, Bishop of, 
and Polish Diet (1575), iii 96 

Palatine of. See Firlej, Grand 

Marshal of Poland 

Cradock, Francis, and schemie for a national 
bank, v 266 

Sir John Francis, 1st Baron Howdon, 

commands British troops in Portugal, 
IX 448; superseded by Wellesley, 449; 
Governor of Cape Colony, 753 

Craft-gilds, in Flemish communes, i 428; 

13th century importance of, 511-3 
Craftsman, The, political journal, vi 71 
Craggs, James, vi 41; 181 

James, the younger, vi 30; 34; 38; 

41; 181; x 625 

Craig, Sir James Henry, General, in 
Canada, ix 745 sq.; expedition of, to 
Cape Colony, 749 

John, Scottish Reformer, ii 591 ; iii 

275 

Craigmillar, Conference at (1666), in 273 
Crail, Jacobites at, vi 99 
Cramer, Charles Fr^d^ric, Danish writer, 
vin 788 

Johann Andreas, German divine, 

VI 741 

Cram pel, Paul, African explorer, xn 130 

Cranach, Lucas, German painter, n 159 

Cranbome, Lord. See Salisbury, 3rd Mar- 
quis of 

Cranfield, Sir Lionel See Middlesex, Earl 
of 

Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, I 641; n 26, 49; visits Germany, 
219 ; 241 ; 433, 439 sq. ; Anne Boleyn's 
trial and, 445; 464, 481, 484; 617, 521; 
imprisonment of, 538 ; disputation of, at 
Oxford, 539 ; trial of, t&. ; death of, 542 

Craonne, Bliicher repulses the French at 
(1814), IX 651 

Crashaw, Richard, education of, iv 771 ; 
characteristics of, 772 sq. 

Craufurd, Robert, Major-General, charge 
of, at Busaco, ix 461; expedition of, to 
Chili, 753 

Craven, Charles, Governor of Carolina, 

VII 38 

Tunis Augustus, American naval 

commander, vii 555 

Crawford, John Lindsav, 20th Earl of, 
VI 116 

William Harris, American states- 
man, VII 360, 373 sq. 



310 



General Index, 



Crawford, William Lindsay, ISth Earl of, 

V 292 

Crawfurd, John, envoy to the Court of Slam, 
XII 635 

Creagh, Bichard, Archbishop of Armagh, 
m 593 

Creek Indians, The, vn 345 

Creevey Papers, The, ix 687 

Crefeld, taxation in, vi 221; silk manu- 
facture at, X 732 

Creighton, Mandell, Bishop of London, xn 
841; 847 

Crema, the French occupy, viii 585 

Cramer, Camille, French ofl&cer, xi 604; 
606; 608 

Cr6mieux, Adolphe, xi 102 sq. ; Minister of 
Justice, 104 

Gaston, French politician, xi 503 

Cremona, siege of (1526), n 53; raid on, 

by Prince Eugene (1702), v 403; Elisa- 
beth Famese and, vi 152; 154; Napo- 
leon captures (1796), vm 669, (1800), 
IX 62; congress at, xii 235 

Bishop of, XII 229 

Cr^py, Peace of (1544), ii 78 sq., 245, 289, 

459, 662, III 465, 477 
Cr^quy de Blanchefort et de Canaples, 

Charles, Marquis de, Marshal of France, 

defeated (1598), in 417 ; at Susa, iv 135 ; 

370 
Crescentius, Peter, in 471 
Crescenzio, Marcello, Cardinal, n 671 sq. 
Crespin, Jean, Livre des Martyrs, n 293 
Creswell, Father Joseph, m 533 
Crete, acquired by Venice, i 255 ; Venetian 

colonisation of, 256; Turks in, v 40, 

342, 344, 348; pashalik of, x 548; xi 

313; 324; the Powers and, 634; dis- 

turbances in, 636 ; Constitution for, 637 ; 

XII 10; 382; insurrection in, 391; 392; 

Treaty of Berlin and, 398 sq.; 406; 415; 

affairs in (1878-1908), 418 sqq. ; 422 sqq. ; 

Greece and, 427 sq.; 728 
Cretet, Emmanuel. See Champnol 
Creusot, industries at, x 732, 744, 756; 

the Commune at, xi 503 
Creutz, Count Philip, Swedish Chancellor, 

VI 777 

Creuze-Latouche, Jacques-Antoine, mem- 
ber of the National Assembly, vm 386, 
501 

Creuzer, G. Friedrich, writings oi^ xii 
821 sq. 

Crevecceur, Philip de (des Querdes), rebels 
against Maximilian 1, 1 394, 438, 446 ; 451 

Crew, Nathaniel, 3rd Baron Crew of Stene, 
Bishop of Durham, v 234 

Sir Randal, dismissal of, iv 266 

Crichton, Father, in 288, 290 

Crieff, burnt by Jacobites, vi 102 
Crillon, Louis de Berton des Balbes de 

Quiers, Duke of, and Duke of Mahon, 

at Minorca, vi 379 
Crimea, Tartars from, reinforce Imperial 

troops. III 107; Eussia and, v 343, 368, 



479, 493; vi 305; 307; 634; 648; 651; 
Catharine II and, 668, 672; 673; an- 
nexed by Russia (1783), 675 sq., vin 311, 
314 ; VI 695 ; ceded to Russia, 709 ; 778 ; 
vin 308; Stolypin in, xii 377 

Crimea, Khan of, V 504; 506; 521; 599 

Crimean War, Great Britain and the, Vol, 
XI, Chap. XI ; 263; 266; 272; and Moldo- 
Wallachia, 284 ; 800 ; causes and results 
of, 305 sq.; 325; 346; influence of, on 
English literature, 351; Piedmont and, 
373; Austria and, 401 sq.; 635; Greece 
and, 639; 764; Canada and, 769; 830; 
XII 294, 301, 728, 796 

Crispi, Francesco, Italian statesman, xx 
533; XII 215; Ministry of, 217 sq.; fall 
of, 218 ; and African affairs, 239 sqq. 

Cristina (Maria Cristina of Naples), Queen 
Regent of Spain, x 231 sq. ; policy of, as 
Queen Regent, 233 sq. ; and Code of 
Cadiz, 237; negotiations of, with Don 
Carlos, 239; abdication of, 241; 242; 
XI 38; 550 sq. ; and the marriage of 
her daughters, 653 sqq.; withdraws to 
Paris, 556 ; 557 ; corrupt practices of, 569 
sq. ; leaves Spain, 561 

Critica Sociale, Italian socialist journal, 
xn 231 

Crittenden, John Jordan, American poli- 
tician, VII 581 

Crivelli, Julius Cfesar, Bavarian diplomatic 
agent, iv 680 

Crnoievid, Stephen, the maker of Monte- 
negro, I 74 

Croatia, fighting in, during the war of 
1809, IX 355; French provinces of, 418; 
Marmont's action in, 419 ; revolutionary 
movement in, xi 156; 170; Hungary and, 
173, 202; 177 sqq.; Diet of, 180; 206; 
209 ; reaction in, 217 ; 399 ; xn 180 ; and 
the Compromise of 1868, 182, 190, of 
1879, 198; 209 sq. 

Crocco, Italian brigand, xi 531 

Croft, Herbert, Bishop of Hereford, v 331 ; 
334 

Sir James, heads rebellion against 

Mary, ii 526 

Croissy, Charles Colbert, Marquis de, 
French ambassador in England, v 203 
sq.; 209; 211 

Croix, La, French journal, xn 120 

Croizier, aide-de-camp to Napoleon, vm 
606 

Croke, Richard, Cambridge Hellenist, 1 580, 
645 
Thomas W., Roman Catholic Arch- 
bishop of Cashel, xn 85; 87 

Croker, John Wilson, x 615; 655 

Cromarty, George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of, 
VI 117 

Crome, Edward, Protestant Reformer, n 539 

Cromer, Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl, xn 240; 
and Egyptian finance, 434; 438; Consul- 
General in Egypt, 439 sqq., 446 sq. ; 464 ; 
retires, 456 



Greneral Index. 



311 



Cromer, George, Archbishop of Armagh, in 
587 

Crommelin, Samuel Louis, and the Irish 
linen industry, vi 482 

Crompton, Samuel, inventor of the spin- 
ning-mule, VII 374, IX 372, x 735 

Cromwell, Henry, succeeds Fleetwood in 
Ireland, iv 538; resignation of, 640 

Oliver, Protector, abolition of Epis- 
copacy and, IV 292; Remonstrance and, 
296; member for Cambridge, 304; with 
Essex, 311 ; Ironsides of, 312 ; at Gran- 
tham, 313 ; 314 ; victory of, at Winceby, 
815 ; 318 ; and toleration, 320 ; Lieutenant- 
General, 321 ; at Marston Moor, 322 ; at 
Newbury, 324; Self-denying Ordinance 
and, 325 sqq. ; at Taunton, 328 ; raid of, 
round Oxford, 329; at Naseby, 330; in 
Dorset, 332; in Hampshire, 333; at 
Bovey Tracey, 334; and Parliament, 
337 ; 341 ; and the army, 342 ; mediates 
between army and Parliament, 343 ; and 
Charles I, 344 sq. ; suppresses mutiny in 
army, 346; ajad Charles II, 347; at 
Windsor, 348; takes Pembroke, 349; at 
Preston, 350; King's trial and, 353; and 
Pride's Purge, 354 ; dissolves Rump, 362 ; 
Charles X of Sweden and, 429; and 
the Commonwealth (1649-53), 434-8; 
Protector, 438-48; ecclesiastical policy 
of, 453 sq.; revenue and, 456 sq.; militia 
and, 458 ; Irish expedition of, 463 ; 469 ; 
expedition of Penn and Venables and, 
481; service of Shaftesbury under, 485; 
ascendancy of, 506; 507; in Edinburgh, 
508; army of, in Scotland, 510; in 
Ireland, 532 sqq. ; settlement of Ireland 
and, 536, 538; death of, 448, 540; policy 
of, 543 ; 544 ; Monck and, 545 ; 551 ; and 
Spain, 659 sq.; and Conde, 616; and 
Mazarin, 619; and East India Company, 
746; and Portugal, v 105, 107; and 
Mazarin, 106 ; and Dutch Republic, 138, 
140 sqq.; and Nieuwpoort, 146; 178; 
266 ; and Ireland, 315 ; and the religious 
sects, 327 sq. ; 333; and Spain, 372, 375, 
378; 386; Elector Frederick William 
and, 648; 680; 697; Protestant Scheme 
of, VI 614; 795 sq.; 803; 805; 813; and 
Acadia, vii 75 

Richard, proclaimed Protector, iv 

448; Parliament and, 449 sq.; army and, 
451; dissolves Parliament, 452; end of 
Protectorate of, 453 sq. ; 539 sq. ; Monck 
and, 545; 549; intrigue for restoration 
of, 553 

Thomas, Earl of Essex, ii 432; 

becomes King's secretary, 440 sq. ; Vicar- 
General, 442; visitation of monasteries 
ordered by, 444; fall of, 451; character 
of, 451 sq. ; the translation of the Bible 
and, 465 sq. ; in 113 ; 737 

CrOnica Cientifica y Literaria, x 210; 212 
Cronje, Piet Arnoldus, Boer general, xu 
642 



Cronsbrnch, Caspar Florenz, Baron von, 

at Utrecht, v 439 
Crook, George, American officer, in the 

Kanawha VaUey (1864), vn 516 
Cropredy Bridge, Waller defeated at, iv 

323 
Croquants, The, in 664 
Crosa, Marquis, Sardinian envoy, x 109 
Crosby, Brass, Lord Mayor of London, vi 

444 
Cross, Richard Assheton Cross, Ist Vis- 
count, Home Secretary, xii 30; 481 
Crowley, Robert, on agrarian reform, n 490 
Crown Point, captured by the colonists 

(1775), vn 166 
Crowne, John, dramatist, v 126 sq.; 132; 

136 
Croy, Prince Charles Eugene de, v 369 ; 589 

Charles Philip de. See Havr6 

William of. Seigneur de Chidvres, 

1 369 sq., 452 sqq. ; ii 38, 43 

William of. Cardinal, Archbishop of 

Toledo, I 370, 379 

See also Aerschot 

Crozat, Antoine, French merchant, and 
Louisiana, vi 172; French financier, vn 
88, 92 

Cruciger, Caspar, Lutheran Reformer, n 
207, 250 

Crusenstolpe, Swedish journalist, xi 684 sq. 

Gruzaday The, Spanish tax, ii 63 

Crynssen, Abraham, captures Tobago, v 152 

Csanyi, Laszlo, Hungarian statesman, xi 
212; 214 

Csokonai, Michael Vit^z, Hungarian poet, 
XI 423 

Cuba, Spanish colonies in, i 40 sq.; a 
Spanish possession, v 687; economic 
conditions of, vi 186 ; French in, vn 108 ; 
trade of, 327; United States and, 432, 
438, 673; insurrections in (1868), 637, 
(1895), 674 sqq.; Spain relinquishes, 681 
sqq. ; Republic of, 686 ; and Spanish 
revenue, x 259; negroes in, 260; the 
United States and, 309; industries in, 
761; XI 335; 557; proposed American 
purchase of, 563; xii 56; rebellion in, 
264 sq, ; lost by Spain, 266; 267; 530; 
653 sq. ; United States and, 655 sq., 685, 
696 sq. 

Cubi^res, Amed^e-Louis Despans de, French 
general, xi 39 

Cuddalore, vi 454; besieged, 677 

Cuddapah, Nawab of, vi 541 

Cudworth, Ralph, Cambridge Platonist, 
Cartesian philosophy and, iv 791 ; v 750 
sq.; 753 

Cues, Nicholas of. See Cusanus 

Ciistrin, Frederick V at, iv 68, 70; 196; 
Gustavus and, 197 sqq., 201, 203; Gallas 
at, 374; the Great Elector at, v 639; vi 
212; arsenal of, 279; bombardment of, 
280 ; 282 ; 298 ; Frederick William III at, 
1x277; capitulates (1806), 206; evacuated, 
318; fortress of, 5U 



312 



General Index. 



Ciistrin. See Brandenburg-Ciistrin 
Cujacius (Jacques Cujas), French Hellenist, 

I 677 ; HI 68 sq. 
Cujavia, Calvinism in, in 75 

Stanislas Karnkowski, Bishop of, 

III 83 ; 90 ; crowns Stephen B4thory, 99 

Culemburg, Count of, iii 217, 222 
CuUen, Government force at, vi 116 

Paul, Cardinal, Archbishop of Dublin, 

XII 69 
Culloden, battle of, ▼ 326, vi 116, 246 
Calmbach, v 622 

See Brandenburg-Culmbach 

Culmland, The, and Poland, v 629 ; and the 

German Order, 630 ; 634 

Culmore Castle, surprised by O'Dogherty, 
III 613 

Culpeper, Lord Thomas, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, VII 9 sq., 199 

Cultura Sociale, Italian journal, xn 230 

Culver well, Nathanael, Cambridge Pla- 
tonist, V 752 

Cum ad nihil, Bull establishing Inquisition 
in Portugal (1631), n 413 sq. 

Cumana, Dutch trade with, v 688; war- 
ships at, X 290 

Cumberland, Prince Charles in, vi 114 

George Clifford, 3rd Earl of, and 

naval war with Spain, in 319; and the 
English East India Company, iv 730 

Henry Frederick, Duke of, marriage 

of, VI 445 

"William Augustus, Duke of, vi 114 

sqq. ; at Fontenoy, 242 sq. ; 246 sqq. ; 
263; 340 sq.; 405; 408 

• EmestAugustus,Dukeof. See'Ernest 

Augustus, King of Hanover 

Bichard (d. 1718), Bishop of Peter- 

borough, V 753 

Kichard, and the Gibraltar negotia- 
tions (1799), VI 377 sq. 

Cumberland Gap, Confederate troops in 
(1861), vn 462 sq., (1862), 507 

River, trade on, vn 360; Fort 

Donelson on, 494 

Cunha, Luis da, Portuguese Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs, vi 385 

Tristao da, Portuguese explorer, i 32 

Cuniga. See Zuniga 
Cunin-Gridaine, Laurent, x 511 
Cunningham, Allan, in Australia, xi 790 sq. 

Sir James, and the English East 

India Company, iv 730 

CuraQoa, ancient Dutch colony, rv 709 sq., 

751; contraband trade at, v 684; 687; 

the Dutch in, vi 186; port of, closed 

(1804), vn 327 ; English capture of (1807), 

IX 240, 368, 750; and the trade of 

Venezuela, x 257 

Curci, Carlo Maria, Jesuit, xi 715 

Cur6, Gustave, French Republican, xi 304 

Cur6e, J. F., suggests that Napoleon 

should be declared Emperor, ix 31 
Cureton, Charles Robert, Brigadier-general, 
in India, xi 741 



Curie, Marie, and the discovery of radium, 
xn 789 
Pierre, work of, in radium, xn 789 

Curione, Celio Secondo, Reformer, n 382, 
386, 391, 716 

Curran, John Philpot, Irish Judge, retire- 
ment of, IX 700; 702 

Sarah, ix 707 

Currie, Sir Frederick, Indian official, xi 
741 

Dr John, of Liverpool, vni 765 

Curry, John, historian, x 627 

J. L. M., Confederate Senator, vn 

605 

Curtatone, xi 86; battle of, 94 
Curtis, Patrick, Archbishop of Armagh, x 
650 

Sir Roger, Admiral, vin 479 

Samuel Ryan, American general, vn 

496 

Curtius, Ernst, German historian, xn 844 sq. 
Curwen, Dr Richard, preaches before Henry 

VIII against Peto, n 438 
Curzolari, islands of, in 135 
Curzon, Sir Robert, i 474 sq. 

of Kedleston, George Nathaniel 

Curzon, Lord, Viceroy of India, xn 486 ; 
administration of, 488 sqq.; resigns, 496 

Cusani, Augustine, Cardinal, m 449 
Cusano, Benedetto, Italian Reformer, n 390 
Cusanus, Cardinal (Nicholas Krebs of Cues), 
I 435, 599, 608, 623; the Dialogue of 
Peace, 624; 628 sq., 630 sqq., 689 
Cushendun, Shane O'Neill at, in 592 
Cushing, Caleb, mission of, to China, xi 
810 sq. 

William Barker, blows up the Albe- 
marle, VII 564 

Custine, Comte Adam-Philippe de, com- 
mands Army of the North, vm 339, 
343, 423, 429; recalled to Paris and 
executed (1793), 346, 430; commands 
Army of the Vosges (1792), 413 sqq., 417, 
422 sq., 775 

Renaud-Philippe de, French general, 

executed (1794), vin 357 

Custom of Paris, in Canada, vn 82 
Custozza, battle of, xi 89, 122, 640 
Cuvier, Georges-C.-L.-D., ix 133; xn 771 
Cuxhaven, Prussia takes possession of (1800), 

IX 46 

Cuyaba, province of, vi 390 

Cuzco, centre of Inca rule in Peru, i 44 sq. ; 
the Indians of, x 260, 263 ; Tupac Amaru 
marches on, 266 sq. ; revolutionary con- 
spiracy in (1814), 299; 301 

Cyclades, The, acquired bv Venice, i 255; 

X 202 

Cyprian (Latin Father), early printed editions 

of, I 616-7 
Cyprus, Turkish designs on, m 130-3; 

troops landed at, 134; taken by Turks, 

134, 137, 399, 494-5; xn 33; 239; 

British occupation of, xi 324, xn 399, 

415; 428; 499 



General Index. 



313 



Cyprus Convention, xn 398 sq. 

Czapka, Ignaz, Bitter von Winstetten, 
Burgomaster of Vienna, xi 154 

Czarniecki, Stephen, Polish general, de- 
feated by Charles X, iv 582 sq. ; invades 
Jutland, 588 

Czarnkowski, Canon of Cracow (1549), in 78 

Czarnovo, Bussians retreat from (1806), ix 
284 

Czartoryski, family of, vi 193; 196; pre- 
dominance of, in Poland, 198 sqq.; 354; 
666 sq. 

Prince Adam George, Polish poli- 
tician and general, vin 786 sq. ; ix 35; 
246; advice of, to Alexander, 259; re- 
port of Austerlitz of, 261; resignation 
of, 272; 337; influence of, 483; 485; 
at Congress of Vienna, 681; advice of, 
592; X 418; curator of University of 
Vilna, 430, 459 ; and Polish Constitution, 
446; 448; 457; and Polish revolution, 
466 sq., 472 

Prince Augustus, Prince Palatine, vi 

198 

Florian, Primate of Poland, vi 198 

Prince Michael, Prince Chancellor, 

VI 198 

Czaslau, Austrian troops in, vi 234 

Czechs. See Cechs 

Czenstochowa, Polish monastery of, Swedes 

fail before, iv 582 
Czemovitz, meeting of Emperors at (1823), 

X 187 sq. 
Czuczor, Georg, Hungarian writer, xi 431 

Dabo, Amirs defeated at, xi 737 
Dacca, Court of Appeal at, ix 711 
Dacia, kingdom of, vi 674; 676 
Dacke, Nels, revolts against Gustavus Vasa, 

II 627 
Dacre, Leonard (claiming to be Lord Dacre 

of Gillesland), iii 281 sq. 

Thomas, Lord, VSTarden of the 

Marches, n 420 

Thomas Fiennes, Lord, i 485 

William, Lord, trial and acquittal 

of, n 441 

Dada Kashji, Gwalior Minister, xi 737 sq. 
Dadar, General England at, xi 735 
Dadizeele, Jan van, Bailli of Ghent, i 443 
Daendel«<, Hermann Willem, Dutch general, 

VIII 662; 787; ix90; Governor of Java, 

754 
Daghestan, Bussia and, v 545; annexed to 

Bussia, X 413 
Dagobert-Fontenille, Luc- Simeon- Auguste, 

French general in Spain, vin 439 sq. 
Dagonet, French commander in Spain, vm 

440 
Daguerre, Louis- Jacques-Mand6, and photo- 
graphy, X 755; XII 783 
Dahlberg, Erik, leads Swedes from Fiinen, 

IV 685; V 569; 587 
Dahlgren, John Adolf, American admiral, 

vn 527 sq. 



Dahlmann, Friedrich Christoph, x 370; 

drafts Hanover Constitution, 374; 376; 

expelled from Hanover, 379 sq. ; xi 49 ; 

143; German Constitution of, 162 sq.; 

164 sq. ; opposes Malmoe Truce, 168; 

195 ; withdraws from Frankfort Assembly, 

200; 221 
Dahomey, French conquest of, xn 129; 

130; 659; explorers in, 807 
Daily Telegraphy xii 810 
Dain, Olivier le, i 440 
Daine, Nicolas, Belgian general, x 541 sq. 
Dakkar, French Governor-General at, xn 

660 
Dakota, North, population of, vii 711; 

South, and the currency question, 673 
Dakotas, population of the, vii 708 
Dalai Lama, of Tibet, xn 490 sq. 
Dalayrac, Nicolas, ix 135 
Dalberg, Emmerich Joseph, Due de, and 

the French regency, ix 558 ; at the Con- 
gress of Vienna, 580; 584, 601 

John von, Bishop of Worms, i 572, 

634, 637 

Karl Theodor Anton Maria von, 

Elector of Mainz, etc.. Primate of the 
Confederation of the Bhine, ix 94; and 
the rearrangement of the German States, 
202-3 ; 268 ; principality created for, 414 ; 
represented at Congress of Vienna, 587 ; 
and the Final Act, 659 ; x 6 ; 145 

Dale, Sir Thomas, expedition of, to the 
Banda Islands, ly 735 sq.; High Marshal 
of Virginia, vn 6 

Valentine, envoy to French court, 

in 27 

Dalecarlia, seized by Sweden, n 600; 621, 

624 
Dales, The, Swedish mining districts, vi 779 
Dalhousie, James Andrew Broun Bamsay, 
1st Marquis of, vi 563 ; and the " railway 
mania," xi 4; 329; in India, 730, 740 
sqq. ; administrative reforms by, 744 ; 
747; 750 sq.; xn 462 
Dalkeith, castle of, taken by the Cove- 
nanters, IV 502 
Dallemagne, Claude, Baron, French general. 

Tin 568, 638 
D'Allemand, Cardinal, of Avignon, i 623 
Dalling and Bulwer, Lord. See Bulwer 
Dalmatia, Venetian power in, i 254; lost 
by Venice (1381), 264; recovered, 278; 
Turco-Venetian war in, in 117; inroads 
of the Uskoks in, iv 11 ; Venetian con- 
quests in, V 366, 371; Turks in, vi 
30; 648; 675; ceded to Austria (1797), 
vin 583, 592; demanded from France, 
IX 272; France and (1806-9), 396-7, 
418; protectorship of Franciscan Order 
in, 419; recovered by Austria (1816), 660; 
XI 47; 179 sq.; Emperor of Austria in, 
xn 382 

Duke of. See Soult 

Dalny, xn 686; 696; ceded to Japan, 601 
Dalreooh, burnt by Jacobites, vi 102 



314 



General Index. 



Dalrymple, Sir Hew Whitefoord, sent to 
Spain, IX 440 ; agrees to convention with 
Junot, 441; allows French to plunder 
Lisbon, i5.; departure of, 442 

See also Stair 

Dalton (Georgia), Confederate army at, vn 

614, 621 
Dalton, John, Indian officer, vi 541 

John, man of science, xn 730; 769 sq. 

Dalwigk, Reinhard Karl Friedrich, Baron 

von, Hessian statesman, xi 397 
Dalziel, Sir Thomas, at Eullion Green, 

V 284; 288 
Damaraland, German missionaries in, xn 

658; 664 
Damascene. See John Damascene 
Damascus, pashalik of, promised to Ibrahim, 

X 548, 653; Ibrahim enters, 649; revolt 
in (1834), 559; 560 

Dambray, Charles-Henri, Vicomte, French 

Chancellor, ix 563 ; 565 sq. ; 669 ; x 94 
Damesme, Edouard-Adolphe-Marie, French 

general, xi 113 
Damiens, Robert - Francois, attempts to 

murder Louis XV, vi 339, 347, vm 50 
Damietta, and Suez Canal, xii 431 
Darailly, offers to betray Geneva (1586), 

m 414 
Damjanics, Janos, Hungarian general, xi 

207; 214 
Dampier, William, seaman, vi 182 
Dampierre. See Du Val de Dampierre 

A.-H.-M. Picot, Marquis de, vin 

428 sq. 

Damville, Marshal. See Montmorency 
Damvillers, given up by France (1559), 

n93 
Dan, Greene's march to the, vii 228 
Danby, Earl of. See Leeds, Duke of 
Danckelmann, Eberhard von, Prussian 

Minister, v 647; 658; 662 sq. 

Nicolas von, Brandenburg Minister 

at Vienna, v 663 

D'Audelot et Coligny, Francois, in the 
Wars of Religion, ii 93, 294 sq.; iii 2-5, 9 

Dandolo, Enrico, Doge of Venice (1192- 
1206), I 255 

Daneau, Lambert (d. 1595), Calvinist theo- 
logian, III 749 

Danewerke, The, Danes driven out of, 

XI 440 

Dangan Hill, Preston defeated at, rv 345, 

531 
Dangerfield, Thomas, perjurer, y 231 
Danican, Auguste, French general, vm 396 
Daniel, Francois, Calvin and, n 352 sq. 

Samuel, ni 376 

Danilevsky, Nicholas, Russian writer, xi 634 
Danilo, Prince of Montenegro, xi 277 ; 636 
Danilograd, Montenegrin victory at, xn 387 
Danneskjold - Samaoe, Count Frederick, 

Danish Minister of Marine, vi 739 
Danr^mont, Comte Charles-Marie-Denis de, 

French general, x 604 
Dau-aai, ceded to Great Britain, xu 536 



Dante Alighieri, De Monarchia of, n 2; 
85, 128; m 456-8, 463, 467; De VulgaH 
Eloquentia, 471, 473, 764 

Danton, Georges- Jacques, vin 161, 192, 
200; Procureur Substitute 225, 228; 
character of, 232; 234; Minister of 
Justice, 238, 241 sq. ; and September 
massacres, 243 sq. ; and National Con- 
vention, 246 sq. ; at the King's trial, 
260; policy of, 263 sq., 267; on the 
Comit6 de Salut Public, 269, 338; wan- 
ing influence of, 342 sqq., 347; and 
Robespierre, 359 sq., 362; trial and 
execution of, 362 sqq. 

Danube river, Turkish rule on, in 119; vi 
231 sq. ; Charles of Lorraine at, 235; 
237 ; 306 ; opened to Russian ships, 648 ; 
military operations near (1800), ix 58, 
64; Grand Army reaches (1805), 254; 
approached by Archduke Charles (May 10, 
1809), 350; crossed by French troops 
(May 21, 1809), 351, (July 4-5), 352; 
Russian conquests on, 389; xi 314; 
crossed by Turkish troops, 315, 321 ; 323; 
navigation of, 643; xii 388; fortresses 
of, 392 ; Treaty of Berlin and, 398 

Danubian Principalities {see also Moldavia, 
Wallachia), vi 307; 634; Catharine's 
designs on, 668 sq. ; 672 ; 731 sq. ; Rus- 
sian evacuation of, ix 306; and the 
Treaty of Adrianople, x 202 sq. 

Dajiubyu, attack on, xi 728 

Dan Vila y Coliado, Manuel, historian, xn 
842 

Danville, vn 539; flight of Jefferson Davis 
to, 541 

Danzig, revolt of (1526), in 74; surrender 
of, to Stephen Bathory (1557), 100; and 
the Spanish trade, iv 105 ; Sigismund III 
at, 168, 172 ; Gustavus Adolphus at, 183, 
186, 193; commercial prosperity of, 420; 
Charles X and, 428; the Dutch and, 583, 
588; besieged by the Swedes (1656), v 
146; Russia and, 611; Brandenburg and, 
620; 629; German Order and, 631 ; 634; 
and Poland, 636; 638; Treaty of (1716), 
611; VI 196; siege of (1733), 196 sq.; 
630; 669; 671; Prussia and, 708 sq., 
730; 732 sqq.; vm 293, 330, 333, 523 
sqq.; ceded to Prussia (1793), 635, 551; 
export duty levied at, ix 24; besieged 
(1807), 112, 284-5, 289-90; a free city, 
292, 337, 338; French troops in (1808), 
315; French army at (1813), 511; re- 
covered by Prussia, 647, 666; Prussian 
naval station, xi 445 

Daoiz, Spanish officer, killed in riot at 
Madrid, ix 434 

Dara Shekoh, son of Emperor Shah Jehin, 
VI 518 sq. 

Darboy, Georges, Archbishop of Paris. See 
Paris 

Darby, George, vice-admiral, vi 452 

W. Evans, International Tribunals ^ 

m 718 



General Index, 



315 



Daroy, Thomas, Lord, n 446 

Dard, Henri-Jean-Baptiste, and favours to 
emigrSsy ix 570 

Dardanelles, passage of, vi 674; British 
fleet in (1807), ix 235, 368, 388; 
Bussian claim on, 312, 313, 320; Peace 
of (1809), 388; Greek ships in, seized by 
the Porte, x 185; blockaded by Russia 
(1828), 201; Eussia and, 203, 444; 654; 
closure of (1833), 555, 564; 672; xi 314 
sq. ; Sultan's rights in, 634 ; British fleet 
in, XII 387 

Dare, Jurien van der (Georgius Aportanus), 
Reformer, ii 160 

Darfur, annexed by Egypt, xn 439; 449; 
660; explorers in, 805, 811, 813 

Dargai, heights of, stormed, xii 488 ; 489 

Darien Scheme, character and results of, 
V 295 sqq. 

Company (Company of Scotland 

trading to Africa and the Indies). See 
under Companies 

Darimon, Alfred, French politician, xi 

304 
Darling Downs, occupation of, xi 790; 

795 

river, exploration of, xi 792, 795 

Darlington, Sophia Charlotte von Kiel- 

mannsegge. Countess of, vi 19 
Darmstadt, district of, and the Decree of 

November 19, viii 300 
Darnel, Sir Thomas, case of, iv 267 
Damley, Henry Stewart, Lord, n 458; a 

claimant for Enghsh throne, 582; iii 

269-74, 278 
Darth6, Augustin-A.-J., French politician, 

VIII 605 
Dartmouth, George Legge, 1st Lord, 

(2nd cr.), v 262 

William Legge, 2nd Earl of^ yi 

435; Lord Privy Seal, 447 

Daru, Comte Napoleon, French statesman, 
XI 491 sq. ; 721 

Comte Pierre-Antoine-Noel-Bmno, 

becomes Intendant, ix 118 ; Secretary of 
State, 141; 145, 307; historical work of, 
xii 829 

Darwin, Charles, xi 366; The Origin of 
Species, xn 772 sq.; 774 

Erasmus, vni 765 ; x 699 sq. 

Dashkoff, Princess Catharine, vi 661 sq.; 

679 ; 697 sq. 
Dashwood, Sir Francis. See Le Despencer, 

Lord 
Dataria, attempts to reform, n 673 
Dathenus, Peter, Protestant preacher, in 

251, 252 
Dati, Agostino, of Siena, i 648 

Giuliano, the Oratory of Divine Love 

and, II 379 

Da Torre, Count, and Pernambuco, iv 

708 
Daubeney, Giles, 1st Lord, i 469 sq. 
Daulat Bao Sindhia, Mah4raja of Gwalior, 

XI 726 



Daun, Count Leopold Joseph Maria, 
Austrian Field-marshal, vi 260 sqq. ; 273 
sqq.; at Olmiitz, 277 sq.; 280 sqq.; 287; 
at Torgau, 296 sq. ; 299; 325 sq.; 626; 
705 

Wirich Philipp Lorenz, Count, cap- 
tures Naples, V 419; 425 

Daunou, Pierre-C.-F., French politician, 
vm 386; IX 4; xn 829 

Dauphin^, army sent to pacify (1574), in 
23; held by Huguenots (1575), 27; here- 
tics in, 400, 403 sqq. ; Protestant interest 
in, 661; invaded by the Duke of Savoy 
(1692), V 60 ; Belleisle retreats to, vi 245; 
and Provincial Assemblies, vin 111 sq. ; 
spirit of resistance in (1788), 112 sqq., 
116; and States General, 129 

Dauvergne, Henri, discovers the source of 
the Oxus, XII 802 

Davanzati-Bosticho, Bernardo, his Tacitus^ 
m 471 

Davel, and Vaud, vi 625 

D'Avenant, Sir William, dramatist, v 125 
sq.; 136; 745 

Davenport, Puritan minister at New Haven, 
VII 20 

Daventry, Ingoldsby at, rv 557 

Daverhoult, Jean-A., member of Club des 
Feuillants, viii 213 

David, Jacques-L., French painter, vin 247, 
356, 364, 501 ; picture by, ix 60 ; 134, 
135; X 103 

Pierre-Jean, sculptor, x 103 

Davidovich, Baron Paul, Austrian general, 

vin 678 sqq. 

Davids, precursors of the submarine, vn 
564 

Davis, Jefferson, vn 403 ; Secretary of War, 
426; 447; Confederate President, 461, 
462, 622 sq., 603 sq. ; and peace negotia- 
tions, 535 sq., 542; 538; captured, 543; 
death of, i6., 578; 581; xi337; xn 16 

or Davys, John, navigator, and Dutch 

commercial jealousy, iv 734; xn 814 

Sir John, in 613, 615; Speaker in 

Irish Parliament, iv 515 sq. 

Sir John Francis, Governor of Hong- 
kong, XI 814 

Thomas Osborne, and Young Ireland 

party, xi 7; 13 

Davison, William, in 292 

Davitt, Michael, Irish politician, xn 76; 
81 

Davos, principal seat of the Zehngerichten, 
IV 36 sq. ; 41 ; Protestants of, 47 sq. ; 
Strafgericht at, 47-8, dissolved, 50 ; dis- 
armed by Baldiron, 65; de Coeuvres at, 
58 

Davout, Louis-Nicolas, Prince of Eckmuhl, 
Marshal of France, ix 112 ; 252 ; crosses 
the Rhine, 253; 257; at Pressburg, 258; 
260 ; commands 3rd corps, 275 ; at Auer- 
Btadt, 276-7; marches through Berlin, 
278; Kiistrin surrenders to, 280; ad- 
vances to Posen, 281 ; 283-4 ; at Eylau, 



316 



General Index. 



286; 335; policy of, 338; 339; com- 
mander of French troops in central 
Germany, 346 ; 347-9 ; defeats Austrians 
near Markgrafen-Neusiedel, 353 ; letter 
of Napoleon to (September 2, 1810), 373; 
reports of, from Hamburg, 374; com> 
mander of the French army in N. Ger- 
many, 378; and the Eussian campaign, 
488 sqq. ; 508 ; appointed governor on 
the Lower Elbe, 515; 520, 625, 530; 
plots commanicated to, 572-3 ; in the 
War Office, 616; 645 

Davy, Sir Humphry, x 741; xn 730; 769; 
778 

Davydoff, Denis W., Eussian general, 
harasses French retreat, ix 497 

Dawson, George, x 649 

Dax, Bishop of. See Acqs 

Day, Francis, builder of Fort St George, 
V 698 

George, Bishop of Chichester, ii 501, 

521 

Thomas, writer, viii 755, 765 

William E., American Secretary of 

State, vn 682 

De Aar, the Boers and, xii 642 

Deak, Francis, Hungarian politician, xi 
172; 181 sq.; 203; and Constitutional 
party, 216 ; 400 ; 405 sq. ; writings of, 
426 ; XII 178 sqq. ; and Hungarian de- 
mands, 182 sq. ; 204 ; death of, 190 

De Amicis, Edmondo, Italian writer, xii 231 

Deane, Sir Anthony, Commissioner of Eng- 
lish navy, v 170 sq. ; 177 

Eicbard, admiral, naval administra- 
tion and, IV 4«0 ; 480 

Silas, American statesman, vii 210 

Dearborn, Henry, American general, vu 

341 
Deasy, Heury Hugh Peter, traveller, xii 804 
Debbeh, Eiippell at, xii 806 
Debitz, Eric, Swedish commander, iv 244 

sq. 
Debreczen, Kossuth at, xi 203 ; 204 sq. ; 

the Hungarian Diet at, 207 ; 214 ; 425 
Debry, Jean- A., member of the Legislative 

Assembly, viii 515 
Decaen, Cointe, French general, ix 67 ; sails 

for the Indies, 209 ; Suchet joins, 479 ; 

command of, in 1815, 624 

Claude-Theodore, French general 

(1870), XI 689 sq. 

Decapolis, revolt in (1834), x 559 
Decatur, Stephen, American naval officer, 

VII 339 
Decazes, 6lie, Due, x 13, 20 ; prefect of the 

Paris police, 45; Minister of Police, 47; 

49 ; 50 ; electoral coup d'etat of, 51 ; 52 ; 

54 ; and army reforms, 55 ; 56 ; ministry 

of, 57-63 ; and the murder of the Due de 

Berry, 63; estimate of, as a statesman, 

ib.\ 64; 71; 73 

Louis-C.-E.-A., Duo de Gliicks- 

berg^ French ambassador at Madrid, xi 
556; XII 97; 109; 114 



Deccan, The, Aurangzeb and, v 699 ; Vol. 

VI, Chap. XV (2) passim ; balance of power 

in, IX 722 ; Wellesley in, 726 
Decembrio, Pier Candido, Italian writer, 

I 542 

Deoius, Milanese jurist (1512), ii 30 
Decker, Pierre Jacques Francois de, Belgian 

statesman, xi 672 
Declaratio Ferdinandea, iii 714 
Declaration of Independence, American, 

Vol. VII, Chap. VI (1761-76), 175-208 

of Indulgence, of March, 1672, v 206 

sqq.; of April, 1687, 235; character 
and effects of, 237 sqq. ; 335 ; reissued 
(May, 1688), 336 

of Eight. See Bill of Eights 

Declaration of Sports revived, iv 279 

De dementia, Calvin's Commentary on, 

II 352 sq. 

Decr^s, Denis, Duke, French Minister of 

Marine, ix 213; Napoleon's directions to, 

218; advice of, to Napoleon, 228; 237, 

311, 616 
Decretale, character of, iii 745 
Dedel, Dutch envoy in London, x 644 
Dederotti, John, of Minden, founder of 

Bursfelde Congregation, i 631 
De donatione Constantini Magni^ of Lorenzo 

Valla, II 694 
Dee, Dr John, iii 697 
Defermon des Chapelieres, Jacques, In- 

tendant-genSral, ix 118 
Deffaudis, Baron, mission of, to Buenos 

Ayres, xii 681 
Defoe, Daniel, v 396; 467; 468 sq. ; vi 

815 sqq. ; 833 
De Freyne, Arthur French, Lord, xii 89 
Degdyeff, Eussian terrorist, xii 311 
Deggendorf, attack on, vi 238 
Dego, Allies at, viii 561 sq.; surrenders, 506 
De Grey, Thomas Philip de Grey, Earl, 

Viceroy of Ireland, xi 8 
De haeretico comburendo, statute, revived, 

11 540 
Dejean, Jean-Fran(?ois-Aim6, Comte, ix 9 
Dekker, E. Douwes (" Multatuli "), Dutch 

writer, xi 676 

Thomas, in 376 

Delaborde, Comte Henri-Francois, French 

general, besieges Toulouse, ix 617 
Delacroix, Ferdinand- Victor-Eugene, x 103 ; 

XI 528 ; XII 831 

■ de Constant, Charles, French Foreign 

Minister, viu 507 sq. 
Delagoa Bay, Boers at, xi 781 ; 782 ; 789 ; 

XII 635; dispute concerning, 270, 635; 
640 

Del Aguila, Don Juan, ui 532 ; leads in- 
vasion of Ireland, 608-9 

Delalot, Charles, x 74; 80; 91 

Delamere, Henry Booth, 2nd Lord (after' 
wards Earl of Warrington), supports the 
Prince of Orange, v 246 

Delaroche, Hippolyte (Paul), painter, zx 
528 



General Index, 



317 



Delauney, commands the Army of the 
Moselle, viu 427 

Delavigne, Jeau-FranQois-Casimir, poet, xi 
528 

Delaware, settlement of, vii 40 sqq., 60 sq.; 
162 ; constitution of, 237, 242 ; and An- 
napolis Convention, 244; and Constitu- 
tional Convention, 246 sq., 252, 255, 258, 
263 sq., 269, 271, 281 sq., 285 sq.; accepts 
Constitution, 302 ; representation of, 306 ; 
trade of, 355 ; population of, 359 ; up- 
holds Tariff, 381; slavery in, 385, 585; 
and secession, 453 

river, settlement from Brainford 

near, vii 26 ; Swedish colony on the south 
bank of, 40 sq. ; Howe's operations on, 
213 sq. ; British base at (1813), 341 ; 
steamboats on, 351 

Thomas West, 3rd or 12th Baron, 

Governor of Virginia, vii 6 sq. 

Delbecq, Baron P. J. du Chamge, French 

commander, viii 439 
Delbrel, Pierre, French Commissioner with 

the army in Spain, VIII 440; andBrumaire, 

682 
Delbruck, Martin Friedrioh Rudolf von, 

Prussian statesman, xi 394; xn 150; 

152; 167 
Del Campillo, Don Joseph, Spanish states- 
man, VI 157; 159; 166; 362; 382 
Delcass6, Th^ophile, French statesman, xn 

132 
Del Castillo, Hernando, Spanish writer, i 

379 
Del Corro, Antonio, Spanish Reformer, ii 

406 
Del Daero, Manuel de la Concha, Marques, 

Spanish general, x 242 ; xi 656 
Delescluze, Louis-Charles, French revolu- 
tionary, XI 106 ; 114 ; 488 ; 502 
Delessart, Antoine de Valdec, French 

Minister of the Interior, vni 216; 

Foreign Minister, 222; arrested, 223 
Delessert, Benjamin, industrial experiments 

of, IX 377 

Fran9ois-Marie, French politician, 

XI 127 

Delft, William of Orange at, ni 242 ; Act of 
Federation signed at (1576), 243 ; William 
settles in, 257-9; States of Holland meet 
at, 617 ; trading Company at, 632 ; Arch- 
bishop Gebbard at, 708 ; Frederick Henry 
and, IV 689, 715 ; William II of Orange 
and, 725 

Delhi, the interregnum at, v 697 ; 701 ; vi 
508 ; captured by Bilbar, 509 ; 511 sq. ; 
519 sqq. ; seized by Bah4dur Shah, 623 ; 
524 sq. ; 568 ; 668 ; capture of, by Moham- 
madans (1788), ix 719 ; and the Marathas, 
726 ; Bourquin defeated near, 726 ; siege 
of, 727 ; Shah Alam at, 730 ; xi 731 ; 
746 ; capture of, 747 ; Durbar at, xn 466, 
474, 495 

Deligrad, Milan IV proclaimed at, xn 386 

Delille, Jacques, French poet, vi 827 

C. M. H. 



Delisle, Leopold- Victor, French medievalist, 

xn 834 
Delia Casa, Giovanni See Benevento, 

Archbishop of 

Cisterna, Prince Emanuele, x 114 

Pergola, Bartolommeo, ii 386 

Porta, Bartolommeo (Fra Bartolom- 
meo), Florentine artist, i 168 

Egidio, follower of Zwingli, n 

381 

Giacomo, in 442 

Giovanni Battista, v 716 ; 740 

Rovere, Francesco. See Sixtus IV, 

Pope 

Girolamo. See Turin, Arch- 
bishop of 

Cardinal Giuliano. jS««Juliusn, 

Pope 

Giulio, Italian Protestant, n 

382 sq. 

Lavinia, ii 384, 387 

Torre, Giulio, Spanish agent, opposes 

Henry IV, iv 41 

Valle, Andrea, ii 16 

Delmas, J.-F.-B., member of the Comite 

de Salut Public, vin 269 
Delmenhorst, Denmark and, yi 736; 741 

sq. ; 744; exchange of, 753 
Del Nero, Bernardo, i 164, 173 sqq. 
Delolme, Jean Louis, Swiss publicist, ix 

427 
Del Parque, Spanish general, ordered to 

advance into Leon, ix 458; remnants 

of the force of, 458 
Delphi, excavations at, xn 845 
Delphine, Madame de Stael's, ix 131 
Del Principe, Island of, seized (1598), in 632 
Del Pulgar, Hernando, Spanish chronicler, 

I 381 
Del Biego, Rafael, Spanish revolutionary 

officer, X 215 sqq. ; the hymn of, 218 ; 

220 sq. ; and the French refugees, 223 sq. ; 

President of the Cortes (1822), 224 ; de- 
feated, 228 ; hanged 230 
Del Rio, member of the " Council of Blood," 

III 216, 218 sq. 
Del Vasco, Alfonso Avalos, Marquis, m 

105; sent on an embassy to Venice, 115; 

dismi: uj the Signory, 116 
Delvig, )n, Russian poet, x 431 

Delyannt Iheodore, Greek statesman, at 

Berlin, xn 395, 393 ; premier, 408 ; 420 ; 

assassinated, 422 
Delyanoff, Russian Minister, xn 315 
Demarcjay, French Republican politician, 

X 478 
Dembe Wielkie, Polish success at (1831), 

X 470 
Dembinski, Henry, Polish general, x 472; 

Hungarian Commander-in-chief, xi 206; 

207; 210; at SzSreg, 211; 213; at Wid- 

din, 215 
Dembovski, Leon, and the Polish revolu- 
tion, X 467 
Demer river, French forces at, vi 246 

20 



318 



General Index. 



Demerara, taken by the British (1796), vm 
484, IX 750; restored to Holland (1802), 
75 ; lost (1803), 240 ; retained by Britain 
(1814), 654, 755, x 520, xi 667; strike of 
slaves in, 658 

river, Dutch on, vi 186 

Demerville, Dominique, Jacobin, arrested, 

IX 17 

Demetrius (Dmitri Samotzvanetz), the First 
False Demetrius, claimant of the Russian 
throne, and Sigismund, iv 175, v 497 
sqq.; 524; 548 

the Second False, iv 176 ; coronation 

of, 189 

Demmin, iv 196; taken by Gustavus 
Adolphus, 199 

Democracia, La, Spanish journal, xi 567 

Democratie, La, French journal, xi 488 

Demoivre, Abraham, mathematician, v 716 

Demonte, aimexed to Saluzzo, in 419 

Den, Russian journal, xi 625 

Denain, battle of (1712), v 433 sq. 

Denbigh, William Feilding, 1st Earl of, at 
La Rochelle, iv 133 

Dendermonde, Conference at (1566), iii 210; 
taken by Parma, 618 ; captured by Marl- 
borough (1706), v 416; and the Barrier 
Treaties, 457, 459 

Denfert-Rochereau , Pierre-M.-P, -A., Colonel, 
defends Belfort, xi 606, 609 

Denbam, Dixon, African explorer, xii 807 ; 
810 sqq. 

Denia, capture of (1708), v 426 

Sandoval, Marquis of. See Lerma, 

Duke of 

Denifle, Heinrich Suso, German medievalist, 

XII 848 
Denman, Thomas, Lord, x 673 ; xi 9 
Denmark 
II xvii The Scandinavian North (1), 599- 

617 
IV iii The Protestant Collapse, (2) The 
Lower-Saxon and Danish War 
(1623-9), 85-109 
V The Vasa in Sweden and Poland 
(1560-1630), passim, 158-89 
xlii The later years of the Thirty 
Years' War (1635-48), passiniy 
387 sq. 
xiv The Peace of Westphalia, passim, 

395-433 
XX The Scandinavian North (1559- 
1660), 560-91 
v xviii The Scandinavian Kingdoms, 
passim, 558-83 
xix Charles XII and the Great North- 
ern War, passim, 584-615 
VI xxi Denmark under the Bernstorffs 

and Struensee, 735-57 
IX ii The Armed Neutrality (1780-1801), 
passim, 34-54 
viii The Command of the Sea (1803- 

15), passim, 208-43 
xi The Napoleonic Empire at its 
height (1807-9), passim, 294-340 



Denmark {contd.) 

XI xxiv Scandinavia (1815-70), (ii) Den- 
mark, (iii) Dano - Norwegian 
Literature (1815-65), 691-702 
xn xi Scandinavia (1864-1908), 290-93 
Denmark, Prince Eoyal of. See Fred- 
erick VI 
Dennewitz, battle of (1813), ix 529-30 
Dennison, William, Governor of Ohio, vn 

456 
Denny, Sir Anthony, ii 475 
Denon, Dominique- Vivant, French anti- 
quary, viii 599 ; 605 sq. ; 616 ; ix 134 
Denys, Nicholas, Colonial governor and 

historian, vn 110 sqq. 
Deogaon, Treaty of (1803), ix 726 
Depretis, Agostino, Italian statesman, xn 

214 sq. ; 217 ; 240 
Deptford, Peter the Great at, v 623 
De Quincey, Thomas, xi 361 sq. ; 365 
Derbent, Peter the Great at, v 544; 545; 
evacuated by Russia, vi 304 ; Sir Anthony 
Jenkinson at, xn 793 
Derby, Lambert's army at, iv 544; Duke 
of Devonshire at, v 246 ; Prince Charles 
at, VI 114; riots at (1817), x 578 

Charlotte de la Tremouille, Coun- 
tess of (wife of 7th Earl), holds Lathom 
House for the King, iv 321 

Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 

14th Earl of (Lord Stanley), vn 636; 
Irish Secretary, x 657 sq.; xn 71; and 
the abolition of slavery, x 659; resigns, 
662; 663; 666 sq.; 678; War and Colonial 
Secretary (1841), xi 2 ; 9 ; and repeal of 
the Corn Laws, 10 sq. ; and Protection, 
20 ; refuses office, 21 ; Ministry of (1852), 
ib.', and France, 308; 309; 320; Ministry 
of (1858-9), 328 sqq.; resigns, 331; op- 
poses Gladstone's financial scheme, 334 ; 
third Ministry of, 340 sqq. ; retirement 
of, 342; and Portugal, 574; and the 
colonies, 762; and Canada, 771; xn 69 

Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl 

of (Lord Stanley), xi 330; 345; Foreign 
Secretary, xn 30; 32 sq.; and Egypt, 40, 
434; 41; 43; 141; 384; and the Eastern 
Question, 387; resigns, 394 

Edward G. V. Stanley, 17th Earl of 

(Lord Stanley), Postmaster-General, xn 
55 

James Stanley (Lord Strange), 

7th Earl of, repulsed at Manchester, iv 
305 

Dernei, Anton, printer, v 531 

D^rouUde, Paul, French politician, xn 
121 

Derreira, Poncet at, xn 805 

Derrinlaur Castle, captured (1674), in 
596 

Derry, claimed by Tyrone, ni 611; cap- 
tured by O'Dogherty, 613; revolt of 
(1688), V 307; 308; siege of (1689), 
309, 311 sq., 315; George Dawson at, x 
649 



General Index. 



319 



Derry, Bishop of. See Bristol, F. A. Her- 

vey, 4th Earl of 
Derschavin, Gabriel Eomanovich, Eussian 

poet, VI 698 
Dervies, von, constructs railways in Kussia, 

XI 619 
Derwentwater, James Radcliffe, 8rd Earl 

of, VI 101; 103 
Des Adrets, Baron, and massacre at Orange, 

ni 3 
Desaix {or Dessaix) de Veygoux, L.-C.-A., 

commander in Egypt, vni 600 sqq., 607, 

614; IX 62-3 
Desalliers, French Minister in Transylvania, 

V 696 
Desargues, Gerard, mathematician, Pascal 

and, IV 794; v 710 
Desborough, Major-General John, iv 444; 

448 sq. ; Eichard Cromwell and, 451 sq. 
Descartes, Bene, ii 690 sq., 710; Christina 

of Sweden and, iv 574 sq.; in Holland, 

722; see Chap, xxvii, 776-87; influence 

of, on French literature, v 64 sqq. ; and 

Leibniz, 69; and Catholicism, 72 sq. ; 

82 ; and mathematical science, 710 sqq. ; 

714 sq.; 719; 723; 733 sq.; 739; 741; 

and Queen Christina, 744; 750; 762; 

755; viii 5 
Deschamps, Antony, x 101 

Emile, French poet, x 101; xi 507 

Deschanel, Paul, French politician, xii 126 
Deseret. See Utah 

Des^ze, Eaymond, barrister at Bordeaux, 
advocate for Louis XVI, vin 257 

Desfieux, FranQois, member of the Com- 
mittee of Insurrection, viii 265, 342 

Desforgues, Franpois-L.-M. Chenain, Min- 
ister of Foreign Afifairs, vin 339 

Desgenettes, Baron N.-E.-Dufriche, viii 606 

Desgodins, Abb^, in China, xii 797 

Des Hayes, Louis, Baron de Courmenin, 
IV 90 

Desima, Dutch factory in Japan removed 
to, IV 712, XII 556 

D6sirade, reduced (1808), ix 240 

Desjardins, Paul, xii 119 

Desmarets, Nicolas, French financier, and 
taxation, v 28; viii 69 

Desmeuniers, Jean-Nicolas, and the Con- 
stitutional Committee, viii 183 

Desmond, "undertakers" in, in 599 

the clan of, in 529 

Eleanor Butler, Countess of, 2nd wife 

of Earl Gerald, in 595 

Gerald Fitzjames Fitzgerald, 15th 

Earl of (1558-83), in 594 sq. 

James Fitzjohn Fitzgerald, 11th Earl 

of (1520-29), III 581 
James Fitzjohn Fitzgerald, 14th Earl 

of (1540-58), m 583 

James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, 13th 

Earl of (1534-40), murdered, in 594 

Sir John Fitzgerald, Captain of, in 

594 sq. 

Sir Thomas of (Thomas Eoe), m 696 



Desmoulins, Benoit-Camille, French journal- 
ist, VIII 8, 161, 163, 168, 247; Les 
Revolutions de France et de Brabant, 
329 ; and Le Vieux Gordeliery 360 sq. ; 
trial and execution of, 363 sq. 

Desmousseaux de Givr6, Bernard-Jean- 
Echard, xi 41 

Desna river, Lithuanian boundary, v 481 

Despena Perros, Vedel sent to secure the, 
IX 437 

Despinoy, Comte Hyacinthe-F.-J., French 
general, vm 574 

Desportes, Philippe, in 61, 71, 376 

Despr^s-Crassier, E.-Philibert, general in 
Spain, VIII 439 

Des Querdes. See Cr^vecceur 

Dessau, Bridge of, Wallenstein at, iv 95 ; 
York at, ix 515; siege of (1813), 532 

See Anhalt-Dessau 

Dessewffy, Count Emil, Hungarian poli- 
tician, XII 176 

Dessoles, Jean- Joseph-Paul- Augustin, Mar- 
quis, Commandant of the National Guard, 

IX 557; 558; President of the CouncD, 

X 57; 61; resigns, 62 

Destaing, J.-Zacharie, General, at Aboukir, 

VIII 614 sq. 
Destenave, African explorer, xii 129 
Des Touches, French admiral, vi 453 
Destournelle, Louis Deschamps, French 

Minister, vin 339 
Destrem, Hugues, politician, and Brumaire, 

VIII 683 
Destutt de Tracy, Comte Antoine-C.-V., 

French Minister of Marine, xi 118 
Des Ursins. See Orsiui 
Detring, official of the Chinese Customs 

Service, xn 526 
Detroit, settlement at, vii 356 

river, Hull crosses (1812), vii 337 

Dettingen, George II at, vi 109 ; 238 ; 250 
Deutsche Zeitung, xi 62 

Deventer, educational work at, i 435 sq. ; 
surrender of, in 622; siege of (1691), 
626 

See Prouninck 

Devereux, Captain, murderer of Wallen- 
stein, IV 242 

Deveria, Eugene, x 103 

Devernaki, Ottoman force defeated at (1823), 
X 181 

Devicota, Indian port, vi 538 

Devolution, War of, v 33 ; origin and course 
of, 36 sqq. ; 199 sq. ; Brandenburg and, 
649 sq. 

Devonshire, Hopton in, iv 308, 313; petitions 
for a free Parliament, 649 

Edward Courtenay, Earl of, n 618; 

620; 523-8; 544 

Elizabeth (Foster), Duchess of (2nd 

wife of 5th Duke), x 138; 151 

Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th 

Duke of (Lord Hartington), xi 331; xn 
23; leader of Opposition, 32; Secretary 
for India, 36 ; 43 ; and Home Eule Bill, 

20—2 



820 



General Index. 



44; 45; 52; resigns, 54; 80; 83; Secre- 
tary of State for India, 472, 476 
Devonshire, William Cavendish, 1st Duke 
(4th Earl) of, v 216; 240; 242; 246 

William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of, vi 

13 

William Cavendish, 4th Duke of 

(Marquis of Hartington), vi 75; 404 sq.; 
424 sq.; resigns, 428; 431; 489 

J)6vot8, The French, 17th century religious 

party, v 73 
Dewey, George, American admiral, vn 679 
Deza, Bishop, massacres the Moors, ni 

494 
Dezpuch, Ausias, nominated Bishop of 

Saragossa, i 658 
Dharmsala, death of Lord Elgin at, xi 

752 
Dholpur, Dadi Kashji at, xi 738 
Dhondev Pant. See Nana Sahib 
Dhulip Sing, xi 738 

Dial, The, Transcendentalism in, vn 739 
Dialogue de Manant et Maheustre, in 764 
Diamantina river, squatters on, xn 619 
Diamond Hill, Botha defeated at, xn 643 

Book (Martinique), ix 221 ; 224 

Diario de Madrid, x 210; 229 

Dias, Bartolomeo, Portuguese explorer, 1 17, 

19 ; reaches Cape of Good Hope, 20, 22, 

285 

Henrique, leader in Brazilian revolt, 

V 674 

Diaz, Alfonso, murder of Juan Diaz by, n 
403 

Diniz, explorer of African coast, 1 14 

Juan, Spanish Eeformer, murdered, 

n 254, 403 

Pastor, and Spanish marriage ques- 
tion, XI 554 

Porfirio, President of Mexican Re- 
public, X 305 ; XI 477 ; xn 6 ; 676 sq. 

Dickens, Charles, x 724 ; xi 358 sqq. 

Guy, British attache at Berlin, vi 

212 

Dickinson, Daniel S., member of Congress 
from New York, vn 398 

John, American statesman, vn 179, 

182, 203 sq., 234; at Constitutional Con- 
vention, Chap. VII passim 

Dickson, Major, commander in Spanish 
foreign legion, x 227 

African explorer, xn 807 

Diderot, Denis, v 70 sq. ; vi 165 ; and 

Catharine II, 678, 698; 823; 826; 833; 
837 ; vm 5, 26 sq., 32 ; xi 528 
Diebitsch-Zabalkanski, Ivan K. F. A., 
Comte de Diebitsch and de Narden (Rus- 
sian general), ix 611; x 200; advances 
upon Constantinople, 202 ; 439 ; mission 
of, to Berlin, 465; 468; and the Polish 
revolution, 469 sqq. 
Dieden, Colonel, takes Wesel, iv 693 
Diedenhofen. See Thionville 
Diedrichs, German admiral, xn 513 
Diehl, Earl, German historian, xn 845 



Diemen, Anthoni van, Dutch Governor- 
General of the Indies, rv 711; 740 
Diepo Negoro, Javanese leader, xi 667 
Dieppe, occupied by Ormesby, m 3 ; Henry 
IV at (1589), 48; Pennington at, iv 260 
sq. ; Duo de Beaufort's fleet at, v 187; 
harbour of, xn 102 
Dieskau, Baron Ludwig August, vn 125 
Diet of the Empire, constitution of, i 290 
sq. ; procedure of, 291 ; cities represented 
in, 302; proposed annual meetings of, 
305, 308 sq. ; meetings of, at Frankfort 
(1454), 666, (1485), 302, (1489), t6. ; at 
Niirnberg (1491), ib., (1501), 311, (1522), 
660; at Worms (1495), 303 sqq., (1497), 
306 sq.; at Lindau (1496), 306; at Frei- 
burg im Breisgau (1498), 307; at Augs- 
burg (1500), 308, (1510), 319; at Cologne 
(1505), 316, (1512), 320 sqq.; at Constance 
(1507), 317; at Trier (1512), 320. {For 
later meetings of the Diet see names of 
places) 
Diether, Archbishop, of Mainz. See Mainz 
Dietrich, Archbishop, of Mainz. See Mainz 
Dietrichstein, Sigismund von, councillor 
of Maximilian I, i 326; commander 
of Bohemian troops against peasants 
(1525), n 182, 190 
Dietz, the House of Nassau and, x 624, 

XI 674 
Diez, Friedrich C, philologer, xn 822 

Henry Frederick von, Prussian envoy 

at Constantinople, viii 316, 330 sq. 

Dig, battle of (1804), ix 728 
Digby, George, Baron. See Bristol, George, 
2nd Earl of 

Sir John, Lieutenant of Tower, i 

473 

John. See Bristol, John, 1st Earl of 

Sir Kenelm, negotiates with Pope 

Innocent X, iv 338; 529 

Digeon, Emile, French politician, xi 503 

Digges, Sir Dudley, imprisonment and re- 
lease of, IV 265 

Digne, provisional Government at, xi 138 

Dijon, Parlement of, ni 664, v 4, vm 47; 
school of sculpture at, i 414; revolt of 
(1595), III 667 ; Napoleon's reserve army 
at, IX 66; the Germans at, xi 604, 606; 
609 

Dilke, Sir Charles Wentworth, xn 36; 40; 
43 

Dill, Sir Samuel, historian, xn 849 

Dillenburg, birthplace of William of Orange, 
m 189; exile of William of Orange 
at, 213, 228, 231-3; part of, added to 
grand duchy of Berg, ix 410; House of 
Nassau and, x 524, xi 674 

Dillingen, Jesuits at, ni 161; Franco- 
Bavarian force at, v 408; 410 

Dillingen Book, rv 110 

Dillon, Comte Arthur de, French general, 
vm 412 

John, Irish politician, xn 78 ; 80 sq. ; 

and the Plan of Campaign, 85 



General Index, 



321 



Dillon, John Blake, and Young Ireland 
party, xi 7; 13 

Harold Arthur Lee Dillon, 17th 

Viscount, XII 89 

Dilolo, Lake, Livingstone at, xii 808 

Dimitri. See Dmitri 

Dinant, sack of, by Charles the Bold, i 422; 
captured by French, n 89 

Dindings, Great Britain and the, xn 532 

Dingan, Zulu chief, xi 782 

Dingelstedt, Franz, German poet, xi 60; 413 

Ding-hu, Prjevalsky at, xii 798 

Dingley, Nelson, American politician, vii 
674 

Dingolfing, storming of, vi 238 

Dino, Dorothea de Courland, Duchesse de 
(Gomtesse Edmond de P^rigord), after- 
wards Duchesse de Talleyrand et de 
Sagan, x 510 

Dinwiddle, Kobert, Lieutenant-governor of 
Virginia, vii 10, 66, 120, 125 

Diodati, Charles, friend of Milton, v 118 

General, departs from Pilsen, iv 241 

Dippel, Johann Conrad, pietist, v 761 
Directory, The French (Nov. 1795— Nov. 

1799), formed, vni 393, 397; and the 
army, 445 sq.; 472; Chap, xvi; and the 
conquest of Italy, 564, 570, 584 sq., 589, 
636; and the Egyptian Expedition, 596 
sq., 618; and Brumaire, Chap, xxii; 
finance of, 701 sq., 707; legislation of, 
723 sq. ; policy of, in Switzerland, ix 95 
sqq. ; Chap, xvi, 487-520 ; fall of, Chap. 
XXII, 665-88 

Discours de la M€thode, Vf 11^ ; 781 ; 784 ; 
788 

Disentis, Catholic commune of, iv 36, 47, 51 

Disestablishment, of Irish Church, de- 
manded by Gladstone, xi 344 sq. 

Dispositio Achillea, i 297; v 624; 656 

Disputationes Camaldunenses. See Landino 

Disputations, Luther's, with John Eck, 
n 135. See also Zurich, Baden, Bern, 
Disputations at 

Disraeli, Benjamin. See Beaconsfield 

Dissenters, in Eussia, and Peter the Great, 
V 529; in England, see Nonconformists 

Dissertatio de ratione status in imperio 
Romano-Germanico, and its effects, iv 384 

Distelmeyer, Lampert, iii 153 

Ditmarschen, revolt of peasants of, ii 601 ; 
expedition of Frederick II against, iv 
563 sq. 

Divi, ceded to French, vi 539 

Divine right of Kings, see Vol. in. Chap. 
XXII, Political thought in the 16th century, 
736-69 ; also as held by Bossuet, v 76 sq. 

Dix, John Adams, American statesman and 
general, vii 583, 600 

Dixmude, taken by the Allies (1695), v 62 

Dixon, Admiral, ix 45 

Djezzar, Ahmed, Pasha of Acre, vm 607 sqq. 

Djokjokarta, Javanese rising in, xi 667 

Djunis, Servian defeat at, xn 386 

Dlotovsky, Erast, policy of, xi 629 



Dmitri, son of Ivan IV, Tsar, v 495 ; 499 

the False. See Demetrius 

Dmowski, Eoman, Polish patriot, xn 338 

sq.; 372 
Dnieper river, v 605; Cossack fortress on, 

601; Turkey and, VI 305; 307; 674; 695 
Dniester river, Turkey and, vi 304; 307; 

676 
Doab, the Marathas and the, ix 724 ; Freneh 

dominion in the, 725; 727 
Dobell, Sydney Thompson, poet, xi 352 
Doberschiitz, heights of, vi 290 
Doblhoff-Dier, Baron Anton von, Austrian 

statesman, xi 176; 182; 186 
Dobre, fight at (1831), x 469 
Dobrolyiiboff, Nikolai A., Eussian writer, 

XII 297 
Dobrowsky, Josef, Cech writer, xi 653 sqq. 
Dobrudja, The, xn 388; 392; Roumania 

and, 397 
Dobrzyn, Palatinate of, m 87 

Elector of Polish Palatinate of, in 

87 

Dobsen, Claude-Emmanuel, viii 272 sq. 
Doctor Faustus, Marlowe's, in 374 
Doctrinaires, of the Restoration, Vol. x, 

Chaps, n and xv passim 
Docwra, Sir Henry, in 608-9 
D6czi, Peter, Hungarian diplomatist, i 

343 
Doda, Prenk Bib, Mirdite prince, xn 402 
Dodds, French native officer in Dahomey, 

XII 129 
Dodge, Henry, nominated for President 

of the United States, vii 399 
Dodington, George Bubb. See Melcombe, 

Lord 
Dodoens, Eembert, botanist, v 734 
Dobling, Count Sz^chenyi at, xi 401 
Dollinger, Johann Joseph Ignatius, church 
historian, xi 708; 717; 719; excom- 
munication of, 723; xn 148; 825; 848 
Domitz, Ban6r's fight at, iv 366; capture 

of fortress of (1809), ix 357 
Donhoff, Countess Sophia von, xi 193 
Dornberg, Baron W. C. von, ix 356; at 

Liineburg, 515 ; negligence of, 626 
Dorpfeld, Wilhelm, archaeologist, xn 845 
Dogali, Italian defeat at, xn 240 
Dogger Bank incident, xn 594; 719; 724 
Dohna, Count Achatius von, at Heilbronn, 

IV 28 

Christoph von, Prussian general, vi 

277; 279 sq.; 287; 291 sq. 

Count Christopher von, rv 17; and 

James I, 24; 29; envoy at the Hague, 

V 152 sq. 

Fabian von, German general (1587), 

in 43 

Hannibal von, and George WiUiam 

of Brandenburg, iv 92 

Dokhturoff, Eussian lieut.-colonel of 
Hussars, defends Smolensk, ix 493; at 
Malo-Yaroslavetz, 499 

Dol, occupied by the Vendeans, vm 366 



822 



General Index, 



Dolben, Sir William, vi 473 

Bolder, Landammann, member qi Swiss 
Directory, ix 97 

Ddle, besieged by Cond^, iv 370 sq. ; Gari- 
baldi at, zi 604 

Dolet, 6tienne, i 577; n 288; death of, 
291 

Dolfin, Piero, Venetian merchant in Chios, 

I 286 

Dolgoruki or Dolgorukoff, family, persecu- 
tion of, VI 302 

Alexis, Prince, v 655 

Catharine, Princess, v 555 

George, founder of Moscow, v 477 

George, Prince, sent to Berlin, ix 

255 ; interview with Napoleon, 259 ; 262 

Vasili, Prince, xi 614 

Vasily, Prince, Eussian ambassador 

in Sweden, v 651 

Vasily Lukich, Prince, Russian 

statesman, v 553 sq. 

Vasily Vladimirovich, Prince, Rus- 
sian general, v 554 

Princes, xn 333 

Dolhain, Adrian de Berghes, Lord of, iii 

228 sq. 
Dolman, Colonel, envoy in Holland, v 140 
Dolmos, Fernam, lord of Terceira and 

**Antilha," i 20 
Domaine d'Occident, vn 87, 91, 107 
Domat, Jean, ix 162 
Dombrovski, General John Henry, ix 40; 

X 453 
Domenichi, Domenico di. See Torcello, 

Bishop of 
Domenico, Fra, da Pescia, follower of 

Savonarola, i 147, 181 sqq. 

Fr^, da Ponzo, Franciscan rival of 

Savonarola, i 151, 162 

Domfront, Montgomery captured at, ni 23 

Domhardt, Johann Friedrich von, Prussian 
official, VI 733 

Dominica, the French and, v 687 ; England 
and, VI 185 sq.; 426; 428; 436; taken 
by French (1778), 451; 464; French 
attack on (1805), ix 221 ; trade of, xn 654 

Dominican Observantists, Savonarola's new 
Congregation, i 148 sqq. 

Dominicans, Order of the, i 145, 149, 626 ; 
and the religious revival in Germany, ii 
lOfi, 161; expelled from San Marco, iii 
390 ; at Nancy, xi 30. See also Religious 
Orders 

Dominici, Giovanni, and the Renaissance, 

II 3 

Domitz, fortress of, vi 266 

Dommartin, Elz^ard-Auguste, French 
general, viii 444; 606 

Domokos, XII 391; battle of, 422 

Dompierre d'Hornoy, Charles-Marius-Al- 
bert, French admiral, xii 108 

Domstadtl, Pass of, battle of, vi 278 sq.; 
286 

Don, river, vi 304 ; Turkey and, 305 ; Cos- 
sack district of the, zi 620 



Donato, Leonardo, Doge of Venice, i 276 

Niccold. See Aquileia, Archbishop of 

Donaueschingen, Kray at, ix 57; 58 
Donauworth, troubles in (1606), in 723 sqq.; 
Gustavus Adolphus before, iv 214; 219; 
Horn and Bernard of Weimar near, 227, 
229, 231 ; taken by Ferdinand of Hun- 
gary (1634), 244; and Thirty Years' 
War, 409; battle of (1704), v 409; troops 
at, VI 237 ; Grand Ajrmy crosses Danube 
near, ix 254; French troops ordered to 
concentrate at, 347; Napoleon enters 
(1809), 348 
Doncaster, Viscount. See Carlisle, James 

Hay, Earl of 
Doncourt, Germans at, xi 692 
Dondukoff-Korsakoff, Prince, Russian Com- 
missioner in Bulgaria, xn 403 
Doneau, Hugues. See Donellus 
Donegal, Spanish schemes in, iii 529, 531 ; 
plantation of, 614 

Marquis of, and the Steelboys, vi 

491 

Donellus (Hugues Doneau), French legist, 

I 577 ; III 58 sq. 
Donets district, factories in, xn 320 
Donetz, river, Peter the Great and, vi 305 
Dongan, Thomas, Governor of New York, 

VII 42 sqq., 48; 88 
Dongola, occupied by the Sirdar, xii 447 ; 

805 
Donker-Curtius, Dirk, Dutch statesman, 

XI 663 ; 665 sq. 
Donnadieu, Gabriel, Vicomte, general, ix 

21; x60; 54; 74; 80 
Donne, John, first of the Fantastic Poets, 

IV 760 sqq.; Herbert and, 767 sq.; and 

Italian poetry, 772 sq. 
Donnersberg, part of, ceded to Bavaria, ix 

658 
Donoughmore, 2nd Earl of. See Hely- 

Hutchinson 
Doornkop, Dr Jameson surrenders at, xn 

641 
Doppelgrund, The, Russian army at, vi 285 
'•Dopper" Church, in South Africa, xi 786 
Doppet, Franpois-Am^dee, French com- 
mander in Spain, vni 439 
Dopping, Anthony, Bishop of Meath, v 

320 
Dorat, Jean (Auratus), French Hellenist, 

I 577 ; m 64 sq. 
Dorchester (Massachusetts), fortified, vn 

17; emigrants from, settle in Connecticut, 

18 

Sir Dudley Carleton, Viscount (Lord 

Carleton), in 649; English ambassador 
to Paris, iv 263 

Sir Guy Carleton, 1st Baron, Go- 
vernor of Quebec, vn 171, 214, 216, 
308; IX 742; x 687 

Dore, Paul-Gustave, French painter, xn 

831 
Doreslaer, Isaac, v 138 
Dorgut, Ottoman sea-captain, in 125 



General Index. 



323 



Doria, Andrea (Genoese admiral), at Mar- 
seilles, II 49; and Francis I, 57 sqq., 430; 
aids Charles V, 69, 69; 74; at Nice, 77; 
at Genoa, 69, 81 sq. ; in 105; seizes 
Coron, 107-8; with Charles V on expedi- 
tion to Tunis, 111 ; perfidy of, 114 sqq., 
135, 213, 397 

Filippino (nephew of above), ii 58 

Gian Andrea, admiral (the younger), 

ni 486, 541, 668 

Giannettino, adopted son of Andrea, 

n82 

Pietro, Genoese admiral, i 258 sq. 

Dormans, fight of (1575), m 28 

Dormer, Jane, marries Count of Feria, n 

549 
Dorner, Isaac August, German theologian, 

XII 847 
Dorn^s, Auguste, French politician, xi 

113 
Dorokhoff, Eussian officer, guerrilla warfare 

under, ix 497 
Doroszenko, Cossack Hetman, v 353 ; 355 ; 

699 
Dorothea of Denmark. See Palatinate 
Dorp, Arend van, in 231 sq. 
Dorpat, siege of (1625), iv 185, (1704), v 591; 

University of, x 431, xi 267, xn 336 
Dorsenne le Paige, Jean-Marie-Frangois, 

Gomte, aids Marmont, ix 468 
Dorset, "Bloody Assizes" in, v 232; 

parliamentary representation of, x 608 

Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Ist Duke 

of. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, vi 489 

Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquis of, i 

367, 480, 482 

Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of 

(3rd cr.), poems of, in 366 sq., 371 

Dorsten, Treaty of (1639), iv 371 

Dort, synod at (1586), m 621, (1618), 653, 

IV 690, V 742, 744; 753; occupied by 
the French (1795), vin 436 

Dorth, Colonel Jan van, lord of Horst, at 
Bahia, iv 704; death of, 705 

Dortmund, compact at (1609), ni 730; 
acquired by Prussia, ix 657 

Dositheus. See Rostoff, Bishop of 

Dossonville, Jean-Baptiste, police-super- 
intendent in Paris, viu 612 

Dost Ali, Nawab of the Carnatic, vi 532 sq.; 
535 

Mohammad, Amir of Kabul, xi 731 

sqq. ; 741 sq. ; and Lord Dalhousie, 744 ; 
745 ; xn 458 sq. ; 475 

Dostoievski, Feodor, Eussian writer, xi 

660 sq.; xn 296 
Dotrenge, Theodore, x 626, 529 
Douai, and Treaty of Arras, in 251 ; semi- 
nary at, 287, 350, 593 ; Archduke Albert's 
army at, 673; taken by French (1667), 

V 199, (1712), 434; 325 sq. ; besieged by 
Marlborough (1710), 428 sq. ; 746; ParU- 
ment of, vin 47; Irish scholars at, x 
622, 630; lace machine introduced at, 
744 



Douay, Abel, French general, xi 583 sq.; 

586; 598 
Doudart de Lagr6e, explores the Mekong, 

xn 131 
Douglas, castle of, taken by the Covenanters, 

IV 502 

See Angus, Earl of 

See Hamilton, Duke of 

See Queensberry, Duke of 

Gawain, Bishop of Dunkeld, n 691 

Sir George, takes refuge in England, 

n 454, 457 

Sir Kenneth, lieutenant-general, vin 

612 

Lady Margaret, niece of Henry VIII, 

n 445 ; marries Lennox, 468 

Stephen Arnold, American politician, 

vn 419, 426 sqq., 430, 435; and the 

Illinois election, 436 sq. ; 439 sqq., 

444 sq., 600 

Lieut. -general, besieges Athlone, v315 

Doumer, Paul, Governor- General of Indo- 

China, xii 528 
Domnerc, French commissary-general, vni 

416 
Dourlens, submission of, m 663 ; siege of, 

669 
Douro, river, Wellesley's passage of, ix 451 ; 

and the siege of Oporto, x 328 sqq.; 

blockaded (1847), 339 
Dover, Charles V at, n 45; Charles II 

lands at, v 280; Secret Treaty of (June 1, 

1670), V 40 sqq., 191, 204, 207, 210, 212 ; 

Second Treaty of ('• traite simulS ") (Dec. 

31, 1670), 154, 156, 204 sq., 212 

Straits of, vn 327; defence of the, 

IX 210; submarine telegraph under, xi 
346 

(New Hampshire), founded, vn 21 

Lord. See Yorke, Sir Joseph 

Doveton, Sir John, general, defeats the 

Eaja of Nagpur, xi 726 

Dovizi, Bernardo di. See Bibbiena 

Dowdeswell, "William, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, vi 436; 437 

Down, county, Schomberg lands in, v 312 ; 
the Steelboys in, vi 491 

Downing, Sir George, ambassador at the 
Hague, V 107; 148 sq. 

Downs, battle of the (1639), rv 700 sq., 707, 
708 

Downshire, Wills Hill, Marquis of (Viscount 
Hillsborough), vi 378; 424; 430; Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, 437; and 
America (Colonial Secretary), 429 sq., 
447, vn 152 sqq. ; and Ireland, vi 498 

Downton, Nicholas, iv 732 ; at Surat, 741 ; 
745 

D6zsa, George, Hungarian rebel, i 337; 
historical novel about, xi 427 

Dozy, Eeinhart P. A., historian, xn 846 

Draga, Queen of Servia, xn 412 sq. 

Dragashan, defeat of Ypsilanti at (1821), 

X 179 

Dragfy, suppresses rebels in Hungary, 1 337 



324 



General Index. 



Drago, L. M., Argentine Foreign Minister, 

XII 701 
Dragonnades, m 769; invented (1681), 

V 24; 87 

Dragut, Arraiz, Turkish pirate, n 86, 
268 

Drake, Admiral Sir Francis, in 296-9; 
knighted, 301 ; expedition to West Indies, 
301 sq., 304 sqq., 414, 435, 492 sq., 502 sqq., 
641 ; Ti 65 ; expeditions of, vn 2 ; x 265 ; 
272 

Francis, British agent at Munich 

(1803), IX 28; 30, 321 

Roger, Governor of Calcutta, vi 

652 

Drakenberg Mountains, Natal frontier, xi 

782; 783 
Drakenborg, Lutheran victory over forces 

of Charles V at, n 261 
Drama (Macedonia), policing of, xn 426 
Dramali. See Ali 
Draper, Sir William, lieutenant-general, 

VI 369; 427 

Dred Scott v. Sandford case, vn 434 sqq., 
444 

Dreikaiserbund (of 1872), xn 8 sq. 

DreikonigsbUndniss (of 1849), xi 220 sqq. 

Drente, invaded, v 150, 157 

Drenteln, General, Russian police ofl&cial, 
xn 306 

Dresden, Patkul at, v 586, 594; 602; 620; 
VI 231; capitulates, 244 ; 256; 273; 287; 
288; occupied by Austrians (1759), 294; 
296; Treaty of (1745), 244; 318; occupied 
by Bavarian troops (1806), ix 279; Napo- 
leon at (1807), 294, (1812), 487, (1813), 
518, 524, 526, 530; occupied by the 
Duke of Brunswick-Oels (1809), 357; 
French troops in, 514; evacuated (1813), 
515 ; Allies at, 518 ; Schwarzenberg 
marches on, 523 ; battle of (Aug. 26-7), 
ib., 525 sqq., 528; 541; proposed con- 
ference at, XI 144, 153, 160; Metternich 
at, 154; 217; disturbances in, 219; Con- 
ferences of, 232 sq. 

Dreux, battle of (1562), ii 584; Huguenots 
attempt to seize, m 4 ; besieged by Henry 

IV (1590), 48 

Dreyfus, Alfred, French officer, xn 65 ; 112 ; 
120 sq.; 126 

Drogheda, Poynings' Parliament at (1494), 
I 472; stormed by Cromwell, iv 435; 
the Irish rebellion and, 523; siege of, 
624, 631 sq. ; surrender and sack of, 
533 sq.; WilUam III at, v 261; 309; 
314 

Dromore, rout of Protestant force at (1689), 

V 307 sq. 

Droste-Hiilshoff , BaronessAnnette Elisabeth 

von, XI 414 
Droste-Vischering, Baron, Archbishop of 

Cologne. See Cologne 
Drottningholm, Treaty of (1791), ix 37 
Drouet, Jean-Baptiste, Comte d'Erlon. See 

Erlon 



Drouot, Francois- Joseph (Lamarche), com- 
mands the Army of the North (1793), 
viii 429 
Drouyn de Lhuys, Edouard, French Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs, xi 118 ; 121 sqq. ; 
recalls Lesseps, 126; in London, 281; 
322; 474; and Convention of Gastein, 
479; 480; and Rome, 634; and Syrian 
negotiations, 636 
Droysen, Johann Gustav, German historian, 

XI 160; 164; 195; xn 827 sq.; 845 
Drucour, Governor of Louisbourg, vn 133 
Drucz, river, Charles XII crosses, ▼ 698 
Druey, Charles, Swiss statesman, xi 264 
Drumann, Wilhelm, German historian, xn 

843 
Drumclog, Claverhouse defeated at (1679), 

V 285 

Drumcree, Peace of (1563), m 690 
Drummond, John, English merchant in 
Amsterdam, v 432 

James, 2nd titular Duke of Perth, 

VI 103 

James, 3rd titular Duke of Perth, 

VI 109; 111 sq. 

Lord John, 4th titular Duke of 

Perth, VI 109; 116; 117 

Thomas, Under-Secretary for Ire- 
land, X 677 

William, of Hawthornden, denounces 

the trial of Balmerino, iv 493 

Drumont, Edouard, La France Juive, xn 

120 
Drury, Elizabeth, and Donne's Anniver- 

$aries, iv 765 

Sir William, supporter of Queen 

Mary, ii 514; in 596, 601 

Druses, tribe of Lebanon district, ix 385 ; 
and Marouites, xi 276 

Dryander, Francis. See Enzinas, Fran- 
cisco de 

James. See Enzinas, Jaime de 

Dryden, John, and Beaumont and Fletcher, 

IV 760; and Fantastic Poetry, 776; vl22; 
125 ; heroic plays of, 126 sq. ; comedies 
of, 129 sq. ; 131 ; poems of, 132 ; prose 
writings of, 132 sq. ; satires of, 133 sqq. ; 
and Shadwell, 134; religious poems of, 
135 ; conversion of, 135, 234 ; 228 ; x 696 ; 
714; 724 sq. 
Duane, William John, American lawyer, 

VII 383 

Duarte, Francisoa, iv 720 

Du Barail, Francois-Charles, French general 

and statesman, xn 108 
Du Barry, Marie-Jeanne Gomard de Vau- 

bernier, Countess, vi 330; 356; 359; 373; 

595 
Du Bartas, SaUuste, in 61 
Du Bellay, Guillaume, n 284 sqq.; in 

64 

Jean, Cardinal, n 281, 284, 287 

Joachim, m 54 sqq., 71 

Martin, in 64 

Dubienka, battle of, viii 632 



General Index, 



326 



Du Biez, Oudard, French marshal, be- 
sieges Boulogne, ii 460 

Dubitza, stormed by Loudon, viii 325 

Dublin, siege of (1534), ii442; trade with 
Bristol, III 679; Parliament at, 582; 
Tyrone submits in, 611; Tyrone and 
O'Cahan cited to, 612; County, English 
in, ni 580 ; Cromwell at, iv 435 ; Parlia- 
ment meets in (July 14, 1634), 518; 
Strafiford at, 520 ; rebels fail to capture, 
622; defence of, 523; Harcourt at, 524; 
return of Ormonde to, 526; Glamorgan 
arrested at, 529 ; peace proclaimed at, 530 ; 
besieged by the Confederates, 631, 632 sq.; 
final settlement and, 636; castle of, sur- 
prised, 547; v261; Convention of Estates 
at (1660), 301; James II at, 308, 315; 
312; 314; William HI at, 316; disturb- 
ances in, VI 485, 489, 491; distress in, 
495, 503 ; 497 ; Volunteer Convention at, 
601 sq.; 504; disaffection in (1792), ix 
695; University of, 696; 705; Parlia- 
mentary reform in, 697 ; 705 ; Fitzwilliam 
in, 698 sq.; mails for, stopped, 701; and 
the Union, 704; Emmet arrested in, 707; 
discontent in (1808) , 708 ; Catholic traders 
in, X 626 ; Association for Catholic relief, 
627 sq., 632, 639; O'Connell leaves (1798), 
630; XI 7; University of, 9; xii 38; 
Trinity College, 29, 71 sq.; Catholic 
University at, 71 sq. ; Parnell in, 75; 80; 
Phoenix Park murders in, 81; National 
Conference at, 82 ; 83 ; 762 

Dublin Evening Post, The, x 635 

Dublin Society, The, vi 484 

Du Bocage, Manuel Maria Barbosa, Portu- 
guese poet, VIII 784 

Dubois, Guillaume, Cardinal, v 90; and 
the negotiations with Great Britain, vi 
26 sq.; 29 sq.; in London, 31; 38; 123 
sq.; 126; 129 sq.; ministry of, 131; 134; 
144; 587; death of, 127, 131; viii 9 

Paul -Francois, French publicist, 

X 96 

Captain of the Paris Watch (1788), 

VIII 115 ; Prefect of Police, ix 8; 11, 16, 
21; discovers a plot (June, 1808), 137; 141 

Duboi8-Cranc6, E. -L.-Alexis, viii 174, 340 ; 

at Lyons, 346, 351; 366; Minister of 

War, 432, 678 
Du Bouchage, Gabriel Gratet, Vicomte, x 

47; 64 
Du Bourg, Anne, executed, n 296 

Antoine, Chancellor under Francis I, 

n 286, 296 

Dubuisson, French physician, ix 143 
Due, Fronton Le (Ducaeus), Jesuit, i 618 

sq.; edits St Ghrysottom, iii 61 
Du Camp, Maxime, x 616 
Du Cange, Charles du Fresne, Seigneur, 

III 61 
Ducas, Demetrios, Cretan scholar at Alcaic, 

II 400 
Ducasse, Jean-Baptiste, French seaman, 

V 69; 691 



Du Cayla, Zo6 Talon, Comtesse, x 69 
Du Chaillu, Paul, African explorer, xii 812 
Du Chasteler, J. G. J. A., Marquis, sent to 

recover Tyrol, ix 355 
Duchatel, Charles-Marie-Tanneguy, Comte, 

French Minister of Finance, x 497 ; 508 ; 

511 ; Minister of the Interior, xi 96 

Dutch painter, xii 249 

Du Chayla, Abb6, murder of, v 26 
Duchd, Jacob, American clergyman, vii 

161 
Duchesne, Andr6, iii 63 

Louis, historian, xii 847 sq. 

French general, in Tonkin, xn 131, 

526; in Madagascar, 130 

Duels, Jean-Fran<?ois, ix 132 

Duckwitz, Arnold, German politician, xi 

166; 227 
Duckworth, Sir John Thomas, admiral, 

IX 234; commands expedition to Con- 
stantinople, 235; forces passage of the 
Dardanelles, 388 

Du Clerc, French seaman, v 679 
Duclerc, Charles-Th^odore-Eug^ne, French 

politician, xi 113 
Du Clercq, Jacques, historian, i 430, 433 
Ducos, Eoger, vni 669 sq. ; and Napoleon, 

676 sq., 679, 683; provisional Consul, 

686; IX 1; 6, 8 

Theodore, French politician, xi 127 

Ducp^tiaux, Edouard, Belgian politician, 

X 532; 536 sq. 

Ducrest, barber, pension of, viii 73 
Ducret, the younger, chemist, ix 133 
Du Croc, French ambassador to Mary 

Queen of Scots, in 272 sqq. 
Ducrot, Auguste-AIexandre, French general, 

XI 698; 605 sqq. 

Du Daugnon, French naval commander, 

holds Brouage, rv 600 sq., 618; 613; 

Governor of La Rochelle, 616; defeated 

off R6, 617 
Duddingston, Prince Charles at, vi 113 
Du Deffand, Marquise, vi 767 
Duderstadt, Wallenstein meets Tilly at, 

IT 97 
Dudevant, Amantine-L.-A. See Sand, 

George 
Dudley, Edmund, Minister of Henry VU, 

I 477 sq. 
Lord Guilford, marriage of, to Lady 

Jane Grey, n 510 ; arrested, 518 ; executed, 

528 

Sir Henry, ii 505; plots against 

Mary, 644 

John. See Northumberland, Duke of 

John William Ward, British Foreign 

Secretary, x 197, 200 

Joseph, Governor of Massachusetts, 

vii 64 sq. 

Lord Bobert. See Leicester, Earl 

of 
Diinewald, Count Johann Heinrich von, 

Austrian general, v 367 
Duppel, XI 167 ; capture of, 224 ; 440 sq. 



326 



General Index. 



Diirer, Albreclit, i 323, 325; Triumph 

of Maximilian, 326; 683; n 159; and 

Erasmus, 167 
Duero, Manuel de la Concha, Marques del. 

See Del Duero 
Diisseldorf, Eeformed congregation at, ni 

705; meeting of Estates at, 716; •*Po8. 

sessing" Princes in, 730; school of the 

Beformed Church at, v 757; reform at, 

IX 410 ; 411 ; revolutionary movement at, 

XI 219 
Du Fargis, French envoy to Spain, and the 

Treaty of Monzon, iv 69, 675 
Dufaure, J ules-Armand- Stanislas, French 

statesman, x 511; xi 98; 115; Minister 

of the Interior, 117, 128; 119; 126; 

XII 101; 105; supports Thiers, 106 ; 107; 

lllsq. ; 115; resigns, 116 
Dufferin and Ava, Frederick T. Hamilton- 

Temple-Blackwood, Marquis of, xi 636; 

xn 23; and Egyptian affairs, 438 sq., 

450 ; Viceroy of India, 477 sqq. 
Duffy, Charles Gavan, and the Young 

Ireland party, xi 7 
Dufour, William Henry, Swiss general, 

XI 239 ; 250 sq. ; 255 
Dufraisse, Marc, x 485; banished, xi 139 
Dugommier, J.-F.-Coquille, French general, 

VIII 352, 440 
Dugonics, Andrew, Hungarian writer, xi 

422 
Dugua, Charles-F.-J., French general, viii 

601 sq., 614 
Duguay-Trouin, Eene, French admiral, v 

59; 679; vi 391 
Du Haillan, Bernard, French historian, 

m 63 
Du Hallier, Comte. See L'Hospital 
Duhayet, Aubert, French ambassador to 

the' Porte, ix 386 
Dubesme, Comte Philippe - Guillaume, 

French general, at Naples, vin 653; in 

Catalonia, IX 239 ; 430,435,439; relieved 

by Gouvion Saint-Cyr, 448 
Duhot, General, in Paris, xi 100 
Duich, Loch, Jacobites at, vi 106 
Duisburg, University of, nr 789, 791, v 656 
Duivelaud, island of, taken by Spaniards 

(1575), III 242 
Da Jon, Francois (Franciscus Junius), 

Calvinist, at Antwerp, iii 201 ; death of, 

647; IV 717 
Duka, Count Peter von, Austrian field- 
marshal, VIII 575 
Dulaney, Daniel, Maryland jurist, vn 59; 

legal arguments of. Chap, vi passim 
Dulce, Domingo, Spanish general, xi 560; 

569; xn 265 
Dulcigno, ceded to Montenegro, xn 37; 

390; 392; restored to Turkey, 396; 402 
Du Luc, French ambassador to Switzerland, 

VI 613; 615 
Duma, in the early days of the Mus- 
covite State, V 484 sq., 491 sq. ; councU 

acts as a, 502; Eussian modern scheme 



initiated, xn 351 sqq. ; Act establishing 
Duma, 356 sqq.; meeting of the first, 
364 sqq. ; the second, 372 sqq. ; the third, 
375 sq. ; visit of leaders of, to England, 
380 

Dumanoir le Pelley, Comte Pierre-Etienne- 
Een6-Marie, French rear-admiral, ix 54; 
234 

Dumas, Alexandre, in 548; x 101; 615; 
725 sq.; xi 426 sq. ; dramas of, 515; 
519 

Alexandre, Jils, xi 616 sqq. ; 648 

Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, 

French general, holds the S. Bernard and 
Mont Ceuis, viii 438 

Benoit, Governor of Pondicherry, 

VI 533 

Comte Matthieu, vin 213, 488, 607 

Een6 - Francois, French politician, 

executed, vin 371 

Du Maurier, French ambassador to Maurice 

of Orange, in 653 
Dumay, Jean-Baptiste, Mayor of Creusot, 

XI 503 

Dumbarton Castle, in 282; taken by the 

Covenanters, rv 502; vi 92; Bushell at, 

107 
Dumerbion, Pierre Jadar, French general, 

vin 438 
Dumfries, Treaty of Union burnt at, v 

299 
Dumfriesshire, recusants in, v 283 
Dumolard, Joseph- Vincent, French deputy, 

vm 488, 508 
Dumonceau, Jean-Baptiste, General, ix 90 
Dumont, Charles - Albert - Auguste - Eugene, 

XII 118 

Jean, the Letter to an Englishman, 

▼ 514 , 

P.-Etienne-L., French publicist, vin 

150, 748 

Du Moulin, Peter, French divine, and 
James I, v 743 

Dumoulin, Charles, French legist, ni 59 

Dumouriez, Charles - Francois, French 
general, vi 355; Foreign Minister under 
Louis XVI, vm 223 sq. ; Minister of 
War, 227, 406 ; resigns, 228 ; in Paris, 
259; at Neerwindeu, 268, 420 sq. ; 
negotiates with Austria, 268, 421 sq., 
503; in Belgium, 299, 415 sqq.; at 
Valmy, 410 sq. ; in Holland, 418 sq. ; 
in Brussels, 420; ix 30 

Dun, ceded to France, v 33 

Dunajewski, Julian von, Austrian Minister 
of Finance, xn 195 

Dunainiinde, Swedish victory at (1701), 

V 592; fortress of, vi 315 

Dunbar, Mary Stewart carried to, ni 374 ; 
battle of (1650), nr 435, 510; Cope at, 

VI 113 

Gawain, Bishop of Aberdeen, n 453 

William, poet, n 691 

Scottish merchant of Danzig, and 

Charles X, rv 680 



General Index. 



327 



Dunblane, Duke of Argyll at, vi 100 

Bisliop of, Catholic envoy from Mary 

Queen of Scots, m 272, 275 

Dunboy, ceded to King of Spain, iii 632 

Dunboyne, James Butler, 2nd Lord 
(brother-in-law of Gerald, Earl of Des- 
mond), III 596 

Duncan, Adam, Viscount Camperdown, 
vin 453 sq., 479, 481 ; at Camperdown, 
482 sq. ; ix 40 

major-general, defeated at Fyllebro, 

V 669 

Duncannon, captured by William III, 

V 316 

Lord. See Bessborough 

Duncker, Maximilian Wolfgang, xi 164; 

History of Antiquity^ xii 846 
Dundalk, Norris at, iii 606; Mount] oy at, 

608 ; Chichester at, 613 ; surrendered to 

Inchiquin, iv 532 ; Schomberg at, v 312 

sqq. 
Dundas, Francis, General, in Cape Colony, 

IX 750 

Henry. See Melville 

Dundee, Jacobite rising at, vi 98 

John Graham of Claverhouse, Vis- 
count, V 285; 288; 291 sqq.; death of, 
312 

William Graham, 5th titular Vis- 
count of, VI 98 
Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl 
of, and the Radical movement, ix 688; 
in South America, x 291 sqq., 295, 316 
Dunes, battle of the (1658). See Dunkirk 
Dungannon, vi 499; volunteers at, 501 

Hugh, Baron of. See Tyrone 

Matthew O'Neill (Pedoragh), Baron 

of. See Tyrone 

Dungeness, Anglo-Dutch naval action oft, 
IV 474 sq., 478; French fleet at, vi 239 

Dungern, Baron Emil August von, Nassau 
statesman, xi 147 

Dunin, Archbishop of Posen. See Posen 

Dunkeld, Jacobite rising at, vi 98 

Andrew Bruce, Bishop of, iii 267 

Dunkirk, sack of, by French (1558), ii 93; 

Spanish port, in 507 ; fleet of transports 
ordered at, 623; pirates at, 634; Crom- 
well and, IV 439; Anglo-French expedi- 
tion against (1657), 440, 485; 540 sq.; 
taken by the French (Oct. 11, 1646), 
698; 611; France forced to abandon, 
618; invested, 619; battle of (1658), 
660; Dutch expeditions against (1631), 
694, (1637), 698; Spaniards retreat to, 
700 ; surrender of, to French and Dutch, 
703; 706; v 14; 104; transferred to 
France (1662), 106; 113; 423; 433; 440; 
and Anglo-French Treaty, 442; vi 23; 
Old Pretender at, 92 sq. ; 102 ; 110 ; 159 ; 
239; and Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 249; 
331; 340; fortifications of, 345 sq., 429, 
436; 464; besieged by English (1793), 
vni 431 ; relieved, ih. ; French troops at, 
IX 208-9 ; harbour of, xn 102 



Dunmore, John, 4th Earl of. Governor of 

Virginia, vii 164, 169 
Dunning, burnt by the Jacobites, vi 

102 

John. See Ashburton, Lord 

Dunnottar Castle, prisoners in, v 289 
Dunois, Francois, Count of, i 393 
Dunoyer, Barthelemy - Charles - Pierre - 

Joseph, editor of Le Genseur, ix 569 
Dunraven, Windham Thomas Wyndham- 

Quin, 4th Earl of, xii 89 
Dunrobin, Earl of Sutherland at, vi 99 
Dunstable, Cranmer tries divorce question 

at, II 440 
Dupanloup. See Orleans, Bishop of 
Dupaty, C.-M. Jean-Baptiste Mercier, ix 

169 
Du Perron, Cardinal J. D., French diplo- 
. matist (1607), iii 684 
Dupetit-Thouars, Abel Aubert, French 

admiral, xi 35 
Duphot, Leonard, French general, vm 637; 

assassination of, x 132 
Dupin, A.-M.-J.-J., x 91; 487; 489; and 

Algiers, 603; and Mol6, 507; 508 

Charles, x 493; xi 102; 116; 130 

Claude, French farmer-general, viii 

71 

Du Plan, supporter of Savoy in Geneva, 

m 414 
Dupleix, Joseph, Governor-general of French 
India, vi 533 sqq. ; defends Pondicherry, 
638; 639; 641; fall of, 542; policy of, 
543 sq. ; character of, 646 ; 546 
Duplessis-Mornay. See Mornay 
Du Plessis-Praslin. See Choiseul 
Dupont, Samuel Francis, American admiral, 
vii 654 

de I'Eure, Jacques-Charles, x 484; 

499; XI 102; 109; 124 

de I'Etang, Comte Pierre, French 

general, ix 254; ordered to Cadiz, 311; 
at Baylen, 315; his armies at Bayonne, 
430; corps of, 435-6; attacks Cordova, 
437; failure and imprisonment of, 438; 
439, 441; Minister of War, 657; 565, 
568; succeeded by Soult, 571 

de Nemours, Pierre-S., viii 21, 23, 

86, 179; and the Court, 216; 488; 501, 
515, 715 

Duport, Adrien, member of the National 

Assembly, vra 131, 174, 182, 187, 200 
Duport-du-Tertre, M.-L.-FrauQois, Minister 

of Justice under Louis XVI, viii 216, 

222; executed, 357 
Duportail, Leb^gue, Minister of War under 

Louis XVI, vm 216 ; resigns, 220 
Duprat, Cardinal Antoine, Chancellor of 

France, n 95, 147, 284 sq. ; death of, 

286 

Pascal, French politician, xi 110; 

112; XII 103 

Dupuis, explorer, xii 524; 797 
Dupuy, Charles-Alexandre, French states- 
man, XII 121; 126 



328 



General Index. 



Dupuy, Dominiqne, French general, Tin 

603; killed, 606 
Duquesne, Abraham, French seaman, v 44 ; 

162; 183 

de Menneville, Marquis, Governor 

of New France, vn 98, 119 

Durand, Sir Mortimer, mission of, to the 
Amir, xn 482 sq. ; 487 

Nicolas (Villegagnon), i 48 sq. 

Durand-Maillane, Fierre-Toussaint, French 

politician, viii 386 
Durando, Giacomo, Italian Foreign Minister, 
XI 65, 534 

Giovanni, Italian general, xi 84 ; 86 

Durandus (Guillaume Durand), French 

Canonist, at Council of Vienne, i 620 
Durango, Carlist capital, xii 260 
Duranton, Antoine, Minister of Justice to 

Louis XVI, VIII 223 
Duras, Leopold, editor of Le National, xi 

127 

Due de, VI 334 

Durban, capital of Natal, xi 782; Conven- 
tion at, XII 646 

D 'Urban, Sir Benjamin, Governor of Cape 
Colony, XI 780 sq. 

Duren, siege and capture of, by Charles V 
(1543), n 77, 244 

Durham, Catholic Earls in, iii 281 

John George Lambton, 1st Earl of, 

and parliamentary reform, x 603, 608 sq., 
614, 617 sq.; 655; resigns, 658; 665; 

XI 16; and Canada, x 690, 692 sq., xi 
755 sqq. ; 762 ; 765 sqq. ; and the West 
Indies, xii 656 

Durjan Sal, rebel Jat, xi 729 
Durnov6, I., Kussian Minister of the In- 
terior, xn 313; 326 

P., Eussian Minister of the Interior, 

XII 360 ; 362 sq. ; 365 

Duroc, G.-C. -Michel, Due de Friuli, viii 
564, 592, 616; ix 23; 60, 103; Napo- 
leon's Grand Marshal of the Palace, 
111; receives the Duchy of Friuli, t6.; 
at Berlin, 251; 255; interview with 
Lucchesini, 278; 301; Napoleon's in- 
structions to, 302 

Duroveray, Jean, Genevan democrat, assists 
Mirabeau, viii 150 

Duruy, Victor, French Minister of Public 
Education, xi 476; 479; 484; attacked 
by the Catholics, 485, 494; xii 93; 118; 
131 

Du Eyer, Pierre, French dramatic poet, v 
68 

Dusan, Stephen, of Servia, death of (1356), 
I 67 

Dusaulx, Jean, French writer and politician, 
vm 247 

Duschek, Francis, Hungarian Minister of 
Finance, xi 212 sq. 

Dusentschur, Anabaptist, at Mtinster, n 
226 sq. 

Dussen, Bruno van der, Dutch diplomatist, 
T422; 427 sq.; 439 



Dussindale, Ket defeated at, ii 493 
Dutch RepubUc. See Netherlands, United 
Provinces of the 

Eeformed Church, in S. Africa, xi 

785 

Duteil, Republican politician, xi 137 

Du Tertre, Jean-Baptiste, vn 97 

Du Tillot, Parmesan Minister, vi 593 sq. 

Dutoitspan, discovery of diamonds at, zi 
787 

Du Tremblay, Francois. See Joseph, P6re 

Du Vair, Guillaume, Bishop of Lisieux. 
See Lisieux, Bishop of 

Du Val de Dampierre, Henri, Comte, com- 
mands under Bucquoy, rv 23 ; 31 

Duvelaer, Director of the French East 
India Company, vi 542 

Duvergier de Hauranne, Abb6 de Saint 
Cyran. See Saint-Cyran 

Prosper, x 95 ; 507 sq. ; xi 116 ; 

XII 103 

Duverne de Presle, T.-Laurent-M. (Theo- 
dore Dunan), viir 505 sq., 511 

Duverney, Paris, vi 134; 144 

Duveyrier, Honor6-Nicolas-Marie, French 
politician, ix 15 

Duvivier, Franciade-Fleurus, French gene- 
ral, XI 104; 113 

Duwall, Swedish general, iv 219 ; Arnim's 
Silesian scheme and, 236 ; death of, 247 

Dvernicki, Joseph, Polish general, x 469; 
471 

Dybowski, African explorer, xii 130 

Dybvad, George, Danish theologian, loses 
his chair, iv 567 

Dyevichesky monastery, v 523 

Dykvelt, Everhard van Weede, Heer van, 
Dutch envoy in England, v 235 ; 240 sq. 

Dynter, Edmond of, Flemish historian, i 
433 

Dyson, Jeremiah, Clerk of the House of 
Commons, vi 424 ; 427 ; 438 sq. ; 442 

Dzieduszycki, Count Izydor, PoHsh writer, 
XI 657 

Dzierzgowski, Primate of Poland. See 
Gnesen 

Dzikowa, partisans of Stanislaus at, vi 197 

Earle, Thomas, American lawyer, vn 388 

William, General, and the Gordon 

relief expedition, xn 442 sq. 

Early, Jubal Anderson, Confederate general, 

vn 531 sq. ; defeated by Sheridan (1865), 

537 
East Africa Company (Dutch), v 647; 

(German), xn 661 
East Anglia, spinning and weaving in, 

X 735 sq. 
Eastern Association, The, iv 311; 314; 321 

Bengal and Assam, province of, xn 

495 

Question, The (Near), in the 18th 

century, the European powers and. Vol. 
viii. Chap. XI, 306-37; of early 19th 
century, see Vol. x, Chap, vi passim, 



General Index, 



329 



169-204, Chap, xvu, 545-72; of the 
middle 19th century, see Vol. xi, Chap. 
IX passim, especially 275-85, Chap, xi, 
Crimean war, passim, 309-24, also Chap. 
xxn passim, especially 635-47; of 
late 19th and early 20th centuries, Vol. 
xn, Chap, xiv. The Ottoman Empire 
and the Balkan Peninsula, 381-428 ; for 
Egypt, Chap, xv, 429-56; see also the 
Far East 
East Friesland, Mansfield in, iv 85 sq. ; 
Brandenburg and, v 647; and Hanover, 
IX 692, 654, 657 

Edzard of, i 453 

East India Company (Brandenburg), v 646 

(Danish), chartered in 1614, iv 746 

(Dutch), in 633 ; 638 sq. ; iv 694 ; 

703 ; profits of, 710 ; centres of, 711 ; and 
Japan, 712; and Oriental trade, 713; 
Peace of Munster and, 716; 729; 731 
sq. ; financial position of, 735, 744 sq. ; 
agreement of June 1619 and, 737; 738; 
740; 742; Joan Maurice of Nassau and, 
753; V 138; 149; 693; 702; ti 188; 
XX 749; end of, 754 

(English), m 562; rival of the 

Dutch, IV 713; foundation of, 729 sq,; 
first expedition of, 731 ; comparison 
between Dutch East India Company 
and, 732; financial position of, 735; 
agreement of June 1619 and, 737; 
738; demands reparation for Amboina 
"massacre," 739; 740 sq.; lays founda- 
tions of British India, 742 ; 745 ; dependent 
on the Crown, 746; v 108; 138; 149; 
178 sq. ; 274 ; 692 ; operations and policy 
of, 697 sqq. ; establishment of new 
Company (1698), 700; union of the two 
Companies, 701 ; 704 sq. ; Vol. vi, Chap. 
XV (2) and (3) passim; 45; 49; 180; 
438 ; 445 sq. ; 465 ; 467 ; 469 ; vii 157 sq. ; 
see Vol. rx. Chap, xxui. The British 
Empire (1783-1815); x 728; 760; xi 
310; 329; 724 sqq.; Crown takes the 
place of, 749 sqq.; and China trade, 
804 sqq., 822 

(French), attempts to organise, ni 

694 ; V 12 sq. ; vi 173 sqq. ; Chap, xv (2) 
passim ; vn 92 sq. ; Calonne forms a new 
(1785-6), VIII 99 

East Indies, Spanish navigation to, iv 744 ; 
V 107 ; Dutch and English in, 108, 148 
sq., 151, 154, 179; vi 57; England and, 
248; Jesuits expelled from Portuguese 
possessions in, 387; 429; 756; British 
trade with, vn 4 ; foreign trade of, xi 15. 
See also under Indies 

(Dutch), abolition of slavery in, xi 

666; 667 sq., xii 668 

(French), ix 209; British fleet in, 

219; insurance of merchantmen for, 
242 

Easton, Adam, Cardinal and Bishop of 
Norwich, Bible Translations of, x 593, 
597 



Eastport, captured by the British (1814), 

vn 344 
East Betford, and the franchise, x 601 
Eaton, Theophilus, forms colony of New 

Haven, vn 20 
Eberach, Henry, scholar at Erfurt, n 111 

Peter, scholar at Erfurt, u 111 

Eberlin, John, of Giinzburg, ii 159 sqq. ; 

Utopian scheme of, 183 sq. 
Ebersberg, forest of, and Hohenlinden, ix 

67 
Ebl§, Comte Jean-Baptiste, French general, 

1x501 
Eboli, Buy Gomez de Silva, Prince of, m 

190; influence of, with Philip II, 476 sq.; 

490; death of, 241, 514 

Ana de Gomez de Silva Mendoza y 

la Cerda, Princess of, and murder of 
Escobedo, ni 515 

Ebro river, French army of Spain on, ix 
430, 441; Spanish armies on, 443 

Ebusood El Amadi, m 128 

Ecclesiastical Commission, becomes per- 
manent in England, x 673 sq. 
Court, of James II, v 234 

Echagiie, Eafael, Spanish general, xi 569 

Echigo, fight at, xi 859 

Echizen clan and daimios. Vol. xi. Chap, 
xxvm (2) passim 

Eck, Dr Johann Maier (called Eck), contro- 
versialist, 1 678 ; n 29 ; Obelisks of, against 
Luther, 130 ; disputes with Luther, 134 
sq. ; 138; 162; Loci Communes of, 172; 
212; 240; 326 

John (of Trier), n 140 

Leonard von. Chancellor of Bavaria, 

n 191 

Eckeren, the Allies defeated at (1703), y 
407 

Eckernforde, Danish men-of-war at, xi 224 

Eckhart, "Master," of Cologne, German 
mystic, i 434 

Eckhel, Joseph Hilarius von, German 
numismatist, xn 816 

Eckmuhl, battle of (1809), ix 349 

Ecole des Charles, xn 834 

Ecuador, Spanish conquest of, i 45; Re- 
public of, formed (1830), x 296; xn 672 
sq.; 678; 696; and Panama, 700. See 
also under Colombia 

Edam, and Act of Seclusion, v 143 

Eden, Sir Ashley, envoy to Bhutan, xi 752 

Sir Frederick Morton, Tlie State of 

the Poor, x 782 

Sir Morton, British Ambassador at 

Vienna, vin 559 sq., 645, 660 

Eichard, American works of, i 52 

sqq. 

William. See Auckland, Lord 

Edgcumbe, Bichard Edgcumbe, 2nd Lord, 

n 437 
Edgecombe, Sir Richard, i 471 
Edgehill, battle of (1642), it 307, 311 
Edgeworth, Richard Lovell, author, vni 

756, 765 



330 



General Index. 



Edgewortli de Firmont, Abbe Henry Essex, 
confessor to Louis XVI, vni 261 

Edhem Pasha, Turkish commander, zn 
421 

Edict of Beaulieu, ni 30 

of Emancipation (1807), rx330; 331 

of January (1562), n 304; ni 1, 2, 26 

of July, The French (1661), ii 301 

of Nantes, m 675 sqq., 681, 764; 

revocation of, v 18, 21 sqq.; England 
and, 60; 51 sqq.; 57; 87; 166; James II 
and, 233; 654; vi614. >Sfe« ai«o Toleration 

of Bestitution, French (1561), ii 303 

of Bestitution, Imperial, iv 109-17 ; 

233 ; suspended in Peace of Prague, 253 ; 
395 ; Bishop of Osnabriick and, 401 ; 411 ; 
414 ; 676 sq. ; Maximilian of Bavaria and, 
679; Urban YIII and, 688 

of Toleration, withdrawn (1588) 

through Guise influence, in 511 

of Villers-Cotterets (1539), ii 96 

Edinburgh, burnt by the English, ii 459, 

556; Scottish Reformation Parliament 
at, 579; Treaty of (1560), 577, 581, m 
266, 282 ; Lords of the Congregation in, 
264 ; Town Council of, 268 ; Mary Stewart 
at, 274-6 ; castle of, 282 sqq. ; supports 
Scottish clergy, 651 ; and English 
Liturgy, iv 496 sq. ; and " King's 
Covenant," 499; castle of, taken by 
Covenanters, 502; "Plotters "imprisoned 
in, 505 ; Charles I in, ih. ; Cromwell 
in, 508, 510; Dutch naval demonstration 
against, v 188; 226; prisoners at, 286; 
the Pope's effigy burnt at, 287; execu- 
tions at, 287, 289 sq. ; 291 ; 299 ; castle 
of, VI 92 ; 94 ; 98 sq. ; Porteous mob in, 
108; 111; Prince Charles in, 112 sq.; 
114 sq. ; and John Law, 169, 175; 
Brougham at, x 665; Allan Ramsay's 
theatre at, 701 

Edinbargh Review, influence of, ix 687; 
Lord Brougham and, x 675; 601; and 
Wordsworth and Coleridge, 707; and 
Byron, 711; 716; xi 362 

Edinburgh, Alfred, Duke of. See Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha, Duke of 

Edmunds, George Franklin. American 
statesman, vii 653 

Edrisi (Sharif al-Edrisi as-Sikilli al-Rod- 
jari), Arab geographer, i 9 

Education {see Schools and Universities, 
hut also for slighter mention), Calvin's 
system of, ii 372 sq. ; Zwingli's system 
of, 31 8 ; effect of Enghsh suppression of 
monasteries on, 468; Edward VI's reign 
and, 603; in Austria, Joseph II and, vi 
628; of secular clergy, 637; in Bel- 
gium, clerical seminary at Louvain under 
Joseph II, 649 sqq. ; in Canada, work 
of the French and English missionaries 
in, vn 101 sqq.; in Denmark, under 
Christian VI, vi 739; in New England, 
vn 68 sqq. ; in Ottoman Empire, 
under Solyman the Magnificent, ni 



127 sq. ; in Poland, •'Education Com- 
mission" of "Delegation Diet," vi 671; 
in Russia, under Catharine II, 692 sq. ; 
in United States, unique character of, 
VII 750 sq. 

Education Acts, English, of 1839, x 679; 
of 1870, XI 24 sq., 67 ; of 1902, 57 sqq. 

Edward III, King of England, and Venice, 
I 257 

IV, King of England, i 390, 430, 

463 sq. ; iii 738 

VI, King of England, i 52 ; birth of, 

n 448; reign of. Chap, xiv passim; 
Prayerbook of, v 325 ; and Russian 
trade, 513 

■ VII, King of Great Britain (Prince 

of Wales), iUness of (1872), xi 336, xii 
46; marriage of, xi 338; xn 14; acces- 
sion of, 53; 66; visits Ireland (1886), 82; 
and France, 97 sq. ; and Germany, 172 ; 
291; receives Duma leaders, 380; pro- 
claimed Emperor of India, 495 ; 679 ; 722 

Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin, Major- 
General, in India, xi 740 sq. ; 744 

Edwards, Jonathan, vn 60; theological 
works of, 729 sq., 732 sq. 

Effiat de Chilli et de Longumkau, Antoine 
Coiffier de Ruz6, Marquis de, superin- 
^ tendent of finances, iv 130 ; 151 

Egalite, La, French journal, xn 123 

Eger, Wallenstein murdered at, iv 242 sq. ; 
taken by Wrangel, 392; 394 

river, attack on, vi 234; 236; 255 

Eggenberg, Prince Ulric von. Imperial 

councillor, iv 68; 72; Wallenstein and, 

94, 100, 105, in Moravia, 212, 238, 240 ; 

death of, 252; conversion of, 400 
Egidio. See Gil, Juan 
Eglinton, Alexander Montgomerie or Seton, 

6th Earl of, march of, upon Edinburgh, 

IV 608 
Egmont (North Holland), Descartes at, 

IV 788 

Charles of. See Gelders 

John Perceval, 2nd Earl of, vi 424 ; 

430; 435; 437 

Lamoral, Count of, victorious at 

Gravelines, n 93, 561 ; embassy to 
England of, 525, 530; in 48-9, 184, 
188 sqq., 203 sqq., 209 sqq. ; execution of, 
and its effects, 220, 228, 511 

Sabina of Bavaria, Countess of, 

in 189 

Egremont, Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl 
of, VI 420; 424; 426; 480 

Eguia, Francisco Ramon de, Spanish Min- 
ister of War, X 209 

Eguilles, Alexandre-J.-B. de Boyer, Mar- 
quis de, vr 113 

Egypt, at war with Turks, i 89; Ottoman 
conquest of (1617), 91, in 117; Spanish, 
etc. factories in, i 496 ; Leibniz and, v 
696; VI 51; French advance into, 350; 
the Osmanli Sultans and, 507 ; Napoleon's 
Egyptian expedition, Vol. vin. Chap, xix, 



General Index. 



331 



594-619; the struggle for the Mediter- 
ranean (1798-9), Chap, xx, 620-32 
passim; French designs upon (1801), ix 
70 ; English occupation of, 72 ; restored 
to Turkey (1802), 74, 78; French and 
English withdraw from, 76; Sebastiani's 
report on 103 ; French feint upon (1804), 
216, 217 ; British defeat in (1807), 235 ; 
designs of France and Russia on, 308, 
310 sq., abandoned, 316; advance of 
Turkish authority in, 387 ; French loss 
of, 419; under Mehemet Ali, Vol. x, 
Chap. XVII passim; 172; 176; France 
and, 512 sq.; (1841-1907), Vol. xii, 
Chap. XV ; British occupation of, 3, 40, 
240 ; 5 ; 7 ; 34 ; Gladstone and, 49; 65 ; 
88; 95; 132; Great Britain and, 161, 
658; 428; 499; Concert of Europe and, 
728; archaeological work in, 774, 845; 
806; 811; 813 

Ehlers, Martin, Professor of philosophy at 
Kiel, viii 788 

Ehrenberg, Philip Adolf von, Bishop of 
Wurzburg. See Wiirzburg 

Ehrenbreitstein, besieged and taken by the 
French (1799), vin 641, 644, 654; ix 
659 

Ehren8vard,August,Swedi8hnavalengineer, 
VI 775 

Ehrhard, Albert, German scholar, xu 
848 

Eichendorff, Joseph von, Baron, German 
poet, X 404 sq. 

Eichhorn, J. A. F. E., Prussian statesman, 
and the Customs' Union, x 373; xi 
61 sq. 
Karl Friedrich, German legal his- 
torian, writings of, xii 818 sqq.; 846 

Eichsfeld, The, Catholic reaction in, in 
178, 180; Prussian acquisitions in, ix 78 

Eickstedt, Hans Henrik, Danish general, 
VI 751 

Eider river, Prussian troops cross, xi 162 ; 
338 ; and the Danish frontier, 693 sq. 

Ein Aga, travellers at, xii 805, 813 

Einarsen, Gisser. See Skalholt (Iceland), 
Bishop of 

Ein feste Burg ist unser Gottf Luther's 
hymn, ii 201 

Einsiedel, Count, Saxon Minister, x 374 

Einsiedeln, pilgrimages to, n 105 ; town 
of, and Schwyz, vi 625 ; political 
meeting at, xi 242 

Eisenach, Luther's life at,ii 109 sq.; Bandr 
at, IV 372 ; vi 263 sq. ; Prussian force at, 
265; 269 

Eisleben, Luther born at, ii 109; Tilly at, 
IV 204 

Ekaterinodar, mutiny at, xii 362 

Ekaterinoslaff, Russian military colony, 
X 416; rising in, xii 363; 374 

Elandslaagte, Boers repulsed at, xii 642 

El Arish, fight at, viii 609; Treaty of 
(1800), 617 

El Aruan, French explorer in, xii 808 



Elba, occupied by Cosimo de' Medici, ii 84, 
88; Cosimo's schemes in, in 385, 391; 
iron worked at, 392; Spanish fortress 
in, VI 124; annexed by France, ix 75, 
101 ; banishment of Napoleon to, 558-9 ; 
Napoleon leaves, 573 ; granted to Tuscany, 
654, 661 

Elbe river, the Northern Mark and, v 617 ; 
618; 627; 646; vi 234; Frederick n 
crosses, 241; 242; 244; 257 sq. ; 263; 
French troops on, 265 sq. ; crossed by the 
Austrians, 296; 298; mouth of, to be 
closed to English trade, ix 374; right 
bank of, finally abandoned by Napoleon, 
531; Allies cross (1813), 532; and 
Heligoland, xii 167 

Elb6e, M.-L. Gigot de, Vendean leader, vm 
266, 353 sq. 

Elberfeld, revolutionary meeting at, xi 
219; 394 

Elbeuf, Charles of Lorraine, Marquis of, 
III 663 

Ren6 of Lorraine, Marquis of, ii 576 

Elbing, "proposition" of Gustavus Adol- 

phus from, rv 190; capitulation of, to 
Charles X, 428; Treaty of, 583; v 146; 
acquired by Poland (1466), 634; 638; 
641; 667 
El Bodon, fight at (1811), ix 468 
Elcho, David Wemyss, Lord, Jacobite, 

VI 114 
Eldon, John Scott, 1st Earl of, vi 466; 
vm 761; ix 683; and Tory party, 
686; and Edinburgh Review, 688; and 
criminal law, 692; Lord Chancellor, 
X 574; 580; and Canning, 591; 601; 
618 ; and Catholic Emancipation Bill, 
653 
Electeur, Le, French journal, xi 488 
Electoral College, i 291, 302, 309; the 
meeting of six Electors (KurJUrstentag), 
291, 311; Electoral Union {KmJUrsten- 
verein), 292, 311 
Electors Palatine. See Palatinate 
El Empecinado (Juan Martin Diez), Spanish 

guerrilla chief, x 211 
Elena (of Montenegro), Queen of Italy, 
consort of Victor Emmanuel II, xn 
414 
Eleonora (of Austria), daughter of Maxi- 
milian I, Queen dowager of Portugal, 
Queen of France, n 46; marriage of, to 
Francis I, 51, 59, 427; 73; in 182 
— — Magdalena, of Neuburg, Empress, 
3rd wife of Emperor Leopold I, v 35 

Maria, of Austria, Queen of Poland, 

consort of Michael Wisniowiecki, v 41; 
350 ; married to Charles Leopold, titular 
Duke of Lorraine, 354 n. 

Elf sborg, fall of, iv 163 ; Sweden compelled 
to redeem, 166; deserts Sigismund, 172; 
lost to Sweden, 179; in Danish hands, 
180, 182 
Elfsnabben, Swedish naval base, rv 571 
Elgin Oommission (War Office), xn 59 



332 



General Index, 



Elgin, James Bruce, 8th Earl of, Viceroy 
of India, xi 752; Governor-general of 
Canada, 760 sqq., 766 sqq.; in China, 
812, 816 sqq. 

Victor Alexander Brace, 9th Earl 

of, Viceroy of India, xu 484 sqq. 

Countess of, xi 767 

El Goleah, railway to, xn 129 

Eliaesen, Paul {Povel Helgesen), Danish 

reformer and scholar, ii 606, 609, 613 
Elias, Ney, explorer, xn 798 sq. 
Elibank plot, vi 119 
Elie, Jacobites at, vi 99 
Elio, Don Francisco Xavier, Governor of 

Montevideo, x 285 sq. 
Eliot, Edward Granville, Lord {afterwards 

3rd Earl of St Germans), x 235 

George (Mary Ann Cross), x 724; 

XI 360 

Sir John, in Parliament, iv 263; 

imprisonment and release of, 265 sq. ; 
269; Petition of Eight and, 270; Third 
Parliament and, 273 ; death of, in prison, 
281; 318 

John, missionary, vn 100 

Eliott, George Augustus. See Heathfield, 

Lord 
Elizabeth (of Bavaria), Empress of Austria, 

consort of Francis Joseph, xi 374 ; 401 ; 

xn 175; 181; Andrassy and, 190 

Queen of England, n 93, 441, 

520, 524 sq., 529 sq. ; (as Princess) at 
Hampton Court, 535 ; proposed marriage 
of, to Archduke Ferdinand, 537; accused 
of plotting, 544; accession and title of, 
659 sq.; Paul IV and, 564; 565 sq.; 
church settlement and first years, 568-98; 
and French Keligious Wars, Vol. ni. 
Chap. I passim ; negotiations for a French 
marriage, ih.\ relations of, with Henry IV, 
666, 670 sqq.; with Netherlands, 184, 
Chaps, vn and xix passim; with the 
German Princes, 710-1 ; with Mary, 
Queen of Scots, and Scotland, Chap, vin ; 
with her disaiiected Catholic subjects, 
ib.; with Spain, Chaps, ix, xv and xvi 
passim; last years of. Chap, x; age of, 
in English Literature, Chap, xi; Ireland 
under. Chap, xvm; Sixtus V's view of, 
435; Bodin's view of, 748; principles of 
toleration of, 755; and Erik XIV of 
Sweden, iv 161, 163; and literature, 
760 sq. ; and religious toleration, v 325, 
330; Bull against, 326; vi 701 

(of York), Queen of England, consort 

of Edward IV, i 464, 466, 474 

(Archduchess), daughter of Maxi- 
milian II, Queen of France, consort of 
Charles IX, marriage of, ni 15, 177; 
and Phihp II, 699 

(of Bavaria), Queen of Prussia, con- 
sort of Frederick Wilham IV, xi 159 

Queen of Boumania {*' Carmen 

Sylva"), consort of Charles I, xi 646; 
xn 414 



Elizabeth (of Baden), Tsarina of Eussia, 
consort of Alexander I, at Vienna, ix 
681; X 436 

Tsarina of Eussia, r 643; 647; 

652 sq.; vi 143, 200; 240; 252 sq.; 291; 
310 sq.; character of, 312; reign of, 313 
sqq.; and Frederick the Great, 327; 340; 
346; 399; and Prussia, 401; 657 sq.; 
660; 741 sq.; Sweden and, 761; death 
of, 298, 328, 661; x 426 

(of Bourbon), Queen of Spain, con- 
sort of Philip IV, betrothed to Prince of 
Savoy, m 689 ; marriage of, to Phihp IV, 

IV 625, 630 

(Farnese), Queen of Spain, consort 

of Philip V, the Eegency of, Vol. vi, 
Chap, v passim; 25; 35; 67; 60; 65; 
and Alberoni, 125; 126; character of, 
122, 134 sqq., 167; 137; and the 
Italian claims, 138 sq. ; 140 ; and 
Eipperda, 142 sq. ; 144 ; and Prag- 
matic Sanction, 202; schemes of, in 
Italy, 236; and d'Argenson, 245; 249; 
361 ; and Charles III, 366 sq. ; 696 sq. ; 
death of, 372 

(of Valois), Queen of Spain, 3rd 

consort of PhiUp II, n 93 sq., 566; 
marriage of, m 184, 264, 478, 483 sq. ; 
death of, 490 

(Stewart), Electress Palatine, ** Queen 

of Bohemia," iv 29; crowned at Prague, 
30; 67; exile of, 70; 78; devotion of 
Christian of Halberstadt to, 79; estranged 
from her son, Charles Lewis, 409 ; v 639 
sq. ; VI 1 

Christina (of Brunswiek-Wolfen- 

biittel). Empress, consort of Charles VI, 

V 432; 744; vi 143; 147 
Elizabeth-Philippine-Marie-HelSne, Prin- 
cess (Madame Elizabeth, sister of Louis 
XVI), executed, vin 357; burial of, at 
St Denis, ix 572 

Ehzabeth (of Gorlitz). See Luxemburg 
Ellandonan, Jacobites at, vi 105 
Ellenborough, Edward Law, 1st Baron, 
Lord Chief Justice, included in Cabinet, 
IX 685; and criminal law, 692; x 579 

Edward Law, 1st Earl of, xi 10; 

President of the Board of Control, 328 ; 
and annexation of Oudh, 329 sq. ; 
Governor-geneial of India, 730, 734 sqq.; 
recall of, 738 

Ellerker, Sir Kalph, the Pilgrimage of Grace 

and, II 446 
Elleamere land, exploration of, xu 815 

Sir Thomas Egerton, 1st Lord, 

afterwards Viscount Brackley, Lord 
Chancellor, ni 660 

Ellet, Charles, American engineer, vn 

499 
Ellice Islands, annexation of, xn 667 
EUiot, Sir Charles, Admiral, xi 806 sqq. 

Sir George, Admiral, xi 808 

Sir Gilbert, of Minto, Ti 424 sq. ; 

Treasurer of the Navy, 442 



General Index, 



333 



Elliot, Sir Gilbert (eon of above). See 
Minto, 1st Earl of 
' Hugh, British Minister at Copen- 
hagen, VI 780 ; vm 279 sq.; and Mirabeau, 
291 sq. 

Ellis, George, and the Quarterly Review^ 
IX 687 

Sir Henry, historian, xii 835 

William, Indian official, vi 560 sq. 

Ellsworth, Ephraim Elmer, assassinated 

(1861), vn 464 

Oliver, American statesman, at Con- 
stitutional Convention (1787), vii 246, 
251, 259 sqq., 279, 288, 294, 298 

Ellwangen, Vicar-general appointed at, by 

King Frederick I of Wiirtemberg, ix 202 
Elmina, conquered by the Dutch, rv 751, 

759 
El Obeid, explorers at, xn 806, 811 
Elphinston, John, Russian rear-admiral, 

VI 355; 673 
Elphinstone, George Keith. See Keith, 

Viscount 

Mountstuart, mission of, to Afghani- 
stan, IX 732; Governor of Bombay, xi 
725; 731 

William George Keith, Major-gene- 
ral, at Kabul, xi 733; 735 

Elsass, the "New League" of towns of, 
against Charles the Bold, i 295, 307; 
the south of, acquired by Charles the 
Bold, 390; Austria secures footing in, 
in 709 ; French wars in, 712 ; troops 
in (1610), 731-2; iv 142; French acqui- 
sition of, 148 sq.; 246; France and, 
247 sq. ; 251; 368; landgravate of, 
assured to Bernard of Saxe- Weimar, 
369 sq.; 376; 379; Erlach Governor in 
Upper, 382 ; French troops in, 390 ; 392 ; 
settlement of, in Peace of Westphalia, 
405 sqq., 407, 416; 602; claims of 
Spanish Habsburgs upon, 603; Harcourt 
Governor of, 618; and Treaty of the 
Pyrenees, 620; taken by French, v 44; 
47 sq.; Louis XIV and, 165, 338; 
413; 416; 420; 423; 425; French troops 
in, 431; Peace of Ryswyk and, 453; 
VI 123; 141; Austria and, 238 sqq.; 
623; Prussians occupy (1793), viii 352, 
426; and French Revolution, 398 sq. ; 
Custine in, 423; ix 57; Jews of, 204 
sq,; proposed cession of, to Germany, 
590, 653, 664; the cotton industry in, x 
753; 758; xi49; 219; workmen in, 301; 
498; French army in, 681 sq.; the war 
in, 583 sqq.; ceded by France, 612, xii 
91, 96, 135 sqq.; 145; 147; 166 

Elsfleth, Duke of Brunswick-Oels embarks 
at, IX 357 

Elsinore, Gambier appears off (1807), ix 
236; British expedition at, 295 

Elsintz, General, ix 58; 61-2 

Elstowe, Henry, Warden of the Grey Friars, 
n438 

El Teb, battle of, xn 441 



Elten, claimed by Murat, ix 272 

El Trab, French explorer in, xii 808 

Eltz, Jakob von, Archbishop of Trier. See 

Trier 
Elvas, Haro defeated at, iv 661 ; garrisoned 

by Junot, ix 440 
Ely O'Carroll, plantation of, rv 513 
Elz, Wallenstein's Chancellor, imprison- 
ment of, IV 242 
El Zanj6n, Convention of, xn 264 
Emancipation {see also Slavery and the 
Slave-trade), for the Jews, and the French 
Revolution, vm 790; of serfs, in Russia, 
and the first edition of the Nakds, vi 
689, XI 614 sqq.; xii 294; 300 sq.; of 
slaves of French possessions, and the 
French Revolution, vm 790 ; of women, 
and the French Revolution, 790; of 
women in general, movement for, in the 
19th and 20th centuries, xn 762 sq. 
Embabeh, entrenchments at, captured 
(1798), vm 602; flotilla at, burned, 603 
Emden, synod at (1571), m 705 
Emeric-David, Toussaint-Bernard, ix 133 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, vii 739 sq. 
Emery, Jacques-Andr^, member of the 
French Ecclesiastical Commission (1809), 
IX 196; 198 

; Michel, Sieur de. See Particelli 

Emigres, French, first flight of (1789), 

VIII 165, the second, 185; measures of 
the Legislative Assembly against (1791), 
218 sqq. ; sketch of the movement, 501 
sqq.; Bonaparte and, ix 15; proposed 
indemnification for, x 83 

Emilia, The, Murat in, ix 621; revolu- 
tionary movement in (1830), x 120; xi 
386 sqq. 

Emilio, Paolo, Veronese historian, in 63-4 

Emin Pasha, xn 812 

Emly, William Monsell, Lord, xn 29 

Emma, Queen of the Netherlands, consort 
of William III, xn 245; 247 

Emmanuel the Great (Manoel), King of 
Portugal, I 31 sqq.; in 499 sq. 

Infant of Portugal, vi 195 

Philibert, Duke of Savoy. See 

Savoy 

Emmery, Jean-Louis-Claude, ix 151 
Emmet, Robert, and the United Irishmen, 

IX 706 sq. ; x 630 sq. ; 715 

Thomas Addis, and the United 

Irishmen, ix 700 sq. 

Emo, Angelo, Venetian admiral, vi 606 
Empaytaz, evangelist, and the Tsar, x 8 
Empire, the Holy Roman 

I ix Germany and the Empire, 288- 

328 
X Hungary and the Sclavonic King- 
doms, passim, 329-46 
xiii The Netherlands, passim, 417-62 

II ii Habsburg and Valois (i), 36-65 

iii Habsburg and Valois (ii), 66-103 
m V The Empire under Ferdinand I 
and Maximilian II, 140-81 



334 



General Index, 



Empire, the Holy Roman {contd.) 
in xxi The Empire under Eudolf 11, 696- 
735 

IV i The Outbreak of the Thirty Years' 

War, 1-34 

iii The Protestant Collapse (1620-30), 
64-117 

vi Gustavus Adolphus, 190-222 

vii Wallenstein and Bernard of Wei- 
mar (1632-5), 223-55 

xiii The later years of the Thirty 
Years' War (1635-48), 364-94 

xiv The Peace of Westphalia, 395- 
433 

V xii Austria, Poland and Turkey, 

passim, 338-71 

XX The origins of the Kingdom of 
Prussia, passim, 616-38 

xxi The Great Elector and the first 
Prussian King, passim, 639-72 
[For the Spanish Succession, the 
War of the Spanish Succession, 
the Peace of Utrecht and sup- 
plementary pacifications, see 
also Chaps, xiii and xiv passim, 
372-459] 

VI xviii Joseph II, 626-56 

IX ix The Third Coalition, I (1805-6), 
passim, 244-64 
X The Third Coalition, II (1806-7), 
passim, 265-93 
[See also Austria, Germany and 
the various Imperial lands, and 
the Emperors] 
Empson, Sir Richard, Minister of Henry VII, 

I 477 
Ems, Eesolutions of (1786), x 145, 158; 

the King of Prussia and Benedetti at, 

XI 463, 578 
Emser, Jerome, opponent of Luther, ii 

168; translation of the Bible by, 172; 

controversy of, with Zwingli, 321 
Encina, Juan del, Spanish writer, i 380 
Enckenvoert, William, Cardinal, ii 21 
Enckhuysen, defeat of Spanish fleet at 

(1573), in 287; ship-building at, 631; 

and the Act of Seclusion, v 143 
Enclosure Commissions, in England, ii 491 
Encounter Bay, xi 792 
Encyclop6die, The French, viii 1, 5, 26, 56 
Endegeest, castle of, Descartes at, rv 785 
Enderlin, podesta of Tirano, death of, iv 

49 
Endicott, Roger, Governor of Massachu- 
setts, VII 15 sqq., 25 
Enfantin, Prosper, French politician, xi 

298 
Engadine, The, iv 36 ; 39 ; Protestants of 

the Upper, 44, 47 ; and Planta, 48 ; 52 ; 

64; Archduke Leopold's claim on the 

Lower, 55 ; Baldiron's seizure of the 

Lower, f 6. ; 56; 58; 61; Austria and 

religious freedom in the Lower, 63 
Engel, Theodor, president of Russian 

Government in Warsaw, x 474 



Engelbrektsson, Olaf. See Trondhjem, 

Archbishop of 
Engels, Friedrich, socialist, x 757; xii 123; 

152; 759 
Engen, engagement at (1800), ix 58 
Enghien, Anne Benedicta (of Bavaria), 

Duchess of, v 349 

Fran9ois de Bourbon, Count of, 

II 77 sq., 97 

Henri-Jules, Due de. See Cond6, 

Henri- Jules de Bourbon, Prince de 

Louis, Due de. See Conde, Louis II 

de Bourbon, Prince de 

Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon, 

Due de, IX 30-1 ; murder of, 191 ; effect 
of execution of, in Russia, 221; 245, 
321 ; execution of, defended, 761 

England 

I xiv The Early Tudors, 463-92 

[See also i, ii, xv. Economic 
Change, especially 521 sqq., 
xvi especially 580-3 and xvii 
passim] 

II xiii Henry VIII, 416-73 

xiv The Reformation under Edward 

VI, 474-511 
XV Philip and Mary, 512-49 
xvi The Anglican Settlements and 

the Scottish Reformation, 550- 

98 

III viii Mary Stewart, passim, 260-93 

ix The Elizabethan Naval War with 

Spain, 294-327 
[For Elizabeth's relations with 

the Dutch Republic, see 617- 

23] 
X The last years of Elizabeth, 328- 

63 
xi The Elizabethan Age of English 

Literature, 364-82 
xvii Britain under James I, 549-78 

IV viii The Constitutional Struggle in 

England (1625-40), 256-85 
ix The first two years of the Long 

Parliament (1640-2), 286-301 
X The first Civil War (1642-7), 302- 

35 
xi Presbyterians and Independents 

(1645-9), 336-55 
xii The Westminster Assembly, 356- 

63 

XV The Commonwealth and the 

Protectorate (1649-59), 434-58 

xvi The Navy of the Commonwealth 

and the First Dutch War, 469- 

85 

xvii and xviii passim, Scotland and 

Ireland, 486-538 
xix Anarchy and the Restoration 

(1659-60), 539-59 
XXV The transference of Colonial 
Power to the United Provinces 
and England, 728-59 
xxvi The Fantastic School of English 
Poetry, 760-75 



General Index, 



335 



England {contd.) 

Y V The Stewart Kestoration, 92-115 

vi The Literature of the English 
Eestoration, including Milton, 
116-36 

vii The administration of John de 
Witt and William of Orange 
(1651-88), passim, 137-67 

viii The Anglo-Dutch Wars (includ- 
ing Naval Administration under 
Charles II and James II), 168- 
97 

ix The policy of Charles II and 
James II (1667-87), 198-235 

X The Eevolution and the Eevolu- 
tion Settlement in Great 
Britain [and Ireland], 236-328 

xi Eeligious toleration in England, 
324-37 

xiii and xiv passim, The Treaties of 
Partition, War of the Spanish 
Succession, and Peace of 
Utrecht, 372-459 

XV Party government under Queen 
Anne, 460-76 

xxii The Colonies and India, 673-705 
xxiv Latitudinarianism and Pietism, 
passim, 742-63 

VI i Great Britain under George I, 1- 

39 

(i) The Hanoverian Succession 
(ii) The foreign policy of 
George I (1714-21) 
ii The age of Walpole and the 

Pelhams, 40-89 
iii Jacobitism and the Union, 90-119 
vi Financial experiments and colo- 
nial development, passim, 168- 
90 
xiii Great Britain (1756-93), 393-478 

(1) William Pitt the Elder 

(2) The King's friends 

(8) The years of peace, and the 
rise of the younger Pitt 
(1782-93) 
xiv [and Ireland], 479-505 
XV [and India], 506-85 
xxiii English Political Philosophy in 
the 17th and 18th centuries, 
785-821 
ISee also vii, viii, xi, xxiv passim] 

VII i The first century of English 

colonisation (1607-1700), 1-52 
ii The English colonies (1700-68), 
63-69 

The Conquest of Canada (1744- 
61), 114-43 

The quarrel with Great Britain 
(1761-76), 144-74 

and vii. The Declaration and 
War of Independence (1761- 
88), 175-234 

The struggle for commercial in- 
dependence and the War of 
1812 (1783-1815), 805-48 



England 

VIII X 



IV 



VI 



XV 

xix 

XX 

xxi 

XXV 

iii 

viii 



xn 
xiii 

XV 

xvii 
xix 

XX 

xxi 

xxii 

xxiii 

i 

vi 

X 

xvii 
xviii 

xix 

XX 

xxi 

xxii 

xxiii 

xxiv 

i 

ix 
xi 



(contd.) 
The foreign policy of Pitt to the 

outbreak of war with France, 

276-305 
The European Powers and the 

Eastern Question, passim, 

806-87 
The General war, passim, 398- 

446 
The Naval war, passim, 447-86 
The Egyptian expedition, 594- 

619 
The struggle for the Mediter- 
ranean, 620-32 
The Second Coalition, passim, 

633-64 
Europe and the French Eevolu- 
tion, passim, 754-90 
The pacification of Europe (1799- 

1802), passim, 55-80 
The Command of the Sea (1803- 

15), passim, 208-43 
The Third Coalition, I (1805-6), 

passim, 244-64 
The Third Coalition, II (1806-7), 

passim, 265-93 
The war of 1809, passim, 341-60 
The Continental System (1809- 
14), 361-89 
The Peninsular War (1808-14), 

428—82 
The War of Liberation (1813-4), 

passim, 506-54 
The Congress of Vienna, I (1814- 

6), passim, 576-602 
The Hundred Days (1815), passim, 

616-45 
The Congress of Vienna, II (1815), 

passim, 646-71 
Great Britain and Ireland (1792- 

1815), 672-708 
The British Empire (1783-1815), 

709-55 
The Congresses (1815-22), 2)as«m, 

1-39 
Greece and the Balkan Peninsula, 

passim, 169-204 
Brazil and Portugal, passim, 

810-39 
Mehemet Ali, passim, 545-72 
Great Britain (1815-32), 573- 

619 
Catholic Emancipation, 620-54 
Great Britain and Ireland (1882- 

41), 655-84 
Canada, 685-95 
The Eevolution in English Poetry 

and Fiction, 696-726 
Economic change, 727-62 
The British Economists, 763-84 
Great Britain and Free Trade 

(1841-52), 1-21 
(2) The Levant, passim, 275-85 
Great Britain and the Crimean 

War (1852-6), 809-24 

21—2 



336 



General Index. 



England {contd.) 

XI xii Great Britain, last years of 

Whiggism, Parliamentary re- 
form (1856-68), 325-46 
xiii EnglishLiterature (1840-70) , 347- 

65 
xxii Russia... after the Crimean War, 

(1) and (2), passim, 613-47 
xxvi India and Afghanistan (1815-69), 

724-53 
xxvii Great Britain and her Colonies 
(i) The new colonial policy 

(1840-70), 754-66 
(ii) The federation of Canada, 

766-78 
(iii) The English and Dutch in 

S. Africa, 778-89 
(iv) The development of Austra- 
lasia (1815-70), 789-801 
xxviii The Far East (1815-71), jpassim, 
802-65 

XII ii Foreign relations of the United 

States during the Civil War, 
passim, 16-22 
iii Great Britain, 23-64 
xiv The Ottoman Empire and the 
Balkan Peninsula, passim, 
381-428 
XV Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan 

(1841-1907), passim, 429-56 
xvi The British Empire in India, 

457-99 
xvii The Far East, passim, 500-36 
XX The European Colonies, passim, 

602-71 
xxi The Republics of Latin America, 
passim, 672-702. 
[See also xxii passim] 
xxiii Social movements, passim, 730-65 
England, Sir Richard, general, xi 734 sq. 
Enke, Wilhelmina, mistress of Frederick 

William II, VI 725 
Ennis, Parnell at, xii 78 
Enniscorthy, Parnell at, xii 77 
Enniskillen, Tyrone joins Bagenel at, m 
604; taken by Maguire, 605; revolt at 
(1688), V 307, 308 sq., 311 sq. 
Enns, occupation of the line of the, by 

Moreau, ix 68 
Enomoto, Japanese admiral, xi 860 
''Enrages," French faction, viii 213, 249 
Ensalah, Alexander Laing at, xii 808 
Enschede, siege of (1597), m 629 
Ensenada, Zeno Somodevilla, Marquis of, 
Spanish statesman, vi 159; 166; 361 sqq.; 
Charles III and, 367; 382 
Entente cordiale, between France and 
England, after Revolution of 1830, x 29 
sqq.; of recent years, xii 55, 98 sq., 172 
Entragues, Catherine Henriette de Balzac 
de. III 678-9; Marquise de Verneuil, 
680-1; 692 
Entre Minho e Douro, province of, ix 302 
Enzheim, victory of Turenne at (1674), 
y 44 



Enzinas, Francisco de (Dryander), n 350, 
401-3; translates New Testament into 
Spanish, 402 

J4ime de (Dryander), Spanish 

Lutheran, ii 350, 387, 402 sq. 

Eoban of Hesse (Helius Eobanus Hessus) 

(Koch?), German scholar, ii 111 
Eon, Chevalier de, French spy, vi 428 
Eotvos, Joseph, Baron, Hungarian politi- 
cian, XI 172 ; 177 ; 181 ; 400 ; the writings 
of, 426 sq. ; Minister of Education, xii 
189 sq.; death of, 190 
Eperies, submits to Austria, v 366; 367; 
, taken by the Russians, xi 210 
^Ipernay, Biron killed at, in 52 
Epernon, Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette, 
Duke of, Parlement of Bordeaux and, rv 
611 ; 614 ; in Burgundy, 618 

Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, 

Duke of, III 36 sqq., 661-3, 668 sqq., 690; 
and Mary de' Medici, rv 125 sq. ; 127 
Ephimieff, Savva, Russian anti-Polish 

leader, v 502 
Epirus, Greek invasion of, xi 640 ; and the 
Greek frontier, xn 37, 403 ; Turkey and, 
381 ; insurrection in, 391 ; 392 ; 398 ; the 
war in, 421 sq. ; 428 
Episcopius, Simon, iii 653; v 744 
Epistolae Clarorum (or illustrium) Virorum 
(1514), II 696 

Obscurorum Virorum^ of Crotua 

Rubeanus, ii 32, 696 sq. 

Epworth, Wesley at, vi 86 

Erasmistas, party of, in Spain, n 401; in 

Portugal, 412 
Erasmus, Bishop of Strassburg. See 

Strassburg 

Desiderius (Gerrit Gerritszoon), at 

Deventer, i 435, 437 ; 460 ; the Reforma- 
tion and, 460-2, 545, 563; the Renais- 
sance and, 669-71, 576, 579; studies 
Greek, 580 sq. ; and the Fathers, 606-8; 
edition of Josephus by, 613, 615; in 
England, 491, 580, 625, 637, 642 sq. ; 
682; Greek Testament of, 603, 645; in 
Rome, 564; Julius Exclusus and, ii 9; 
10, 24, 32, 152, 162, 167 sq. ; Praise of 
Folly, 280; 307 sqq.; Zwingli and, 314, 
316; share of, in Reformation, 342; 
residence and death at Basel, 355, 
414 ; influence of, in Spain, 400 sq. ; 
Annotationes, 694 ; Novum Instrumentum, 
697; letters, critical work, and religious 
attitude of, 697-700 

Erasso, Francisco de, Lord of Mohernando, 
Secretary to Philip II, iii 196 

Erastianism, and its Anglican interest, n 
595 sq. ; in 16th century political thought, 
III 742 sqq., 757 

Erastus, Thomas of Bale (Lieber), ii 195, 
595 sq. ; iii 154, 743, 757 

Erd^lyi, John, Hungarian writer, xi 427 

Erdmannsdorffer, Bernhard, German his- 
torian, XII 829 

Erebus, Mount, discovered, xii 815 



General Index. 



337 



Eregli, Prince Mustafa murdered at, in 121 

Eretrea. See Erythrea 

Erfurt, Luther at University of, n 110 
sqq. ; humanists of, 111; meeting of 
ambassadors of Protestant Princes at 
(1569), III 176; Aldringer at, iv 205; 
alliance between Gustavus Adolphus 
and the Weimar Dukes at, 207; Ban6r 
at, 385; sufferings of, during the War, 
420 ; Prussian troops at, vi 265 ; 268 sq. ; 
bishopric of, 704; Prussian acquisitions 
in, IX 78; Prussian capitulation at (1806), 
277; Congress of (Oct. 1808), 137, 294, 
810, 317-9, 321, 325, 335, 341, 343, 370, 
388, 442 ; district of, 408 ; French troops 
at, 515; Napoleon at (1813), 517; Parlia- 
ment, XI 222 sq., 228 

Erichsen, Mylius, in Greenland, xii 815 

Ericsson, John, designer of the Monitor^ 
VII 550 

Erie, Canal, vii 360, 691, 694 

Lake, French claim on, vn 119; 

operations round, in the war of 1812, 
337 sq., 340 

Erigena, John Scotus, i 535 
Erik VII, King of Denmark, Norway and 
Sweden (Erik XIII), n 600 

XIV (Vasa), King of Sweden, n 627, 

629; policy of, rv 158 sq.; character and 
reign of, 161 sqq. ; coinage under, 166 ; 
policy of, in Livonia, 590 

Eriksson, Gustaf. See Gustavus Vasa, 
King of Sweden 

Erikszen, Barent, navigator, in 632-3 

Eriska, Prince Charles lands at, vi 112 

Erivan, province of, ceded to Eussia (1828), 
X 444, XI 274 

Erizzo, Sebastiano, of Venice (Ericius), 
m 468 

Erlach, Hans Ludwig von, Swiss general, 
Bernard of Saxe- Weimar and, iv 374 sqq. ; 
Governor of Breisach, 379; commands 
Bernardines, 381 ; 382 ; 392 ; at Lens, 599 

Erlangen, students of, x 370; Burschen- 
schaft at, 375 

Erlau, siege of, by Turks, m 123; cap- 
tured by Austrians (1687), v 367 

Erie, Thomas, English general, v 421 

Erlon, Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte de. 
Marshal of France, viii 504 sq. ; in the 
Peninsula, rx 456 ; plot of, 572 ; and the 
Belgian campaign, 625; at Ligny, 628; 
at Waterloo, 633 sqq.; x 503 

Ermak Timotheevich, rebel Cossack, xii 
794 

Ermeland. See Warmia 
— — (Warmia), Bishop of. See Hosius 

Enjeley, Sir Michael, transports Irish 
ttoops to England, iv 527 

Ernest, Archduke of Austria, son of Maxi- 
milian n, candidate for crown of Poland, 
III 86 sq., 92 sq., 170; and the Nether- 
lands, 519, 627 ; Governor of Upper and 
Lower Austria (1576), 698, 701; ad- 
ministration of Styria by, 702 



Ernest, Augustus, King of Hanover (Duke 
of Cumberland), and Orange Lodges, 
X 671 sq.; accession of, 674; 681; abso- 
lutist action by, 379 sq.; xi 60; 148; 
166; and Frankfort Assembly, 200; 
secedes from German Union, 222 

Casimir. See Nassau-Dietz 

Ernoul, Edmond, French politician, xii 

108 
Ernroth, General, in Bulgaria, xn 405 
Errazuriz, Fed., President of Chile, xn 679 
Errestfer, battle of (1702), v 590 
Errington, Sir George, xn 41 
Errol, Francis Hay, 9th Earl of, m 551 
Erskine, David, British Minister to the 

United States, vii 331 sq. 

Ebenezer, Scottish seceder, vi 108 

Henry, Scottish advocate, vin 770 

John Erskine, 6th Baron, and Earl 

of Mar, defends Edinburgh, n 575, 577 

Thomas, Baron Erskine, vni 760 

sqq. ; Lord Chancellor, and the Libel 
Bill, IX 672 ; retirement of, 676 

William, historian, vi 607 

of Dun, in 263 

Erving, George, United States Minister, 

X 213 

Erythrea (Eretrea) , Italian colony, xn 219 ; 

241; 664 
Erzerum, taken by Persians from Turks, 

in 121 ; war stores at, v 545 ; Treaty of, 

XI 276; xn 392; Morier at, 800 
Erzgebirge, mines of the, v 738 
Esbjerg, port of, xn 291 

Escale, French commander at Acre, vm 

612 
Eschass6riaux, Baron Joseph, member of 

the Gomiti de Salut Public, vin 375 
Escher, Alfred, and the St Gothard tunnel, 

XI 260 

von der Linth, Arnold, geologist, 

IX 426; XI 260 

Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio, Jesuit, v 81 
Escobedo, Juan de, ni 497-9, 514; murder 

of (1578), 500, 515 
Escoiquiz, Juan, Spanish statesman, tried 

and acquitted, ix 429 ; x 208 ; 211 
Escosura, Patricio de la, Spanish Minister 

of the Interior, xi 562 
Escurial, Treaty of the (1733), vi 63, 152 ; 

of 1790, vm 189 
Esher, Eeginald Baliol Brett, 2nd Viscount, 

XII 69 

Eslava, Viceroy of Cartagena, vi 165 
Esnambuc, Pierre Vandrosque Diel de, 

colonial settler, vn 74 
Espana, Spanish American rebel, x 276 
Espaiiola, colonised by Spain, i 40 
Espartero, Baldomero, Spanish general and 

statesman, x 235 ; 238 ; ministry of, 

239 sqq.; and the Queen Eegent, 241; 

retires to England, 242; xi 33; 550; 

653; returns to office (1854), 660 sq.; 

resigns, 662 
Espen, Zeger Bernard van, x 167 



338 



General Index, 



Espes, Don Guerau de, iii 280 sq. 

Espinosa, Victor defeats Blake at (1808), 
rs 443 

Diego de, Cardinal, Bishop of Si- 

guenza, in 490 

Espoz y Mina, Francisco Xavier, Spanish 
commander, x 210; 227 sq.; 231 sq. 

Espr6m6nil, J.-J.-Duval de, French politi- 
cian, vm 110, 159, 172 

Esprit des Lois, Le, iv 790 

Espronceda, Jos6 de, x 241 

Esquivel, Juan de, Jamaica colonised by, 
I 41 

Essai pour les Coniques (by Pascal), iv 794 

Ess6, de. See Montalembert 

Essek, Solyman II at, m 107 ; Turks at, 

V 359, 363 ; taken by the Austrians (1687), 
367; 369 

Essen, claimed by Murat, ix 272 
Essequibo, Dutch colony of, iv 709 ; English 

reduction of (1796), ix 750, 755 ; ceded to 

Great Britain, x 520, xi 667 

river, the Dutch on, vi 186; the 

Venezuelan dispute and, xn 687 

Essex, The, and " broken voyages," vii 327 
Essex, Lord. See Northampton, Sir William 
Parr, Marquis of 

Arthur Capel, 1st Earl of (6th cr.), 

V 222 ; 224 ; 229 sq. ; Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland, 305 

Frances, Countess of. See Somerset 

Eobert Devereux, 2nd Earl of, in 50, 

325 sq., 333 sq., 376; English troops sent 
to besiege Rouen under, 512, 516, 521, 
523, 573; in Ireland (1599), 607-8 

Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of, iv 290; 

commands Parliamentary forces, 301 sq.; 
304 sqq. ; occupies Worcester, 307 ; at 
Turnham Green, 308; 311 sq.; 313 sq.; 
at Newbury, 315 ; Oxford Parliament and, 
319; 320; in Cornwall, 323 ; 324 sq.; de- 
prived of command, 326 ; 323 

Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of (5th 

or.). Ill 601 

Thomas Cromwell, Earl of. See 

Cromwell 

Essling, exploits of French infantry at, ix 
345 ; Napoleon at, 350 ; Austrians fail to 
take, 351 ; taken by the French (May 22, 
1809), ib. 

Prince of. See Mass6na 

Estaing, Charles-Hector Th^odat, Comte 

de, French admiral, vi 351; 451 sq.; vn 

218 sq. 
Estates General, of France. See States 

General 
Este, family of, in Ferrara, i 260 sq. 

House of, IX 603 

See also Ferrara and Modena, Dukes 

of 

Cesar de, loses Ferrara, ni 397 

Charles Philibert, Marquis of (S. 

Martino), grandee of Spain, in 420 

Folco de, heir of Azzo of Ferrara, 

1 201 



Este, Francesco de, claims to Ferrara of, 
I 261 

Fresco de, son of Azzo of Ferrara, 

I 261 

Ippolito de (son of Hercules I), Arch- 
bishop of Gran, i 658 

Ippolito de. Cardinal of Ferrara (son 

of Alfonso I), II 85, 88 ; at Colloquy of 
Poissy, 302 sq., 684 ; in 462 

Isabella de (daughter of Hercules I), 

Marchioness of Mantua, in 458 

Lionello de, i 558 

Cardinal Ludovico de (son of Her- 
cules H), 11x431; 435; 451; and Tasso, 
472 

Esterhazy, Count Maurice, Austrian states- 
man, XII 181 

Count Paul, Prince of Galantha, 

Palatine of Hungary, v 357 

of Galantha, Prince Paul Anton, x 

25 ; XI 172 ; 180 

Prince Nicholas, Austrian ambas- 
sador at St Petersburg, vi 253; 322; 
325; 327 

Major Count Walzin, xii 120 

Esthonia, Russia and, ii 144; and Sweden, 

IV 162, 171, 173 ; ceded to Poland, 174 ; 
Swedish power restored in, 176 ; Peace 
of Stolbova and, 181 ; the Poles and, 
189 ; V 614; ceded to Russia, 615 ; Russia 
and, VI 206 ; 317 ; serfdom abolished in 
(1816), X 427; Russian administration 
of, xn 335 
Estienne, Henri, printer, i 576, 604, 613; 
n 718; m 57 

Robert, printer, i 576, 615 ; n 718 ; 

m 57 

Estourmel, de, surrenders frontier towns of 

Picardy, m 662 
Estouteville, Cardinal Guillaume de, i 388 
Estrades, Comte Godefroi de, and Mazarin, 

IV 727 ; French ambassador at the Hague, 

vl06sq.; 149; 152 
Estr^es, Gabrielle de, in 418, 675, 678, 

692 

Jean de, Vice-admiral, Marshal of 

France, v 165 ; 194 sqq. ; 688 

Louis-Charles-C^sar, Due de, Mar- 
shal of France, vi 257 ; 339 ; 405 ; 426 

Estremadura, the Allies in (1705), v 416, 426; 
Spanish battalions in, ix 435 ; Victor 
evacuates (1809), 451; Soult enters, 462; 
destroys Spanish army of, ib. ; Beresford 
marches into, 466 ; Wellington in (1811), 
467 sq. ; Wellington marches on (1812), 
471 ; freed from the French, 475 ; Carlist 
forces in, xn 260 
Estrup, Jakob, Danish statesman, xn 293 
Etampes, Turenne's victory at (1652), iv 
616; German force at, xi 602 

Anne de Pisseleu, Duchess of, ii 

, 97 sq. 

Etaples, Treaty of (1492), i 111, 467 sq.; 
harbour of refuge at, ix 212; French 
ships at, 214, 215 



General Index, 



339 



"Eternal Edict" (Dutch), of 1G67, v 152; 
questionable value of, 155 sq. ; set aside, 
157 

Etherege, Sir George, dramatist, v 129 sq. 

Etienne, Cbarles-Guillaume, x 91 ; editor 

, of the Gonstitutionnel, 493 

Etiolles, Lenormant de, vi 330 

Etropol, monastery of, xii 408 

Etruria, kingdom of, ix 69 ; absorbed in 
the French Empire, 316 ; Berlin Decree 
communicated to, 365; annexed by Napo- 
leon, 368 ; 396 sqq.; offered by Napoleon 
to Ferdinand, 432 

King of. See Parma, Louis, Duke 

of 

Queen of. See Parma, Marie Louise, 

Infanta, Duchess of 

Ettenheim, Johann von Werth's defeat at, 

IV 374; Due d'Enghien at, ix 30 
Eu, Queen Victoria at, xi 33, 37, 553 

Gaston, Comte de, xii 675 

Isabel, Comtesse de, xn 675 

Euboea, island of, and the Powers (1829), 

X 202 

Eucharist, doctrine of the, discussed by 
Luther and Zwingli, n 209 ; at Col- 
loquy of Batisbon, 645; at Council of 
Trent, 671, 677 sqq. ; decree concerning 
(issued by Diet of Speier), 330; Zwingli's 
writings on, 332 sq, 

Euclid, V 707 

Eudes de M6zerai, Jean, Abb6, v 79 

Eudists, French order of the, v 79 

Eudoxia, Tsaritsa, v 520; becomes "Sister 
Elena," 525; 537; trial of, 540; 553 

Eugene, Beauharnais, Prince. See Beau- 
hamais 

Eugene Francois, Prince of Savoy-Carig- 
uan, V 61 ; 340 sq. ; 348 ; joins Imperial 
army, 360; 366; at Zenta, 370; 401; 
in Italy, 402 sqq., 405, 407; 408; joins 
Marlborough, 409 ; at Blenheim, 410 sq. ; 
in Italy (1705-6), 414 sqq.; at Vienna, 
414 ; invades Provence, 418 sq. ; attacks 
Toulon, 419; 420; at Oudenarde, 421; 
423 sq. ; at Malplaquet, 425 sq. ; 429 ; 
431; mission of, to London, 432 sq., 439; 
success of Villars against, 433 sq. ; on 
the Khine, 434 sq., 451 ; and Peace of 
Kastatt, 435, 452; 436; 450; 458; and 
Polish throne, 696; vi 14; 29 sq.; 91; 
and Kipperdd, 139 sqq. ; 145 ; 198 ; 203 ; 
206; 267; xn 400 

Eugenie, Empress of the French, xi 293; 
307; 384; 468; 474; supports the 
Government, 490; 495; acts as Regent, 
496; and the peace negotiations, 498; 
and the Franco-German War, 583, 595 ; 
flight of, to England, 600; xn 433 

Eugenius IV, Pope (Gabriele Condolmiero), 
I 237, 385 sq., 552, 646, 658; in 738 

Eulenburg, Count, mission of, to Japan, 

XI 841; 844 

Euler, Leonhard, physicist, xi 260 
Eupatoria, Russian capture of, vi 673 



Eupen, Pierre Jean Simon van, Belgian 

leader, viii 329, 335 
Euphrates river, mail-route to India by, 

x558; Ottoman army crosses (1839), 561 
Euphues, Lyly's, in 370 
Europe in general 

I XV Economic Change, 493-531 
xvi The Classical Renaissance, 

532-84 
xvii The Christian Renaissance, 

585-619 
xviii Catholic Europe, 620-52 
xix The Eve of the Reformation, 

653-92 

II xix European thought in the age 

of the Reformation, 690- 
718 
in xxii Political thought in the 16th 
century, 736-69 

IV xxvii Descartes and Cartesianism, 

776-99 

V xxiii European science in the 17th 

and earlier years of the 18th 
centuries, 706-41 
xxiv Latitudinarianism and Pietism, 
742-63 

VI xxiv The Romantic movement in 

European Literature, 822- 
37 
vm xi The European Powers and 
the Eastern Question, 306- 
37 
XXV Europe and the French Revo- 
lution, 754-90 

IX iii The pacification of Europe 

(1799-1802), 55-80 
xix The Congress of Vienna, I 

(1814-5), 576-615 
xxi The Congress of Vienna, II 

(1815), 646-71 

X i The Congresses (1815-22), 1- 

39 
XII i Modern Europe, 1-15 

XX European colonies, 602-71 
xxii The modern law of nations 
and the prevention of war, 
703-29 
xxiii Social movements, 730-65 
xxiv The scientific age, 766-91 
XXV Modern explorations, 792-815 
xxvi The growth of historical 
science, 816-50 
Eustatia, in possession of the Dutch, v 687 
Eustis, George, secretary to Confederate 

States Envoy, xn 18 
Eutaw Springs, battle of (1781), vii 230 
Euxine. See Black Sea. 
Evald, Johannes, Danish poet, xi 697 
Evangelical Brotherhood, foundation of, 

n 180, 183 
"Evangelical Catholics," German sect, 

V 743 
Evans, Arthur, discoveries of, at Cnossus, 
xn 846 
Sir George de Lacy, general, x 287 



\ 



340 



G-eneral Index, 



Evans, Australian explorer, xi 790 sq. 
Evdokimoff, Nicholas, Kussian general, xi 

633 
Eve Demaillot, Antoine-Franpois, ix 137 
Evelyn, John, v 124; and Eoyal Society, 

740; VI 799 
Evenementy Le, French newspaper, xi 127 
Evening Post, The, vi 441 
Everard, Sir John, Irish Catholic leader, 

rv 615 sq. 
Everett, Edward, American statesman, vn 

391, 491, 744 
Evers, Sir Kalph, invades Scotland, ii 460 
Evertsen, Cornelis, Dutch vice-admiral, v 

183; death of, 186 
Cornelis (the younger), Dutch naval 

officer, reconquers New Netherland, y 

161 
Every Man in his Humour, Ben Jonson's, 

III 380 
Evil May Day (April 30, 1517), riot in 

London, i 488 
Evora, Spanish defeat at (June, 1663), iv 

661, v 34 
Evora-Monte, Dom Miguel at, x 336 
Evreimoff, Eussian geodesist, v 535 
Evreux, Charles-Louis Salmon du Chat^lier, 

Bishop of, X 85 
Ewald, Georg Heinrich August, x 379; 

Histoiy of Israel, xii 846 
Ewell, Richard Stoddard, Confederate 

general, vii 540 
Examiner, The Whig, v 469; The Tory, 

started by St John, ib.; under Leigh 

Hunt, XI 362 
Excelmans, Remy-Joseph-Isidore, Comte, 

Marshal of France, affair of, ix 671; 

negligence of, 630 
Excise Scheme, Walpole's, vi 47 sq. 
Exclusion Bill, introduced May, 1679, 

v 224 ; later history of, 226 sqq. 
Excommunication, Bull of, issued against 

Henry VHI, ii 67, 440, 449; against 

Martin Luther, 138 sq. ; against Eliza- 
beth, m 3i9 
Executionsordnung (1555), in 144, 171 
Exeter, capitulates to Parliamentarians, iv 

335; the Prince of Orange at, v 246 
Henry Courtenay , Marquis of, arrested 

and executed, ii 449; 523 
Exilles, heretics in, in 404; surrender of 

(1593), 417; vil59; battle of, 245, 362 
Exmouth, Sir Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount, 

Admiral, viii 454; blockades Brest, 473; 

and mutiny, 631 
Exploration, see Vol. i. Chap, i. The Age of 

Discovery, 7-36; Chap, ii. The New 

World, 37-66 ; late modern, see Vol. xii. 

Chap. XXV, 792-815 
Exposcit pastoralis officii, the Bull (1550), 

II 655 
Extreme Unction, Sacrament of, discussed 

at Council of Trent, ii 672 
Eyck, Hubert and John van, i 433 
Eyguenots, of Geneva, n 362 



Eylau, battle of (1807), ix 195, 286, 287, 
290; Scharnhorst at, 332 

Eylert, R. F., Prussian bishop, x 382 

Eynard, John Gabriel, and Greek inde- 
pendence, XI 239 

Eyre, Edward John, Australian explorer, 
XI 795; Governor of Jamaica, xii 656 

Fabbri, Count Edoardo, papal Minister, 

XI 89 

Faber, Johann, the Tractatus de Ruine 
Ecclesie planctu, i 676 ; opponent of 
Luther, ii 168, 212, 233; Vicar-general 
of Constance, 316 ; and Zurich Disputa- 
tion, 317; at Conference of Ratisbon 
(1526), 326 

Stapulensis. See Lef^vre d'Etaples 

Fabre, Auguste, editor of the Tribune, x 

485 

Victorin, editor of the Tribune, x 485 

d'Eglantine, P.-F.-Nazaire, French 

politician, viii 234, 247, 361, 363 

Fabrice, Friedrioh Ernst von, vi 20; mission 
of, to Sweden, 28, 34 

Johann Ludwig von, Hanoverian 

councillor, vi 20 

Weipart Ludwig von, Hanoverian 

judge and councillor, vi 20 ; 28 

Fabricius, John Albert, the Codex Apo- 
cryphus, i 614 

secretary of the Bohemian regents, 

IV 20 

ab Aquapendente, Hieronymus, ana- 
tomist, V 724 ; 726 ; 728 ; 737 

Fabro, Antonio (of Amiterno), ii 17 
Fabvier, Baron Charles-Nicolas, French 

general, joins the Greek insurgents, x 

182 
Factory Acts, the first English, of 1802, ix 

691 sq., X 659 sq.; origins of, xii 746; 

movement spreads to Continent, 747; 

in New Zealand (1894), 629; in Victoria 

(1896), 630 
Fadinger, Stephen, Austrian peasant leader, 

IV 76 
Faenza, surrenders to Cesare Borgia (1600), 

I 238; seized by Venetians (1503), 244; 

Sanfedists and Carbonari in, x 152 
Faerie Queene, Spenser's, iii 373 
Fagan, agent of Fouche, ix 140; 371 
Fagel, Caspar, Pensionary of Holland, v 

156 ; elected Grand Pensionary, 159 ; 164 ; 

239; 245 

Hendrik, Dutch Minister in London, 

x520 

Fagg, Sir John, M.P. for Steyning, v 217 
Fagius, Paul, ii 265 ; Protestant refugee in 

England, 477 
Faidherbe, Louis-L6on-C6sar, French gene- 
ral, XI 607 sq.; 610; Governor of Senegal, 

XII 129 

Failly, Pierre -Louis- Charles -Achille de, 
French general, xi 485 ; at Rome, 543 ; 
in the Franco-German War, 683 sqq., 
596 sq. 



I 



General Index. 



341 



Faipoult. See Faypoult 

Fair Oaks, Federal repulse at (1862), vii 

476 sq. 
Fairfax, Ferdinando, 2nd Baron Fairfax of 

Cameron, Parliamentary commander in 

Yorkshire, iv 308, 313; at Winceby, 315; 

at Marston Moor, 322 

Sir Thomas, 3rd Baron Fairfax of 

Cameron, recaptures Leeds, iv 308 ; 
storms Wakefield, 313 ; in Cheshire, 
321; at Marston Moor, 322; Com- 
mander-in-chief of Parliamentary forces, 
326; and New Model army, 329; at 
Naseby, 330 ; in the west, 331 ; takes 
Sherborne Castle, 332 ; takes Tiverton 
Castle, 333 sq. ; surrender of Eaglan 
Castle to, 335 ; 339 ; 341 sq. ; Eoyalist 
risings and, 348 sq.; at Colchester, 351; 
at St Albans, 353 ; and Pride's Purge, 
354 ; trial of Charles I and, 355 ; takes 
no part in the new government, 437 ; 
army and, 446 ; at Nantwich, 527 ; occu- 
pies York, 548 

Fairman, Colonel, and Orange Lodges, x 

671 sq. 
Fajardo, Admiral, at Tunis, m 541 
Faku, Pondo chief, xi 783 
Falari, Duchess of, vi 131 
Falconnet, Ambroise, and favours to 

emigres, ix 670 
Talk, Adalbert, Prussian Kultusminister, 

XII 148 

Bengt, beheaded, iv 174 

Falkenberg, Dietrich von, commander of 

Swedish troops in Mecklenburg, rv 196 ; 
at Magdeburg, 201 sqq. 
Falkenstein, Johann Paul von, Saxon 
statesman, xi 149 

Vogel von, Prussian general, xi 452 ; 

465 

Falkirk, march of Scotch army from, rv 
436 ; VI 112 ; Jacobite victory at, 115 

Falkland, Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount, sup- 
ports Laud, IV 280; Koot-and-Branch 
petition and, 292; " Kemonstrance " and, 
296; and Puritanism, 306; Charles I 
and, 309; death of, at Newbury, 315, 
318 ; Irish policy of, 516 sq.; v 745 sq.; 
753 
— — Lucius Bentinck, 10th Viscount, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, xi 
759 

Isles, VI 373 ; claimed by Spain, 437 ; 

443 

Falkoping, battle of, ii 600 

Falli6res, Armand, President of the French 

Republic, xii 113 
Falloppio, Gabriele, anatomist, n 386, 395 ; 

v724 
Falloux, Fr^deric-Alfred-Pierre, Vicomte de, 

XI 114 ; French Minister of Education, 

118; 119; education scheme of, 120, 126; 

130 ; and Pius IX, 121 ; 123 ; 128 ; and 

the opposition to Napoleon III, 469 : xii 

92; 114 



Falmouth (Cornwall), Spanish vessels at, 
III 493 ; the third Armada sails for, 529 

(Maine), destroyed (1776), vn 169 

Faludi, Francis, Hungarian writer, xi 421; 

431 
Famagosta, siege of, iii 134 ; attacked by a 

Tuscan squadron, 399 
Family Compact, The (1551), iii 166 ; the 

First so-called, namely, the Treaty of 

the Escurial of 1733, vi 63 sqq., 152 sq. ; 

the Second, namely, of Fontainebleau, 

of 1743, 159 sq.; of 1761, 344 sqq.; 368; 

of 1765, vni 189, 290 sq. 

of Love, III 755 

Fanning, Edmund, Secretary of N. Carolina, 

VII 145 
Fannio or Fannino, Italian martyr, n 387 
Fanshawe, Sir Richard, and Portugal, v 

105; in Spain, 109 
Fantastic Poets, see Vol. iv. Chap, xxvi 
Fanti, Manfredo, Italian general, xi 389 
Far East, The (1815-71), see Vol. xi. 

Chap, xxviii ; Vol. xii. Chaps, xvii, xviii 

and XIX. See also China, Japan, Eastern 

Question, etc. 
Faraday, Michael, and social conditions, 

XII 730; 766; 786 sqq. 
Fardella, Michel Angelo, Cartesian philo- 
sophy and, IV 791 
Farel, Guillaume, preacher of Meaux, n 

282 sq., 291 sq., 356; and Calvin, in 

Geneva, 358, 362 sq., 368, 375 
Fargues, Henri, French politician, vm 677, 

682, 684 
Farinelli (Carlo Broschi), Neapolitan singer, 

VI 167 ; 362 ; 364 ; 367 
Farini, Luigi Carlo, Minister under Pius IX, 

X 157 ; XI 65 ; Minister of Education, 369 ; 

371 ; 386 ; and the Consorteria Ministry, 

535 ; 536 ; History of the Papal States, 

XII 842 
Farmer, Anthony, and Magdalen College, 

V 238 
Farnese, Alessandro, Cardinal See Paul HI, 

Pope 
Alessandro (grandson of Paul III), 

Cardinal of Sant' Angelo, Archbishop of 

Avignon, etc., Papal legate, ii 255, 662 ; 

III 450 

Orazio, grandson of Paul III, ii 

82 sqq.; 269 

See Parma, Dukes of 

Faro, Bishop's library at, iii 326 ; occupied 

by Palmella, x 333 
Faroe Islands, Norway and, xi 683 
Farquhar, George, dramatist, v 128; 131 
Farragut, David Glasgow, American ad- 
miral, VII 498; attacks Vicksburg, 499 
sq. ; attacks Port Hudson, 503, 506 ; gains 
the battle of Mobile Bay, 522, 554 sqq. ; 
at New Orleans, 562 sq., 559 
Farrukhabad, General Lake's victory at 

(1804), IX 728 
Fashoda (Kodok), French expedition at, 
XII 133, 448, 662, 813; 454 



342 



General Index. 



Fasting, Glaus, Norwegian writer, xi 700 
Fatah Khan, Barakzai Minister, xi 731 
Fatehgarh, rebels defeated at, xi 748 
Fatehpur-Sikri, Sindhia's victory at (1788), 

1x719 
Fauche-Borel, Swiss political agent, vni 511 
Faucher, L6on, French Minister of In- 
terior, XI 118 sq.; 123; and campaign 
against Eepublicans, 131 ; 133 sq. 
Fauchet, Claude, author, in 62 

Claude, Constitutional bishop of the 

Calvados, viii 214, 255 
Faucigny, participates in Swiss neutrality, 

IX 660 
Faure, Fran<?ois-F61ix, President of French 

Kepublic, xn 98; 112; 121 
Fauriel, Claude, ix 24; xii 829 
Favera, Guarino di. See Novara, Bishop of 
Faversham, James II at, v 248 
Favier, Bishop, Eoman Catholic missionary 

at Peking, xii 518; 520 
Favre, Gabriel-Claude-Jules, French states- 
man, XI 123 sq. ; and the Coup d'etat of 
December, 136 ; 305 ; 307 ; in opposition, 
475, 477; 485; 489; 493; 496; nego- 
tiates with Bismarck, 497, 600; 498; 
signs an armistice, 499; 500; negotiates 
for the capitulation of Paris, 611; 612; 
xn 95; 103 
Fawcett, Henry, Postmaster-General, xii 41 
Faypoult de Maisoncelle, Chevalier G.- 
Charles, Minister of Finance, viii 490; 
envoy at Genoa, 587; at Naples, 653 sq. 
Fazy, James, Genevese radical, xi 248 
Febronius. See Hontheim 
Fechen, Peter, ii 630 
Feckenham, John de, ii 486; becomes 
Abbot of Westminster, 543; present at 
Elizabeth's coronation, 563, 565 
Fedeli, Venetian envoy to Cosimo I, in 

389 ; 392 sq. 
"Federal Pact," The Swiss (1815), xi 237 

sqq. 
Federalist, The, Alexander Hamilton writes 

in, vn 303 
Federation, Act of, at Delft (1576), in 243 
Federigo III, King of Naples, i 118, 124, 

234, 245 
Fehrbellin, Baner at, iv 367; battle of 

(1675), V 44 sq., 568; 651 
Feijoo, Antonio, Bishop of Maritana, 

Eegent of Brazil, x 325 
Feitb, Rhijnvis, Dutch writer, xi 676 
Fej^rvary, Baron Gaza von, Austrian states- 
man, xii 205 sqq. ; 209 
Feldkirch, (Swiss) Diet at (1529), n 330 
Felix V (Amadeus VIII of Savoy), anti- 
Pope, I 623, 688 
Felixstowe, Dutch landing at, v 189 
Fellenberg, Philippe-Emmanuel de, insti- 
tute at Hofwyl of, ix 427 
Fellows, Sir Charles, archaeologist, xn 846 
Felton, John, murders Buckingham, iv 272 
Feltre, Bernardino da. See Bernardino, St, 
of Feltre 



Feltre, Charles-M. A. de Goyon, Due de, 
French general, xi 531 

Marshal Clarke, Due de. See Clarke 

Thomas Campeggio, Bishop of, u 665 

Vittorino da. See Vittorino 

Femem, naval battle off (1677), v 570 
Fendall, Josias, Governor of Maryland, 

vn 33 

F^nelon, Franpois de Salignac de la Mothe, 
Archbishop of Cambray. See Cambray 

Fenestrelles, capture of (1708), v 425; 
France and, vi 159 

FSnghwangch'^ng, xii 511; Eussian force 
at, 585 ; 587 sq. 

Fengt'ai, Boxer disturbances at, xn 518 

Fenianism, rise of, xi 343 sq. 

Fenner, Thomas, in 304 sq., 309 

Fenshui pass, Japanese troops in, xn 587 
sq. 

Fenton, Edward, in 300, 309 

Fenwick, Sir John, execution of, v 262 
John, settler on the Delaware, vn 47 

Ferandina, Pedro de Toledo, Duke of 
(Marquis of Francavila), in 470; 686; 
Viceroy of Milan, iv 626; 631; attacks 
Venice, 632 sq. 

Feraud, Jean, French deputy, assassinated, 
vin 388 sq. 

Fercullen, granted to 'Toole, in 583 

Ferdinand I, Emperor (King of Hungary 
and Bohemia), John Zapolya and, i 
97; 343; n 46, 66 sq., 143; Austrian 
territories made over to (1521), 149 sq. ; 
157; 169 sqq.; Peasants' Eising and, 
178, 182, 190, 197; elected King of 
Bohemia and Hungary, 61, 198 sq. ; 
elected King of the Eomans, 66, 214, 537 ; 
201 ; the Turks and, 206 sq. ; 210 sq., 216 ; 
attempts to make peace with Turkey, 218, 
221, 233 sqq.; treaty of, with Zapolya, 
236; 267, 272; at Diet of Augsburg 
(1555), 275 sqq., 336, 537; 399; Council 
of Trent and, 674 sqq., 681 sq. ; struggle 
as King of Hungary and Bohemia with 
Solyman II, Vol. in. Chap, iv passim ; as 
Emperor, ib. and 146-7; the Empire 
under, 140-65; and Archduke Maxi- 
mihan, 167 sq. ; and Charles V, 476 
sq. ; 699; and Jiilich-Cleves, 716; and 
Bohemian religion, 727; death of, 169; 
V 339; 366; 625 sq. ; vi 158; 507 

II, Emperor, claims Bohemian 

throne, iii 568 sq, ; and James I, 572 sq., 
575; 687, 699, 702, 714 sqq., 723 sqq.; 
Jesuit influence over, as Archduke in 
Styria, iv 5 ; and Venice, 11 ; and the 
Protestants, 13; King of Hungary, 14; 
and Bohemian succession, 15 sqq.; 
position of, in 1618, 23, 26; elected 
Emperor, 28; deposed in Bohemia, ib.; 
and Bohemian conflict, 31 sqq., 40; 45; 
65 sq.; and German Princes, 67 sqq.; 
usefulness of Wallenstein to, 72 sq. ; 
tribunal of "reformation" instituted by, 
74 sqq. ; and Bethlen Gabor, 75; seeks to 



General Index. 



343 



gain time, 77 sqq. ; Palatinate in hands 
of, 82; meeting of Princes convened 
by, 83; 84 sqq. ; 91 sq.; makes Wallen- 
stein Commander-in-chief, 93 sq. ; 98 sqq. ; 
Mecklenburg Dukes submit to, 101 ; 103 ; 
104 sqq. ; 108 sqq. ; proclaims Edict of 
Bestitntion, 111 sqq. ; dismisses Wallen- 
stein, 116 sq., 680; relations of, with 
Estates of the Empire, 146; at Eatisbon, 
197 ; Tilly in command of forces of, 198 ; 
Convention of Leipzig and, 200; progress 
of the War and, 201-12; Wallenstein 
and, 213 sqq. ; negotiations at Niirnberg 
and, 218; 220; 238; 241; 246; 249; 
Eichelieu and, 250 sq., 679 sq. ; Saxony 
and, 252; Peace of Prague and, 253 sqq., 
365 ; 367 ; 369 ; 370 ; Amalia of Hesse- 
Cassel concludes truce with, 371; death 
and character of, 372 sq. ; and the con- 
gress at Cologne, 396; Trautmansdorif 
and, 400; Wiirttemberg and, 409; 412; 
arbitrary measures of, 414; 676 sq. ; 
Mantuan succession and, 115, 678 sqq. ; 
tension between Urban VIII and, 681 sq. ; 
683 sq.; v 338; 351; xi 45 
Ferdinand III, Emperor, crowned King of 
Hungary, rv 91; marriage of, v 376; 
elected King of the Romans, rv 115, 117, 
372, 679; birth of heir to, 238; Wallen- 
stein and, 116, 212, 239 sq.; takes 
Eatisbon, 244; at Nordlingen, 245, 682; 
371 ; accession of, 373 ; 375 ; attempts to 
draw over Bernard of Saxe- Weimar, 376 ; 
Oxenstierna and, 377; 378; refuses to 
ratify Treaty of Mainz, 379; 380 sq. ; 
383; loyalty of Kurfiirstentag to, 384; 
Diet of Eatisbon and, 384 sq. ; Denmark 
and, 387; 389 sqq.; peace settlement 
and, 397 sqq. , 602 sq. ; French claim to 
Elsass and, 406 sq. ; Maximilian and, 
409; religious questions and, 412; terri- 
torial rights and, 413 ; relations of Great 
Elector with, v 640 sqq. ; and Poland, 
344 ; last Diet of, iv 426 ; death of, 427, 
429 sqq. ; v 338 ; 340 

I, Emperor of Austria, x 378; xi 44 ; 

152; and the Vienna insurrection, 153 
sq. ; 171 sq. ; and Hungary, 173 ; flight 
of, 175; at Innsbruck, 176; returns to 
Schonbrunn, 179, 182; at Olmiitz, 186 
sq. ; abdication of, 88, 190; 193; 204; 
208; 405 

II, King of Aragon. (See Ferdinand V, 

King of Spain 

Prince of Bulgaria, xii 342 ; 410 sq. ; 

proclaimed Tsar, 427 ; 578 

I, King of Naples. See Ferrante 

II, King of Naples. See Ferrante 

IV, King of Naples and Sicily. See 

Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies 

V (the Catholic), King of Spain (H 

of Aragon, V of Castile), i 81, 115, 119; 
at war with Louis XII, 126 sqq.; 193; 
Holy League proposed by, 198; 251; 308, 
316; Spain under, 346-68; 379; joins 



Breton League against France (1489) , 394 ; 
Henrv VII and, 466, 476; Henry VIII 
and, *478-9, 483; death of, 368, 486; 
656; II 36 sq.; iii 478; 510; 738; v 483; 
VI 151; 167 
Ferdinand VI, King of Spain, vi 137; 139; 
145; 147; marriage of, 166; 249; 342; 
reign of, 361 sqq. ; death of, 366 ; 368 ; 
597; X 273 

VII, King of Spain, vii 362, 365 

sqq.; ix 321; arrest of, 429; and 
revolution of Aranjuez, 431; Napoleon 
refuses to recognise the claim of, 432; 
enforced abdication of, 433; release of, 
482; relations of, with Napoleon, 622; 
revolt against (1821), x 74; seeks aid 
of Louis XVIII, 79 ; and Napoleon, 205 ; 
returns to Spain (1814), ib.\ reactionary 
policy of, 12, 141, 205 sqq.; character 
of, 207; political system established by, 
208 sq. ; and purchase of Eussian war- 
ships, 209; second marriage of, 210; 
plots against, i&. ; Louis XVIII refuses 
aid of, 211; and Congress of Vienna, 
ih.\ and British Government, 212; 
and Mora's secret mission, 213 ; restores 
the Constitution of 1812, 217 sq.; anti- 
constitutional action by, 221 sq. ; seeks 
aid of the Allied Powers, 222 sqq.; 
French loan to, 225 ; and the Cortes, 227 
sq. ; enters French camp, 228; perse- 
cution of Liberals by, 229 sq. ; fourth 
marriage of, 231; and King Louis- 
Philippe, 231 sq. ; and succession to the 
throne, 232 sq.; death of (1833), 233; 
282; and Spanish America, 283, 285 sq., 
290 sq., 306; seeks aid of the Allied 
Powers against American revolution, 
308; 316; xi 551 

-T — I (IV), King of the Two Sicilies, and 
the P'amily Compact, vi 344 sq. ; 366; 
368; 594; 597; at Laibach (1821), vii 
368; marriage of, vin 79, 555; 573, 649 
sqq.; flight of, 652; returns to Naples, 
658; 778 sq. ; ix 68; 73, 88, 381 ; restora- 
tion of Naples to, 382; proposal of, to 
Sicilian Parliament, 383 ; capitulates 
to England, 384; compelled to make 
way for Joseph Bonaparte, 403; throne 
of Sicily guaranteed to, 604; Austrian 
alliance with, 648; recognised by the 
Powers, 661; restoration of (1815), x 
109 sq. ; negotiations with Emperor of 
Austria, 110; and revolt of 1820, 112; 
accepts Spanish Constitution of 1812, 
24, 112; at Congress of Laibach, 29, 
69, 113; returns to Naples, 114; and 
Ferdinand of Spain, 224 

II, King of the Two Sicilies, x 

129; XI 18; 68; and Scientific Con- 
gresses, 69; 70; and demands for re- 
form, 79 sq. ; and Naples Constitution, 
87 sq. ; suppresses Sicilian Eevolution, 
91 sq. ; and Pius IX, 121; reactionary 
policy of, 379 sq. ; death of, 380 



344 



General Index, 



Ferdinand, King of the Eomans (son of 
Ferdinand III), death of, ly 426 

Archduke, of Austria (son of Ferdi- 
nand I), II 537 

Archduke, of Styria. See Ferdinand 

II, Emperor 

Archduke, of Tyrol, m 94, 165; death 

of (1595), 699; quits the Landsberg 
League, 709; iv 1 

Charles, Archduke, of Tyrol, and 

Treaty of Westphalia, iv 407, 603; and 
marriage of James II, v 211 

Charles Joseph d'Este, Austrian 

Archduke, Prince of Modena, commands 
army of Germany, ix 250; 253, 254 ; in 
Bohemia, 257; watched by Bernadotte, 
258 ; 275 ; commands an Austrian army, 
346; ordered to occupy Warsaw, 347 ; in 
western Galicia, 354 

Maria, Elector of Bavaria. See 

Bavaria 

of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, King Consort 

of Maria II of Portugal, x 338 sq. ; xi 
670 sq. ; acts as Eegent, 573 ; 575 

Cardinal Infante of Spain, Arch- 
bishop of Toledo, IV 230 ; 239 ; at Nord- 
lingen, 244; 246; represents Philip IV 
in Flanders, 644 sq. ; sent to Brussels, 
698; 699; successes of, 700; death of, 
659, 702 

Grand Duke of Tuscany. See Tus- 
cany 

Ferguson, Adam, philosopher, viii 769 

Patrick, colonel, vii 225 sq., 233 

Eobert, the "Plotter," v 229 

Fergusson, Eobert, poet, x 701 sq. 
Feria, Gomez Suarezde Figueroa y Corduba, 

6th Count and 1st Duke of, Spanish am- 
bassador to England, ii 549, 561 sqq., 
666, 573; iii 263 sq.; 283; 477 sqq. 

Gomez Suarez de Figueroa y C6rduba, 

3rd Duke of, Spanish Governor of Milan, 
IV 41; in Milan, 48; and the Valtelline, 
49 sqq. ; at Innsbruck, 231 ; at Vienna, 
234 sq.; 238; in Elsass, 246; 672 

Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa y C6r- 

duba, 2nd Duke of, ambassador to France 
and Eome, iii 52; 517 

Ferik Suleiman, Pasha of Plevlye, xn 
401 

Ferishta, Persian historian, vi 512 

Fermanagh, plantation of, in 614; Com- 
missioners of allotments in, 615 

Fermat, Pierre de, mathematician, Des- 
cartes and, IV 779; 794; v 711 sq. ; 715; 
723 

Fermo, Neapolitan defeat at (1798), viii 
652 

Fermont des Chapellieres, Comte Joseph- 
Jacques de, President of the National 
Convention, viii 300 

Fermor, Count William, Eussian general, 
VI 277 ; 279 sqq. ; 322 sqq. 

Fernamond, Imperial commander, in the 
Valtelline, iv 61 sq 



Fernandes, Alfonso, translates Erasmus' 

Enchiridion into Spanish, n 401 
Fernandina (Florida), captured, vii 552 
Fernando, Dom, of Portugal, death of, xi 

674 
Feron, Eobert, n 442 
Ferrand, Antoine-iFranpois-Claude, French 

Director- General of Posts, ix 665; 566, 

670; and the emigres^ x 42 
Ferrante (Ferdinand I), King of Naples 

(d. 1494), I 80 sq., 104 sq., 110, 124, 

227, 387, 665 
II, or Ferrantino (Ferdinand II), King 

of Naples (1495-6), i 114 sqq., 231 sq., 

234, 245 
Duke of Calabria, son of Federigo III 

of Naples, i 124 
Ferrar, Nicholas, iv 280 

Eobert, Bishop of St David's, ii 

538 sq. 

Ferrara, Venetian factories at, i 260; war 
of succession in, 261 ; Calvin in, n 358, 
385 ; the Eeformation in, 384 sqq. ; colony 
from, in the Maremma, in 393; condition 
of, 401; and Savoy, 415; "the Blind 
Man of," 461; royal marriages at (1598), 
527 ; duchy of, added to States of the 
Church, IV 667, 686; Legation of, held 
by French (1796), viii 673; 583, 588; 
Austrian garrison at, x 137, 155; xi 
71; Austrian occupation of, 77 sq.; the 
national movement in, 384 

Alfonso I, d'Este, Duke of, i 137, 

248 sqq. ; n 43, 54 sqq. ; 60 sq. ; receives 
Eeggio and Modena, 67, 384 

Alfonso II, Duke of, in 94, 387; 

marries Lucrezia de* Medici, 395; death 
of (1597), 397, 432 

Azzo d'Este, Marquis of, i 261 

Borso, Duke of, in 461 

Hercules I, Duke of, i 287; in 461 

Hercules II, Duke of, n 81, 384 sqq. 

Niccolo III (1481), Marquis of, i 558 

Een^e of France, Duchess of, i 457, 

483; n 358; and the Eeformation, 384, 
387; suggested marriage of, to Henry 
VIII, 428, 578; in 471 

Cardinal of. See Este, Ippolito de 

Ferrari, Giuseppe, historian, i 341 ; xn 842 

founder of the Barnabites, ii 648 

General, xi 86 

Paolo, Italian dramatist, xi 548 

Ferraris, Count Joseph, Austrian Field- 
marshal, VI 652 

Luigi, Italian statesman, xn 217 

Ferrars, John, and the London Company, 

vn 6 

Ferr^, Charles-Thdophile, French com- 
munist, XI 602 

Ferreni, Zaccaria, of Vicenza, n 30 

Ferrero, Guglielmo, Italian sociologist, xii 
231 

Ferretti, Giovanni Mastai-, Cardinal. See 
Pius IX, Pope 

Ferri, Enrico, Italian socialist, xn 231 sq. 



General Index, 



345 



Ferri^res, peace, negotiations at, xi 497 sq. 

Charles- Elie, Marquis de, member 

of the States General, viii 146 

Ferrol, Fitzmaurice sails from (1579), iii 
597 ; fleet equipped at, 606 ; departure of 
expedition from (1597), 673; arsenal of, 
VI 125; 365; blockade of, ix 213, 217; 
Allied force at (1804), 219; Villeneuve 
retires to, 226; capture of French ships 
off, 234 

Ferry, Jules, French statesman, xi 498; 
502; XII 109; Ministry of, 112; 114; 
policy of, 116 sqq. ; 121; and Tonkin, 
131 sq., 527 ; colonial policy of, 159 ; 161 

Fersen, Count Axel Fredrik af, Swedish 
statesman, vi 763 sqq. ; 768 ; 776 ; 781 

Count Axel (son of above), Swedish 

ambassador in Paris, vi 783 ; viii 789 ; ix 
823 

Eussian commander, viii 546 sq. 

Fesch, Joseph, Cardinal, ix 107; Napoleon's 

Grand Almoner, 111 ; French ambassador 
at Rome, 191 ; 193 ; recalled from Rome, 
194 ; 195 ; member of Ecclesiastical Com- 
mission, 196; 202 

Fessenden, William Pitt, American Secretary 
of the Treasury, vii 570 

Fethard, Reconciliation meeting at (1828), 

X 648 

Fetherstone, Richard, trial of, with More, 

n 443; execution of, 444 
Feth Islam, garrison of, xi 647 
Feuerbacher, Matem, leader of Peasants' 

Rising, II 182 sq., 188 
Feuillants, revolutionary club, viii 173, 

212 sq., 215 sq.; ruin of, 221; policy 

of, 222 
Feuille du Village, La, French newspaper, 

XI 127 

Feuillet, Octave, novelist, xi 522 
Feuqui^res, Isaac de Pas, Marquis de, 

French ambassador in Sweden, v 566; 

668 sqq. ; 573 sq. 

Manassas de Pas, Marquis de, 

French diplomatist, concludes treaty with 
Sweden, iv 142 ; at Heilbronn, 225 sq. ; 
Kinsky and, 234 ; and Wallenstein, 236, 
240; at the Frankfort Convention, 246 
sq. ; 248; Bernard of Weimar and, 249; 
diplomacy of, 367 

Feversham, Louis de Duras, Earl of, v 232 ; 

247 sq. 
Feyt, Florentius, Jesuit, ii 631 
Fez, Pisan alliance with, in 398 ; xii 132 ; 

explorer in, 808 
Fezensac, Due de, ix 252 
Fezzan, Hornemann in, xn 806 
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, viii 775 ; life and 

work of, IX 325-8; x 370; philosophy 

of, 401, 404, 410; xii 758; 818 
Ficino, Marsilio, 1 147, 151 ; and Savonarola, 

188; translation of Plato by, 543; and 

the Platonic Academy, 559 ; Platonism 

of, II 4, 7sq., 16, 701 
Ficker, Julius, historian, xn 823; 850 



Fickler, C. B. A., Baden radical, xi 164 
Ficquelmont, Count Karl Ludwig, Austrian 

Minister of Foreign Affairs, xi 155 ; 171 ; 

174 
Fidei ratio ad Carolum Imperatorerrif of 

Zwingli, II 335 
Field of Cloth of Gold, ii 42, 417 
Fielden, John, x 659 ; 681 sq. 
Fielding, Henry, v 131; vi 833; x 718; 

723; XI 361 
Fields, James Thomas, editor of the 

Atlantic Monthly, vii 746 
Fiennes, Nathaniel, iv 393 

W. See Saye and Sele, Viscount 

Fiereck, General, xi 603 sq. 

Fieschi, Giuseppe, x 492 

Fiasco, Gianluigi, leader of rising in Genoa, 

II 81 sq. 
Fiesole, Braccio Martelli, Bishop of, n 666, 

668 sq. 
Fi^v6e, Joseph, ix 137; x 65 
Fife, Jacobite successes in, vi 99 
Figaro. See Larra 
Figner, Vera, Russian revolutionary, xn 

311 

Russian officer, conducts guerrilla 

warfare against French, ix 497 

Figueras, captured by the French (1794), 
VIII 440, (1808), IX 430; retaken by the 
Catalans (1811), 465; besieged by Mac- 
donald, 469 

Estanislao, Spanish Republican 

leader, xii 260 sq. 

Figueroa, Don Manuel Ventura, President 
of the Council of Castile, vi 374 

Fiji Islands, xii 631; annexed by Great 
Britain, 666; 667 

Filangieri, Carlo, Neapolitan general, xi 91 
sq.; 380 

Gaetano, the Scienza della Legisla- 

zione, vin 729, 747, 777; x 106 

Filelfo, Francesco, humanist, Latin letter 

writing and, i 544; study of Greek at 

Constantinople by, 551; lectures at 

Florence by, 654 sq. 
Filicaya, Vincenzo da, Italian poet, v 69 
FiUpowski, The, iii 75 
Fillmore, Millard, vii 399; President of 

United States, 404, 432; xi 824; xn 682 
Filmer, Sir Robert, iii 750, 763; Patri- 

archa, v 228, 254; vi 802 sqq. 
Finale, designs of Savoy upon, in 407 ; 

promised to Philip III of Spain, iv 14 ; 

marquisate of, v 384, 389; Genoa and, 

VI 249; 608 
Finch, Daniel. See Nottingham, Earl of 

Heneage, Earl of Nottingham. See 

Nottingham, Earl of 

Sir John, in Parliament, iv 273; 

flight and impeachment of, 287 

Finchley Common, army at, vi 114 
Finck, General von, made Commander-in- 
chief by Frederick II, vi 293; 294 
Findlater, James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of, vi 
96 



346 



General Index. 



Fingal, Arthur J. Plunket, 7th Earl of, 
and the Irish Catholics, ix 694; 707; 

X 629 sqq. ; 634 

Fingo tribes, in Queen Adelaide Province, 

XI 781 

Finkenstein, Napoleon at, ix 289 

Count von, Prussian Minister of 

Foreign Affairs, vi 265 ; 293 ; 328 ; 706 ; 
709 

Finland, occupied by Sweden, n 600; be- 
queathed to John III, IV 160 ; 162 ; 170 ; 
Charles IV in, 172; conquest of, t6,; gov- 
ernment of, 175, 181 ; Peace of Stolbova 
and, ih. ; Peter the Great in, v 538; 603; 
609 ; 614 sq. ; vi 35 ; 37 ; 309 ; Swedish 
invasion of, 310; 314; Catharine II and, 
694; 760 sq.; 770; 775 sq.; 778 sq.; 
Sweden and, 782 ; vm 325 sq. ; after the 
Peace of Tilsit, ix 294 ; Eussian invasion 
of, 313, 322; grand duchy of, passes to 
Russia, 314, 323, 487, 591, x 413; and 
Congress of Vienna, ix 668; x 420; 
Russian administration of, 433 sqq. ; 440 ; 
446; XI 628; 678; 680; xn 11; Scandi- 
naviaand, 274sq.; 277; 287; high schools 
in, 292; Russian policy in, 334 sq. ; 
355; concessions obtained by, 360; 377; 
762 sq. 

Finlay, George, historian, xi 280; works 
of, excluded from Russia, xii 300; 
845 

Finmark, partition of, xi 684 

Finsen, Niels Ryberg, Danish physician, 

XII 292 

Fiorella, Pascal- Antoine, French comman- 
der, viii 575 

Firenzuola, Angelo, ni 394, 468 

Firlej, Jan, Grand-Marshal of Poland, in 
84, 87-9, 96 

Firmian, Charles- Joseph, Comte de, Gover- 
nor-General of Lombardy, viii 778 

Leopold. See Salzburg, Archbishop 

of 

Firozpur, xi 732 ; 736 ; 738 sq. 
Firozshahr, battle of, xi 739 
First Booh of Discipline (1560), ii 593 
First-fruits, English Act concerning (1532), 

II 437, 439 
Fischer, Christian A., German traveller, 

VIII 783 

Emil, German chemist, xii 770 

Hannibal, Oldenburg official, xi 151; 

and the German fleet, 227 

Fischhof , Adolf, AuSfrian politician, xi 153 ; 

176 
Fish, Hamilton, vn 429 ; American Secretary 

of State, 635 sq. ; xii 21 sq. 
Fisher, John, Jesuit, v 746 

John, Bishop of Rochester^ i 491, 

580, 626; ii 428, 431, 433; supports 
Queen Catharine, 436 ; the Nun of Kent 
and, 441; arrest, trial, and execution of, 
443 

of Kilverstone, John Arbuthnot 

Fisher, Lord, admiral, xn 59 



Fisher's Hill, Sheridan's victory at (1864), 
vn 532 

Fismes, Hocquincourt defeated near (1650), 
IV 613 

Fitzalan, Henry, 12th Earl of Arundel. 
See Arundel 

Fitzgerald, Earls of Desmond. See Des- 
mond 
Edward, poet, xi 354 

Lord Edward, Irish insurrectionary 

leader, vra 473, 771; ix 701 

James Fitzmaurice (cousin of Earl 

Gerald), ni 594 sqq. 

Sir John, Captain of Desmond. 

See Desmond 

Sir John Fitzedmund, in 596 

Lord Thomas, killed at Stoke (1487), 

I 466 

Lord Thomas. See Kildare 

Sir Thomas, Spanish ambassador in 

London, vi 66 

Vesey, and the Clare election, x 

645 sq. 

Colonel, at Blackheath, v 209 

Fitzgibbon. See Clare, Earl of 
Fitzherbert, Maria Anne, and George IV, 

VI 472 
Fitzmaurice, Lord. See Lansdowne, 1st 

Marquis of 
Fitzroy, Sir Charles Augustus, Governor 

of New South Wales, xi 795 

Robert, Admiral, Governor of New 

Zealand, xi 793 sq. 

Fitzsimmons, Walter, Archbishop of Dublin, 

I 472 
Fitzwilliam, Charles William Wentworth 

Fitzwilliam, Earl, x 582; 629 

W. See Southampton, Earl of 

Sir William, Lord Justice in Ireland, 

III 594, 596 ; Lord Deputy, 604 ; resigns, 
605 

William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, 2nd 

Earl, VI 478 ; vra 759 ; ix 76 ; Lord Pre- 
sident, 674 ; Viceroy of Ireland, 697 sqq. 

Fiume, port of, taken from Austria, ix 

418 
"Five Articles of Perth," iv 487 sq. ; 491 

sq. ; abolished, 501 
Five Forks, battle of (1865), vn 538 
Five Mile Act (1665), v 103, 333 
Five Nations, The. See Iroquois 
"Five Scholars of Lausanne," execution 

of, n 293 
Flacius Illyricus,Matthaeus (Mattia Vlacich ) , 

Clavis Sacrae Scripturae, i 609; n 383; 

in 150, 162; xn 816 
Flacourt, Etienne de, in Madagascar, v 

702 
Flahaut de la Billarderie, Auguste- Charles- 
Joseph, Count de, xi 140 
Flaminio, Marcantonio, Italian scholar, i 

567; n 17, 379, 389 sq., 398; in 466 
Flammock, Thomas, leader of Cornish 

rebels, i 469 
Flamsteed, John, astronomer, v 721 



General Index. 



847 



Flanders, trade of, with Venice, i 257 ; and 
Burgundy, 418; revolts of communes of, 
425-9; economic decline of, 429; the 
Council of, 431; Treaty of (1490), 449; 
(and Artois), ceded to Charles V (1629), 
II 60, 102; English commercial truce 
with (1528), 430; m 16, 419-20, 435; 
Spanish rule in, 465, 476 ; condition of, 
495; Don John sent to, 498; return of 
Alva to, 500; invitation to Archduke 
Matthias to assume the sovereignty 
of, 501; and Peace of Vervins, 528; 
Archduke Albert of Austria and the In- 
fanta assume joint sovereignty of, 524; 
after Treaty between Spain and England, 
537; Province of, 618; Spanish influence 
in, 630; Philip's plans in, 510, 512; iv 
639 sq, ; Spain and, 644 sqq. ; Cond^ in, 
659; 664; Duke of Orleans in, 597; 598; 
618; French advance on, 683; French 
in, V 62, 112, 199, 420 sqq. ; French ac- 
quisitions in, 153, 373; Marlborough in, 
416; 425; and Third Barrier Treaty, 
459, VI 640 ; Marshal Saxe in, 240, 243 ; 
246 sq. ; 331 ; 644 ; boundaries of, 645 sq. ; 
Estates of, vni 39; agriculture in, 61, x 
730, 750; campaign in (1793), vin 428; 
cotton manufacture in, x 753; xi 670; 
anti-French feeling in, 673; education 
in, XII 251 

Philip, Count of, xi 645 

Flaubert, Gustave, novelist, xi 365; 

522; 528 
Flavigny, French repulse at, xi 590 
FMchier, Esprit, Bishop of Nimes. 

Nlmes 

Flecknoe, Eichard, poet, v 134 
Fleetwood, Charles, Lieut. -general, army 
and, IV 448; and Wallingford House 
party, 449 sq. ; Eichard Cromwell and, 
451 sq. ; in Ireland, 535 sqq.; Protec- 
torate and, 539; army and, 542, 544 sq. ; 
submits to Parliament, 548 
Fleix, Peace of, in 34, 37, 665 
Fleming, Charles, Jacobite envoy, vi 92 

Herman, iv 577; will of Charles X 

and, 590 

Klas Ericson, Governor of Finland, 

attitude of, towards the Swedish Govern- 
ment, IV 170, 172; 173 

Klas Hermansson, Swedish states- 
man, V 573 sq.; 576 

Klas Larson, and Oxenstiema, iv 

569; death of, 571 

Paul, German poet, v 68 

"Flemish movement," xi 673, 675 
Flemmyng, Eobert, Dean of Lincoln, books 

collected by, i 597 
Flers, Charles de, French general, vni 

420 
Flersheim, Colonel von, sent to Paris, iv 

381 
Flesselles, Jacques de, Prevot des marchands 

in Paris, viii 164 
Fletcher, Archibald, Eeformer, vni 770 



609; 



See 



Fletcher, Benjamin, Governor of New York, 
vn 50 sq. 

Giles, envoy to Eussia, v 514 

John, HI 381 ; dramatic influence of, 

IV 760 

Fleuranges. See La Marck, Eobert III de 
Fleurus, victory of Mansfeld and Christian 
at (1622), IV 81; battle of (1690), v 59, 
261, 661, (1794), viii 367, 436 sq. 
Fleury, Andr^ Hercule, Cardinal, French 
statesman, v 90; 543; vi 69; and the 
Jacobites, 109; 131; 134; 143 sqq.; and 
Spanish affairs, 148 sqq., 158 sq. ; and 
Poland, 152; 154 sqq.; character and 
administration of, 161 sqq. ; andLouisXV, 
164; and Elisabeth Farnese, 165; and 
Pragmatic Sanction, 203; 204; and 
Austrian Succession, 228 sq.; 231; 235; 
236; and Eussian affairs, 308; 331; 
533; death of, 109, 159, 239, 329; vni 
15, 33; X 9; 157 

Emile-F61ix, French general, xi 134 

Joly de, French Comptroller- General, 

vm 95 

Flinders, Matthew, naval captain and ex- 
plorer, capture of, by French, ix 739; 
exploration by, 740 

Flinders Island, blacks deported to, xi 791 

Flocon, Ferdinand, editor of La Reformfi, 
XI 25; 99; 101; 109; joins the Socialist 
party, 114; 116 

Flodden, battle of (1513), i 482 

Flood, Henry, Irish politician, vi 492; 494; 
497 ; and Irish parliamentary reform, 
501 sq. 

Floquet, Charles-Thomas, French states- 
man, xn 112 

Florence, Vol. i. Chap, v (i) Savonarola, 
144-89; VI (ii) Machiavelli, 190-218; 
the Medici expelled from (1494), 113; 
restored (1512), 138; war between the 
Visconti and, 279 sq.; cloth industry 
at, 496, 512; libraries founded at, 
542; Platonic Academy at, 543, 559, 
n 702; Council of (1438), i 546; dis- 
putes between Papacy and, 661, 666; 
the Eenaissance in, ii 3; Platonism in, 
4; League of Cognac joined by, 55; 
expulsion of the Medici from (1527), 56; 
establishment of a Eepublic in, ib.; fall of 
(1530), 25, 60, III 53, 465; restoration of 
the Medici in, ii 60 ; new constitution of, 
m 388-9, 391, 401 ; art in, 394 ; Cosimo's 
rule in, 395; rule of Francis in, 396; the 
Umidi of, 470 ; iv 143 ^ahd Ferdinand II, 
211; John Milton in, v 118; Council 
of, 482 sq.; Academies of, 739 sq.; 
Don Carlos enters, vi 150; 602; Treaty 
of (1801), IX 68, 364; Napoleon controls 
policy of the Court of, 398 ; French Pre- 
fect sent to, 399; historic dualism with 
Siena, 400; Ferdinand IV at, x 114; 
scientific and literary society founded at, 
128; 132; xi 41; Scientific Congress at, 
68;78sq.; Mazzini in, 91 ; theAustrians 



348 



General Index, 



in, 95; reaction in, 377 sq.; 386; be- 
comes Italian capital, 539; financial 
situation in, xii 214; riots in, 220; 225 
sq.; Cardinal Manning at, 230; 824 
Florence, Antonino (Sant), Archbishop of, 
reforming influence of, i 188, 647, 649, 
II 3 
— — Archbishop of. See Altoviti, Car- 
dinal 
Flores, Viceroy of Mexico, viii 290 
Florida, discovery of, i 54; expedition of 
de Soto to, 54 ; English and French in, 
65 sq.; French settlement in, in 492; 

VI 347; ceded to Great Britain, 370; 
Spanish conquest of, 377; 380 sq.; 428 
sq.; 453; 464; Oglethorpe's invasion of, 

VII 62 ; loyalist fugitives in, 218 ; Spanish, 
French and American claims in, 324 sqq., 
362, 365; secedes from Union, 446, 603; 
joins Confederacy, 453; slavery in, 687; 
emancipation in, 695; Kepublicans in, 
642; the United States and, xii 684; 
691 

Florida, Confederate cruiser and commerce - 
destroyer of the Alabama controversy, vii 
565, XII 20 

Florida Blanca, Don Jos^ Monino, Count 
of, Spanish statesman, vi 374 sq. ; and 
Gibraltar, 377 sqq.; 381; reforms by, 
382 sq.; viii 292, 782 

Floridas, ceded by Spain (1819), x 213, 
275; 686 

Floriszoon, Pieter, Dutch vice-admiral, v 
147 

Flotte, Paul-Louis-Ken6 de, French poli- 
tician, XI 131; 136 

Comte de, Rear- Admiral, hanged at 

Toulon, VIII 448 

Flottwell, Eduard Heinrich von. Governor 

of Posen, X 464 
Flourens, Gustave, French politician, xi 

498; 502 
Floyd, Edward, iii 572 

John Buchanan, resigns Secretary- 
ship of War, VII 447 ; at Fort Donelson, 
495 

Flushing, Philip leaves (1559), ni 187; 
captured by the Gueux de Mer, 230-1, 
233 ; demanded by Elizabeth, 619, 
670 sq. ; Austrian vessel stopped at, vi 
643; besieged (1809), ix 139, 358; forti- 
fications of, destroyed by the British, 
359 

Flying Fish, British warship, rescues the 
Japanese legation in Korea, xii 567 

Flysteden, Peter, Lutheran martyr, ii 202 

Fock, Russian general, xii 586 

Focktchany, conferences at, vi 634 

Foere, Abb6 de, x 529 

Foersom, Peter Thun, Danish writer, xi 
699 

Fogarasi, Janos, Hungarian scholar, xi 
431 

Foggia, and the Apulian aqueduct, xii 238 

Fogliani, Neapolitan Minister, vi 597 



Foix, Francois Ph^bus, Count of, King of 
Navarre. See Navarre 

Gaston de, Duke of Nemours, killed 

at Ravenna (1512), i 136 sq., 198, 250, 
366 

Germaine de. See Germaine, Queen 

of Spain 

Paul de, envoy to England, m 15 

sq., 18 

Fobmbray, Decrees of (1596), iii 668 
Folengo, Giambattista, Italian Reformer, 
II 390 

Teofilo, III 460 

Foley, Sir Thomas, Admiral, vin 626 
Foligno, convention of (1801), ix 68 ; 

Pius VII at, X 134 
Folkestone, action off (May 19, 1652), iv 

471 
Follen, Karl, revolutionary scheme of, x 

364 
Fombio, fight at, viii 568 
Fominskoie, French army at, ix 498 
Fonblanque, Albany, x 656 ; 658 ; 665 ; 674 
Fondi, Julia Gonzaga surprised by Turks 

at, III 110 
Fonseca, Alonso. See Toledo, Archbishop 

of 

Antonio de, Royalist Captain against 

rebel Comuneros, i 373 

Diogo da, Damiao de Goes and, ii 

415 

Manoel Deodoro da, President of 

Brazil, xii 675 

Rodrigo da, at Oporto, x 332 

Fontaine, Pierre-Franpois-Leonard, ix 134 

Fran^aise, skirmish at (1595), ni 

667 

Fontainebleau, Assembly of Notables at 
(1560), II 298; Catharine de' Medici at, 
ni 1; royal chateau at, 53; Charles 
Emmanuel meets Henry IV at, 418; 
Biron meets Henry IV at, 680 ; Napoleon's 
return to (1809), ix 139; Pius VII im- 
prisoned at, 200; Napoleon's policy in 
Treaty of, 428; 430; Napoleon at 
(1814), 554, 556; Napoleon leaves, 559; 
returns to (1815), 574; Pius VII at, 
xl33 

Treaties of (1679), v 45, 571, (1745), 

VI 113, 159, 239, 645 sq., (Nov. 8, 1785), 
VIII 281, 312, (Nov. 10, 1785), 283, 321, 
(1807), IX 302 sq., 309, 399, 602, x 310, 
(1814), IX 558; Edict of (1540), ii 288; 
Preliminaries of (1762), vi 299, 346, 428; 
Concordat of (1813), ix 200, 203, 207; 
Decrees of (Oct. 18 and 25, 1801), 372 

Fontana, Domenico, architect of Sixtus V, 
m 426, 439 sq., 442 sqq. 

Fontane, Theodor, German writer, xi 413 sq. 

Fontanes, Louis, Marquis de, vni 515; ix 
15; Grand Master of the Imperial Uni- 
versity, 128; 132, 136, 139; and the 
Restoration, 566; xi 528 

Fontenay, captured by the Vendeans, vm 
341; higher grade school at, xii 118 



General Index, 



349 



Fontenay, J.-M. C. de. See Bourges, Bishop 

of 
Fontenay-Mareuil, Marquis de, sent to 

Kome by Mazarin, iv 601 
Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de, viii 15 
Fontenoy, seized by La None, in 23; by 

Montpensier, 25; battle of, vi 111, 242, 

247, 250, 331 
Fontrailles, Louis d'Astarac, Vicomte de, 

follower of Beaufort, iv 596; exile of, 

617 
Fonzio, Bartolommeo, Venetian reformer 

and martyr, ii 381 sq. 
Foochow, opening of the port of, xi 810; 

captured by the French, xii 131, 527 
Foot, Samuel Augustus, American poli- 
tician, vn 381 
Foote, Andrew Hull, American admiral, 

VII 494 sq. 

Sir Edward James, vice-admiral, 

VIII 657 sq. 

Henry S., American Senator, vn 

604 

Solomon, American statesman, vn 

429 

Forbes of Pitsligo, Alexander Forbes, Lord, 
Jacobite, vi 114 ; 117 

Duncan, of CuUoden, vi 107 

Joseph, American brigadier-general, 

vii 132, 135 sq. 

Forbin, Count Claude de, vi 92 sq. 
Forbin-Janson, Abb6 C.-A.-M.-J., Comte 
de, X 72 

Charles -T.-P.-A.-F., Marquis de, xi 

122 

Forbonnais, Sieur de. See V^ron, Francois 
Forcade de La Eoquette, Jean-L,-V.-A. de, 

French Minister of the Interior, xi 490 
Forckenbeck, Max von, Chief Burgomaster 

of Berlin, xii 146 
Ford, John, dramatist, m 381; v 126 

Patrick, editor of The Irish World, 

xn 78; 82 

Forde, Francis, captures Masulipatam, vi 

548; 556 
Forest Cantons, Perpetual League of the 

(1291 and 1315), n 305 
Foresta, de, Sardinian statesman, xi 869 

sq. , 
Forey, Elie-Fr6d6ric, French general, xi 

136 
Forgacz, Palatine of Hungary, iv 31 
Forli, surrenders to Cesare Borgia, i 238; 

revolution in (1831), x 155; 156 
Forment, Damien, Spanish sculptor, i 382 
Formosa, conquered by the Dutch, iv 711, 

740; trade of, 712; Chinese rising in, v 

696; XII 5; ceded to Japan, 52, 512, 572; 

French blockade of, 131, 527; 502; Japan 

and, 556 sqq.; progress in, 573 
Formula Concordiae, of 1580, ni 704, 708, 

712-3 
Fom^sy, Henri-Franpois, French com- 
mander, vin 565 
Fornovo, battle of (1495), i 116 sq. 

C. M. H. 



Forrest, Sir John, explorer in Australia, 

XI 798; XII 018 
Nathan Bedford, Confederate cavalry 

commander, vii 524 
Forster, George, in Central Asia, xn 800 

Johann Georg Adam, German travel- 
ler, VIII 775 

John, biographer and critic, xn 838 

Thomas, Jacobite general, vi 101; 

103 

William Edward, Vice-President of 

the Council, xn 23 sq.; Chief Secretary 
for Lreland, 36; 38; resigns, 40, 81; 
and Parnell, 41; 77 sqq.; 82; 86 

Forsyth, Sir Thomas Douglas, mission of, 

to St Petersburg, xn 461; 802 
Fort Augustus, vi 106 sq.; 112; 116 sq. 

Bowyer, captured by the British 

(1815), vn 346 

Brown (Kio Grande), buUt (1846), 

VII 394; attacked, 395 

Cataraqui. See Kingston (Ontario) 

Donelson, Confederate stronghold on 

the Cumberland, vn 494; captured by 
Grant, 495, 558, 608, 616 

Duquesne, skirmish near (1754), vi 

332; attack on (1755), vn 123; 126; 
captured (1758), 135 sq. 

Edward, English at, vn 125, 127 

Erie, captured by the British (1814), 

vn343 

Fisher, capture of (1865), vn 528, 

534, 537, 552, 556 sqq. 

Frontenac. See Kingston (Ontario) 

Fuentes, built by Fuentes, iv 42 sq.; 

promised demolition of, 45, 51 

George (Inverness), vi 107; 116 

George (Niagara), abandoned by the 

British (1813), vn 341 

Haake, captured by General Eraser 

(1809), IX 358 

Henry, Confederate stronghold on 

the Tennessee, vn 494; captured by 
Grant, 495, 558, 608, 616 

James, on the Gambia, v 692, vi 464 

Joux, ceded to the Swiss Confedera- 
tion, IX 664 

Kuropatkin, captured, xn 594 

McAllister, Sherman captures (1864), 

vn 527 

Meigs, besieged (1813), vn 340 

Mimms, massacre at (1813), vn 345 

Morgan, capture of (1864), vn 554 

sqq. 

Moultrie, Anderson evacuates (1860), 

vn 446 sq. 

Nassau (Mouree), erected by the 

Dutch, IV 759 

Orange. See Albany 

Pillow, Confederates evacuate, vn 

499, 559; massacre at (1864), 597 

Pulaski, captured (1862), vn 552 

Randolph, Confederates evacuate, vn 

499 

St David, siege of, vi 248, 637 sq., 547 

22 



350 



General Index. 



Fort St George, foundation of, iv 742; 
T 697; surrender of, vi 537; 552 

St Louis (Texas), built, vn 362 

Sandusky, besieged (1813), vn 340 

Sommersohanz, captured, vi 197 

Stanwix, St Leger's unsuccessful ex- 
pedition against (1777), vii 215 

Stedman, captured and recaptured 

(1864), VII 534 

Stevens, Early at (1864), vii 531 

Sumter, Anderson defends (1860-1), 

vii 446 sq. ; surrender of, 450, 452, 454, 
464 sq ; 545 

VVilliam (India), vi 537 ; college at, 

IX 728 ; presidency of, xii 495 

William (Inverness), siege of, vi 

116 

William Henry, English at, vii 125, 

127; fall of (1757), 129 sqq. 

Fortescue, Chichester S. P., Lord Carling- 

ford. See Carlingford 
Forth, Firth of, Dutch fleet in, v 188 ; vi 

92 sq. 

Patrick Ruthven, Earl of, Eoyalist 

commander-in-chief, iv 308 

Fortiguerra, Scipione (Carteromachus), i 
563 

Fortis, Alessandro, Italian statesman, xii 
214; 227 

Fortoul, Hippolyte-Nicolas-Honore, French 
statesman, xi 135 ; 297 

Fortress Monroe, General B. F. Butler at 
(1861), vn 464; and Richmond cam- 
paign, 472 sq.; Jefferson Davis imprisoned 
in, 543 ; fugitive slaves at, 581 sq. 

Forty-Two Articles, of Edward VI, ii 508 

Forwards, revolutionary journal, xii 302 

Foscarari, Egidio, Bishop of Modena, n 
398 

Foscari, Francesco, Doge of Venice, i 276, 
278 sq. ; dogeship of, 281 sq. 

Jacopo, son of the Doge, i 282 

Foscarini, Antonio, Venetian ambassador 

in England, iv 40 
Foscolo, Ugo, Italian poet, vi 824 ; 830 ; 

X 110 ; 126 ; influence of Byron upon, 
725 ; XI 546 ; 549 

Fosse, Baron van der, Governor of Brabant, 

x534 
Fossombroni, Count Vittorio, x 108 
Foster, Augustus, British Minister to the 

United States, viz 333 

John. See Oriel, Lord 

Fotheringay, Mary, Queen of Scots, tried 

and executed at, in 291-2 
Foucault, L6on, physicist, xii 783 

Nicolas-Joseph, and the Protestants 

of Beam, v 24 

Fouch6, Joseph, Due d'Otrante, vin 249, 
351; and the Montagnards, 366 sq., 369 ; 
Minister of Police, 672 ; and Napoleon, 
675, 678; ix 1; 9-11, 14-16, 21, 28-30, 
107, 111, 137-40; character of, 141; 
180-1, 283, 320; intrigues of, 370, 445; 
and the restoration, 565 ; conspiracy of, 



572-3; 574; Minister of Police, 616; 

treacherous advice of, 642 ; policy of, 

645 ; retirement of, x 13 ; 45 sq. ; 48 
Foucquet, Jean, French painter, i 414 
Fouglres, occupied by the Vendeans, vin 

355 
Fould, Achille, xi 117; French Minister of 

Finance, 129 ; 131 ; 133 ; 297 ; 472 sq. 
Foulon, Joseph-FranQois, Minister of the 

Household to Louis XVI, vm 163; 

murdered, 168 
Fouqu^, Baron Friedrich Heinrich de la 

Motte, German romanticist, x 404 

Baron Heinrich August de la Motte, 

Prussian general, vi 279 ; 294 

Fouquet, Basile, Abb6, and Mazarin, iv 
608, 621 

Nicolas, Vicomte de Vaux, and Ma- 
zarin, IV 608, 621; fall of, v 6 

Fouquier-Tinville, Antoine-Quentin, Public 

Prosecutor, viii 356 sq., 375 
"Four Days' Battle," Anglo-Dutch fight 

(1666), v 183 sqq. 
Four Elements, English play on the New 

World, I 51 
Fourcroy, Comte Antoine-Franpoia de, 

man of science, viii 433; Minister of 

Education, ix 127 
Foureau, Fernand, African explorer, xn 

812 sq. 
Fourier, FranQois-Marie-Charles, ix 133; 

XII 296 ; 758 

Baron J.-B, -Joseph, vni 606 

Fourilles, French cavalry inspector, v 18 
Fourmies, strike at, xii 125 

Fournier, Claude, revolutionary, viii 228, 
232, 243 

Captain, convention with China con- 
cluded by, XII 526 

Sarlovese, FranQois, ix 21 

Fourni^re, Eugene-Joseph, French socialist, 

XII 123 
Fourqueux, de, Comptroller-General under 

Louis XVI, VIII 104 
•'Fourteen of Meaux," execution of, ii 290 
Fourtou, Marie-F.-O. Bardy de, French 

politician, xii 106; 111; 114 
Fowler, Edward, Bishop of Gloucester, v 

752 

Sir Henry. See Wolverhampton, 

Viscount 

Fox, Charles James, vi 380 ; and the Wilkes 
case, 441 ; 445 sq. ; 451 ; leads Reform 
movement, 455 ; 456 ; Secretary of State, 
457 ; and Ireland, 458 ; 459 ; negotiates 
for peace, 460 sq.; resigns, 462 ; 463 sqq.; 
India Bill of, 466 sq., 581; dismissed, 
467 ; 468 sq. ; and Pitt's second India 
BQl, 470; 471 sqq.; 475; and Burke, 
476; 477 sq.; and Ireland, 500, 504; 
501; and Warren Hastings, 581, 584; 
vin 284, 303, 759 ; ix 24 ; 245 ; succeeds 
Pitt, 264; 265-6; policy with France, 
269 ; 270 ; and abolition of the slave 
trade, 613; and Whig party, 673 sqq.; 



General Index, 



351 



becomes Foreign Secretary, 685 ; death of 
(1806), 271 ; 686 ; and India, 711 ; and 
Warren Hastings, 716; x 360; and 
Irish Catholics, 631 ; xi 756 sq. ; 766 
Fox, George, Quaker, v 328; vi 799 

Gustavus Vasa, American naval 

officer, VII 549 

Henry. See Holland, Lord 

Foxe, Edward, at Eome, ii 430 

John, I 641; n 633; Booh of 

Martyrs, 638 

Eichard, Bishop of Winchester, i 

469, 471, 620, 645 

Foy, Maximilien-S^bastien, French gene- 
ral, pursues Mina, ix 476; pursued by 
Wellington, 478; x 60; 64; 67; 68; 
opposes compensation for the imigreSf 
86; death of, 88; 103 

Foyle, Loch, Spanish aid to the Irish 
Catholics sent to, iii 531, 608 

Fracastan, G., Italian scholar, ii 16 

Fraenckel, L^on, French politician, xi 
503 

Fragonard, Jean-Honor^, ix 135 

FramUngham, rally of Mary Tudor's sup- 
porters at, II 514 

Francavila, Marquis of. See Ferandina, 
Duke of 

Francavilla, Spanish victory at, vi 125 

France 

I iv Italy and her invaders, passimf 

104-43 
xii France, 384-415 

[See also xv. Economic Change, 
passim, but especially 503 sqq., 
525 sqq. ; xvi, especially 575 
sqq. ; xvii, xviii and xix pas- 
sim] 

II ii Habsburg and Valois (i), 36-65 
iii Habsburg and Valois (li), 66-103 
ix The Eeformation in France, 280- 

304 
in i The Wars of Religion in France, 
1-52 

ii French Humanism and Mon- 
taigne, 53-72 

XX Henry IV of France, 657-95 
IV ii The Valtelline (1603-39), passim, 
35-63 

iv Eichelieu, 118-57 

vii (2) Nordlingen and Prague (1634- 
5), passim, 243-55 

xiii The later years of the Thirty 
Years' War (1635-48), passim, 
364-94 

xiv The Peace of Westphalia, passim, 
395-433 

xxi Mazarin, 592-622 
xxiii Papal Policy (1590-1648), passim, 
666-88 

XXV The transference of colonial 
power to the United Provinces 
and England, passim, 746-59 
xxvii Descartes and Cartesianism, pas- 
sim, 776-99 



France {contd.) 

v i The government of Louis XIV 

(1661-1715), 1-31 
ii The foreign policy of Louis XIV 

(1661-97), 32-63 
iii French 17th century literature 

and its European influence, 

64-71 
iv The Gallican Church, 72-91 
vii Administration of John de Witt 

and William of Orange (1651- 

88), passim, 137-67 
xii Austria, Poland and Turkey, 

passim, 338-71 
xiii The Treaties of Partition and the 

Spanish Succession, passim, 

372-400 
xiv The War of the Spanish Succes- 
sion and the Peace of Utrecht, 

passim, 401-59 
xxii The Colonies and India, passim, 

673-705 

VI iv The Bourbon governments in 

France and Spain, I (1714-26), 
120-44 

V The Bourbon governments in 

France and Spain, II (1727-46), 

145-67 
vi Financial experiments and colonial 

development, passim, 168-90 
viii The War of the Austrian Succes- 
sion, passim, 201-50 
ix The Seven Years' War, passim, 

251-300 
xi The reversal of alliances and the 

Family Compact, 329-60 
XV India, passim, 506-85 
xvii Switzerland from the treaty of 

Aarau to the French Ee volution , 

passim, 611-25 
xxiv The Eomantio movement in 

European literature, passim, 

822-37 

VII iii The French in America (1608- 

1744), 70-113 

iv The conquest of Canada (1744- 
61), passim, 114-43 

ix The struggle for commercial inde- 
pendence (1783-1812), passim, 
305-34 

VIII i Philosophy and the Eevolution, 

1-35 
ii The government of France, 36-65 
iii Finance, 66-78 
iv Louis XVI, 79-118 

V The elections to the States 

General, 119-44 
vi The National Assembly, and the 

spread of anarchy, 145-75 
vii The constitution of 1791, 176- 

210 
viii The Legislative Assembly, 211- 

44 
ix The National Convention to the 

fall of the Gironde, 245-75 

22—2 



352 



General Index, 



France {contd.) 

vrn X The foreign policy of Pitt to the 

outbreak of war with France, 

passim, 276-305 
xi The European Powers and the 

Eastern Question, passim, 306- 

37 
xii The Terror, 388-71 
xiii The Thermidorian reaction and 

the End of the Convention, 

372-97 
xiv The General war, 898-446 
XV The Naval war, 447-86 
xvi The Directory, 487-520 
xviii Bonaparte and the Conquest of 

Italy, 553-93 
xix The Egyptian expedition, 594- 

619 
XX The struggle for the Mediter- 
ranean, passim, 620-32 
xxi The Second Coalition, passim^ 

633-64 
xxii Brumaire, 665-88 
xxiii Kevolutionary Finance, 689-709 
xxiv French law in the age of the 

Kevolution, 710-53 
XXV Europe and the French Kevolu- 
tion, 754-90 
IX i The Consulate (1799-1804), 1-33 
iii The pacification of Europe (1799- 

1802), passim, 55-80 
iv France and her tributaries (1801- 

3), 81-106 
V France under the Empire (1804- 

14), 107-47 
vi The Codes, 148-79 
vii The Concordats, 180-207 
viii The Command of the Sea (1803- 

15), 208-43 
ix The Third Coalition, I (1805-6), 

passim, 244-64 
X The Third Coalition, II (1806-7), 

passim, 265-93 
xi The Napoleonic Empire at its 

height (1807-9), 294-840 
xii The War of 1809, passim, 341-60 
xiii The Continental System (1809- 

14), 361-89 
xiv The French Dependencies, and 

Switzerland (1800-14), 390-427 
XV The Peninsular War (1808-14), 

passim, 428-82 
xvi Eussia and the invasion of 1812, 

2}assim, 483-505 
xvii The War of Liberation (1813-4), 

passim, 506-54 
xviii The first Eestoration (1814-5), 

555-75 
xix The Congress of Vienna, I (1814- 

5), passim, 576-615 
XX The Hundred Days (1815), 616- 

45 
xxi The Congress of Vienna, II (1815) , 

passivi, 646-71 
xxiv St Helena, passim, 756-71 



France {contd.) 

X i The Congresses (1815-22), passim, 

1-39 
ii The Doctrinaires, 40-70 
iii Reaction and Revolution in 

France, 71-103 

V The Papacy and the Catholic 

Church, passim, 131-61 
XV The Orleans Monarchy, 475-516 
xvii Mehemet Ali, passim, 545-72 
xxiii Economic Change, passim, 727- 
62 

XI ii The fall of Constitutionalism in 

France (1840-8), 22-42 
iv Italy in revolution (1846-9), 
passim, 65-95 

V The French Republic (1848-52), 

96-141 
viii The achievement of Swiss 

Federal Unity, passim, 234- 

61 
X Napoleon III and the period of 

personal government (1852-9), 

286-308 
zi Great Britain and the Crimean 

War (1852-6), passim, 309-24 
xiv Cavour and the Kingdom of 

Italy (1849-61), passim, 366- 

92 
xvii The Liberal Empire (1859-70), 

467-506 
xviii The reaction against Romanticism 

in French literature (1840-71), 

507-28 
xxi The Franco-German War (1870- 

1), 576-612 

XII v The Third French Republic, 91- 

183 
vi The German Empire, passim, 

134-72 
XV Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan, 

passim, 429-56 
xvii The Far East, passim, 500-36 
XX The European Colonies, passim, 
602-71 
[See also xxi 680 sqq.] 
xxiii Social movements, passim, 730- 
65 
France, Anatole, French novelist, xn 13 
Francesco da Puglia, Fra, opponent of 

Savonarola, i 181 
Franche Comtd, ceded to Austria (1493), 
I 229, 392, 395 ; captured by Maximilian I, 
454 ; invasion of, by Henry IV, iii 666-7 ; 
French army in, iv 147 sq. ; Cond6 and, 
370 sq.; Bernard of Weimar in, 373 sq., 
379 sq. ; 593 ; places in, restored to Spain 
by Treaty of the Pyrenees, 620 ; Estates of, 
V 4; 36; 38; relinquished by France, 
39, 158; 41; 48; ceded to France, 45, 
165; 46; 164; 200; 220; 373; 423; 449; 
Prussia and, 669 ; vi 141 
Franchet, French Chief of Police, x 93 
Francia, Jose G. Rodriguez da, dictator of 
Paraguay, xii 674 



General Index, 



353 



Francis I, Emperor (Duke of Lorraine, 
afterwards Grand Duke of Tuscany), 
VI 140 ; 152 ; and Tuscany, 155 sq. ; 
elected Emperor, 160; 203; 229; and 
War of Austrian Succession, 231 ; 242 
sq. ; and Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 249 ; 
257; and the Papacy, 590 sq.; 600; 
death of, 626 

II, Emperor {afterwards Francis I, 

Emperor of Austria), viii 531, 536, 579, 
582, 634, 642; policy of, 644, 650 sq., 
663; declines Napoleon's proposals, ix 
56; 63 sqq., 92 sq., 100; policy of, 247; 
248; Napoleon's threat to, 251; 256; 
armistice proposed by, 257 ; negotiations 
of, with Napoleon, 258; interview of, 
with Napoleon, 261 ; 262 ; becomes 
Francis I, Emperor of Austria, 269 ; 310, 
315, 317; advised to go to Erfurt, 320; 
342; prepares for war against France, 
344 ; letter of, to King of Prussia, 352 ; 
truce of, with France, 353; Napoleon 
demands abdication of, 359 ; relations of, 
with Napoleon, 487; 537, 550, 555; at 
Congress of Vienna, 580; 596, 622; 
leaves Vienna, 651; feeling of, towards 
Napoleon, 654 ; and Holy Alliance, 
665; signs Holy Alliance, x 9; at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 14; in Italy, 20; 21; 
at Conference of Troppau, 27; 106; 
negotiations of, with King of Naples 
(1815), 110; at Rome, 137, 145; relations 
of Papacy with, 144 sq. ; 146 ; and 
the execution of Gregorios, 183; at 
Czemovitz, 187; at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
353 ; domestic policy of, 355 sqq. ; and 
Magyar Diet, 371 ; and Galicia, 461 ; 
at Munchengratz, 557; death of, 378; 
XI 44 

I, King of France, i 43 ; Turkey and, 

92 sqq. ; 128, 140 ; victory of, at Marig- 
nano, 140 sqq. ; 322; Leo X and, 388 sq.; 
395, 458, 484, 490; ii 14, 23, 26, 32, 
87 sq., 49, 67, 96 sqq.; struggle between 
Charles V and. Chaps, ii, in passim, 
36-103 ; defeat and imprisonment of, 423 ; 
treaty of, with Charles V, 426; church 
policy of, the Concordat and, 281, the 
Reformation in France and, 281-92, per- 
secution under, 347; meets Henry VIII 
(1620), 416 sq., (1532), 439; change of 
attitude to Clement VII, 216 sq. ; meets 
Clement VII at Marseilles (1533), 68, 
220, 285, 440; invades Savoy, 232; 
239; death of, 82, 260; effect of, on 
French policy, 486; character of, 38; 
Calvin's letter to, 356; iii 53, 64, 104 
sq. ; and Barbarossa, 110 ; and war with 
Charles V, 113; urged by Charles V to 
mediate with Sultan (1538), 115; joint 
Embassy of, with Charles V to Venice, 
115 sq.; 399, 581, 684, 695, 758; v 625 

II, King of France, ii 93; reign of, 

296-9; 499, 548, 557, 581; Council of 
Trent and, 674 sq. ; m 261 sqq., 478, 483 sq. 



Francis I, King of The Two Sicilies, ap- 
pomted Regent (1821), vii 368; ix 383; 
assumes government (Jan. 16, 1812), 384; 
X 112; and revolt at Cilento, 119 

II, King of The Two Sicilies, 

marriage and accession of, xi 380 sq. ; 
387 ; flight of, from Naples, 388; 389 sq. ; 
469 

Infante of Spain, arrest of, ix 433 ; 

X 231 

Charles, Archduke of Austria, xi 44; 

152; and the Austrian Constitution, 
174; and the succession, 190 

■ Joseph, Emperor of Austria and King 

of Hungary, xi 88 ; 190 ; Hungarian Diet 
and, 202; and Hungarian campaign, 210, 
213 ; pardons Gorgei, 214 ; abolishes 
Constitution, 217; and King of Prussia, 
224; and Danish succession question, 
226; and Hesse-Cassel crisis, 229, 231; 
visits Italy, 374, 377 ; at Villafranca, 384 ; 
393; 398; visits Hungary, 401; Russia 
and, 402 ; resolves on war in Italy, 403 ; 
and constitutional changes, 403 sq. ; and 
Hungary, 404 sq. ; and Prussia, 407; 
and German unity, 408; and Frankfort 
assembly of Princes, 435; and Italy, 
449; and Napoleon III, 450 sq., 453; 
455 ; visits Paris, 484 ; xii 14 ; Glad- 
stone and, 37; 116; at Berlin, 139; 
character and reign of, 175; 176; and 
constitutional reform, 177 sq. ; and 
Schmerling, 181; and Hungary, 182 sq. ; 
crowned King of Hungary, 184 ; and the 
Cechs, 186; 188 sq.; Andrassy and, 190; 
192; Taaffe and, 194; 196; 199; 202; 
and reform, 206; 209 sq. ; and Bosnia- 
Herzegovina, 212 ; and Humbert I, 240 ; 
and Galicia, 337 ; 382 ; and Russo- 
Turkish War, 389 ; 401 ; and Prince Fer- 
dinand of Bulgaria, 427; 433 

Alban, Benedictine, v 237 sq. 

St, of Assisi, II 2 

de Sales (Saint), v 78 

Xavier (Saint), n 652; and Japan, 

IV 712 

Sir Philip, and Warren Hastings, 

VI 581, 584; in India, 571 sq.; 574 sqq.; 
writer, viii 758, 760; ix 716 

Franciscans, in England, contributions of 
the Order to learning, i 585-92; great 
preachers of, 647, 675; produce leaders 
of Protestant Reform, ii 161; reformed 
in Spain, 400; in Italy, 647. See also 
Capuchins, Grey Friars, Observants, 
and Religious Orders 

Francisco de Asis, King Consort of Isabel II 
of Spain, xi 37 sq. ; marriage of, 554 sq.; 
656; and Narvaez, 557; 661; 669 

Franck, Sebastian, sectary, ii 223 

Francke, August Hermann, and the Halle 
Pietists, V 760; vi 226; xi 710 

Franckenberg, or Frankenberg, Johann H. 
de. Cardinal, Archbishop of Malines, 
VI 652; 656; viii 318, 787 



354 



General Index. 



Franco, Joao, Portuguese statesman, xii 
271 sq. 
Niecolo, ni 468 

Franco- German War, Vol. xi, Chap, xxi 

Francois, Marie Luise von, German 
novelist, xi 412 

Franconia, the HohenzoUerns and, i 297 
sq. ; conquered by Gustavus Adolphus, 
IV 207 ; Horn in, 208 ; Wallenstein and, 
216, 218; Bernard of Weimar in, 219; 
392 ; ravaged in Thirty Years' War, 418 ; 
in War of Austrian Succession, vi 238; 
273; and Congress of Vienna, ix 588 

Frangipani, Francis, and Hungarian con- 
spiracy, v 361 sq. 

Franke, Karl Philipp, and Malmoe Truce, 
XI 168 

Frankenhausen, defeat of Peasants' Eising 
at, II 188 sq. 

Frankenthal, siege of (1621), ry 78; 82; in 
Spanish hands, 83, 603 

Frankfort (on-the-Main), Diet of (1454), i 
666, (1485), 302, (1489), 302, (1501), 311; 
Peace of (1489), 394 sq., 449; meeting of 
Schmalkaldic League at, n 217; negotia- 
tions with Lutherans at, 238; Diet of 
Schmalkaldic League at (1545), 253; 
submits to Charles V, 258; Turkish 
interpreter at, iii 123; Deputationstag 
at (1590), 712; "Corresponding" Princes 
at, 717; meeting of Electors at, iv 
27 sq.; Christian of Halberstadt at, 
79; 81; "Composition "meeting at, 114, 
117, 207; and Gustavus, 208; 217; 
Heilbronn Alliance at, 243; Bernard of 
Weimar at, 244 ; Convention, 245 sqq. ; 
Peace of Prague accepted by, 255 ; 
occupied by Imperialists, 367; meeting 
of Deputationstag at (1643), 385; com- 
mercial recovery of, 420; Imperial elec- 
tion at, V 431; Diet of (1741), vi 233; 
Union of, 240; captured by Houchard 
(1792), VIII 414; surrendered, ib.; Diet 
of (1806), IX 268; and the Continental 
System, 373 sq., 377; grand duchy of, 
413-5; Allies at, 542; Dalberg resigns 
grand duchy of, 587 ; Catholics and 
Jews of, at Congress of Vienna, 588; 
Jews of, 650; free city of, 658; Four 
Allied Powers at (1819), 666; Treaty of 
(1819), X 19, 22, 145; Commission (1819) 
of, 148; and Diet of Germanic Con- 
federation [Bundestag), 341, 343 sqq., 
362, 366 sq., (1824), 370; revolutionary 
plot at, 377 sq. ; and European finance, 
743 ; National Assembly at, xi 162, 
164, 181, 188 sq., 191, 194 sqq., 227; 
Vorparlament at, 144, 163 ; Diet at 
(1848), 147, 162, 228; 150; Archduke 
John at, 166; riots in (184.8), 168 sq.; 
Confederation meeting at, 223; 224; 233; 
and German navy, 227 n. ; Bismarck at, 
402 sq., 434; assembly of Princes at, 435; 
446; 455; Constitution, 198, 200 sq., 218; 
Peace of (1871), 612, xii 96; 135; 159 



Frankfort-on-the-Oder, retreat of Schaum- 
burg's army to, iv 196; Tilly at, 199; 
capture of, 201 ; Cartesian philosophy in, 
791; University of, v 624, ix 327, x 355; 
Bussian and Austrian allies at, vi 292, 
324; fair of, x 759 

Frankfort (Kentucky), inauguration of Con- 
federate governor at (1862), vii 607 

Franklin (Tennessee), battle of (1864), vn 
624 

(Canada), district of, xi 776 

Benjamin, and colonial federation, 

VI 412 sq. ; 449 ; and peace negotiations, 
460 sqq.; vii 69; 123, 145; and the 
Stamp Act, 149 sqq., 156 sq., 199, 204 
sq. ; 173; negotiates with France, 210; 
at Constitutional Convention, 246, 253, 
257, 261 sq., 292; 730; character of, 
732 sq. ; xn 744 ; 757 

Sir John, xii 809 sq. ; 814 sq. 

William Buel, American general, vii 

469 

Franquesa, Pedro, Spanish Minister, ni 

545 
Franz Josef Land, discovered, xii 795 
Franzburg, capitulation of, iv 106 
Franzenskanal, xi 182 
Franzoni, L. See Turin, Archbishop of 

Dr, reports on Basilicata, xn 237 

Frascati, Consalvi at, x 131 

Eraser, Alexander George, General, captures 
Fort Haake, ix 358 

Simon, of Beaufort. See Lovat, 

Lord 

Simon, lieutenant-colonel, vn 214 

Fraternities, lay, in Germany, ii 108 
Fraticelli, of Monte Amiata, i 151; sup- 
pressed by Pius II, 623 

Frauenberg (Bavaria), siege of castle of 
(1525), II 188; relief of, 190 

(Bohemia), surrender of, vi 234 

Fraunhofer, Joseph, and spectrum analysis, 

XII 782 sq. 
Fraustadt, Swedish victory at (1706), v 594 
Frayssinous, Denis-Luc, Comte, Bishop in 
partibus and Grand Master of the Uni- 
versity of France, x 78 ; Minister of 
ecclesiastical affairs, 87 ; 93 sq. 
Frazer River, discovery of, vii 365 

General, at Dig, ix 728 

Frederica, settlement of, vii 62 
Frederick II, Emperor, Venice and, i 260; 

v620; 665 

Ill, Emperor, i 76, 104; dynastic 

policy of, 294 sq. ; ecclesiastical settle- 
ment of, 294 sq. ; acquires Tyrol, 296; 
Berthold of Mainz and, 302; Matthias 
Corvinus and, 335, 344 ; 390, 442 ; inva- 
sion of Netherlands by, 448 sq. ; 687, 689 ; 
v623; 634 

I (of Schleswig-Holstein), King of 

Denmark and Norway, attitude of, to- 
wards Lutheranism, ii 169; 224, 228 eqq., 
245; and the Reformation in Denmark, 
608-14, and in Norway, 618 sq.; v 635 



General Index. 



355 



Frederick II, King of Denmark, iii 151 ; 157 ; 
and Erik XIV of Sweden, iv 162 sq. ; 166 ; 
660; Denmark under, 561 sq. ; Sweden 
and, 563; death of, 564 

Ill, King of Denmark, Bishop of 

Verden, iv 89; 91; coadjutor of Osna- 
briick, 96; and Peace of Prague, 255; 
Archbishop of Bremen, 365; loses Verden, 
404 ; commercial treaty between England 
and, 439; beginnings of reign of, 573 sq. ; 
684 sq.; 587 sq.; 590; v 558; and the 
coup d'etat of 1 660, 559 sq. ; policy of, 
560; 561; and Sweden, 146 sq., 562; 579; 
VI 735 

IV, King of Denmark, accession of, 

V 580; and anti-Swedish leagues, 580, 
587, 602; and the Great Northern War, 
580 sqq. ; and Treaty of Frederiksborg, 
683; 607; 611 sq.; and Frederick I of 
Prussia, 666; vi 23; and Sweden, 28, 
37; death of, 735 sq.; 737; 739; 741 

V, King of Denmark, vi 739 sqq. ; 

death of, 742; and Sweden, 762 

VI, King of Denmark (Prince Royal), 

VI 188 ; 735 ; birth of, 743 ; 751 ; 753 sqq. ; 
and Norway, viii 279 sq. , 788 ; Napoleon's 
letter to, ix 296; 297; English alliance 
refused by, 299; 300; at the Congress 
of Vienna, 582 ; and Schleswig-Holstein, 
X 363 ; 370 ; reign of, xi 691 sq. 

VII, King of Denmark, xi 161 ; and 

Schleswig-Holstein, 225; accession and 
reign of, 694 sqq.; death of, 438, 477, 
696 

VIII, King of Denmark, xii 289; 

accession of, 293 

Ill, of Naples. See Federigo 

I, King of Prussia (Frederick III, 

Elector of Brandenburg), v 65 ; supports 
William of Orange, 244; 438; claims 
Upper Gelders as Duke of Cleves, 448; 
449 sq.; 581; and anti- Swedish leagues, 
693 sq. ; 602 ; and Schwiebus Circle, 
655, 658 sq. ; illness of, 656; and the 
Great Elector's will, ih.\ Elector of 
Brandenburg, 658; aspirations of, 660; 
and expedition of William of Orange, 
t6. ; aids Emperor against France and 
Turks, 661; and Peace of Ryswyk, 
ih.\ negotiates as to a royal crown, 
663 sqq. ; coronation of, 665 ; and 
Grand Alliance, 666; and Northern 
War, 666 sq. ; alliance of, with Sweden, 
667; and Poland, ih.\ foreign policy of, 
668 sq. ; and Orange inheritance, ib. ; 
and the Empire, 669; economic and 
intellectual progress under, 669 sq. ; 
religious views of, 671; results of his 
reign, 672; and Academy of Sciences, 
741 ; and Christian Wolf, 760 ; death of, 
668; VI 6; 8 

II (the Great), King of Prussia, v 

643; 671; reign of, Vol. vi, Chap, xx; 
and War of the Austrian Succession, 
Chap, vin (3) passim \ and Seven 



Years' War, Chap, ix passim \ 119; 
invades Silesia, 158; 160; 165; 207; 
210; and Frederick William I, 211 sq.; 
216; policy of, 227; and War of the 
Austrian Succession, 310; 314; and 
Bestuzheff, 316; and Russia, 317 sqq., 
322 sqq.; 342a sq. (in Vol. xm) ; 344; and 
the "Reversal of Alliances," 366 sqq.; and 
Treaty of Hubertusburg, 346; 352; and 
Poland, 353, 355, 367, 665 sqq.; 358; 
398 sqq. ; and Treaty of Versailles, 401 
sq. ; and Pitt, 393, 404, 409 sq., 416, 418, 
421, 437 ; 405 sq. ; and English alliance, 
407 sqq., 422; deserted by England, 427; 
and Benedict XIV, 589; and Swiss, 
633; and Kaunitz, 629; and Russia, 
630 ; and Bavaria, 631 sq. ; meeting of, 
with Joseph II, 633; 646; and the 
FiJrstenbund, 647 ; 655 ; and Catharine II, 
658 sq., 664, 677 sq. ; Peter III and, 661; 
673; and Turkey, 675; 696; 699; 763; 
and Bernstorff, 740, 744 ; 767 ; death of, 
647, viii 282, 286, 314; and Joseph II, 
309 ; and Poland, 523 ; and the neutral 
flag, IX 42; Napoleon at tomb of, 281; 
329; X 342; De la litterature allemande 
of, 389; foundry of, 732; xn 136; 
828 sq. 
Frederick III, King of Prussia and German 
Emperor, (as Crown Prince) xi 159, 
406 ; and Schleswig-Holstein, 440 ; in 
Austro-Prussian War, 452 sq. ; supports 
Bismarck, 455 sq. ; and the German 
Empire, 465 sq, ; in Franco-German War, 
680, 583 sq.; imperial accession and death 
of, XII 163 sq. ; 433 

I, King of Sweden (Landgrave of 

Hesse-Cassel), v 408; 555; vi 37; and 
Congress of Brunswick, 39; 742; 761; 
death of, 762 

I, King of Wiirtemberg, at Con- 
gress of Vienna, ix 582 ; marriage of, 
265; 268; x 360 sq. 

"Hereditary Prince" of Denmark, 

son of Frederick V and Queen Juliana 
Maria, vi 749 sqq.; 755; viii 279 

Prince of the Netherlands, x 535 

sqq. ; xii 244 

Augustus I, King of Saxony, and 

ihe FUrstenhund, vi 708; ix 278-9; 325; 
receives duchy of Warsaw, 293; 337-8; 
and Congress of Vienna, 582 ; 693 sqq. ; 
joins in Treaty of peace (May, 1816), 
647 

Augustus II, King of Saxony, xi 59 ; 

149; 200; and Frankfort Constitution, 
218 sq. ; 222 

Augustus, Elector of Saxony. See 

Augustus, King of Poland 

Augustus, Prince, co-Regent of 

Saxony, x 374; 643 

Charles, Prince (of Prussia), in 

Austro-Prussian War, xi 452 ; in Franco- 
German War, 580, 585, 689 sqq., 693 sq., 
599, 604, 606 sq., 609 sq. 



356 



General Index, 



Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony. 
See Saxony 

Louis, Prince of Wales, vi 66; 68 sq.; 

72 ; 76 ; 210 ; death of, 740 

William I, King of Prussia, v 448; 

and Frederick IV, of Denmark, 582 sq. ; 
and Peter the Great, 542, 612; 611; 
647 ; and Danckelmann, 662 ; 668 ; 671 ; 
reign of, Vol. vi. Chap, vin (2); 8; and 
Elector George Lewis, 17; 21; 23 sq.; 
and Sweden, 35 sq.; 37; and Congress 
of Brunswick, 39; and Hanover Alli- 
ance, 59; 143; 196 sq. ; and Pragmatic 
Sanction, 202; 230; economic policy of, 
714 sq., 717 sqq., 722 

II, King of Prussia, reign of, 

Vol. VI, Chap. XX ; 293; 648; 656; vm 
107; accession of, 286, 288, 314; and 
Convention of Eeiclienbach, 293; 294; 
and the Netherlands, 322 sq.; 330, 
333; character of, 400, 408; and Luxem- 
burg, 431; and Poland, 529, 543 sq., 
550 sq. 

Ill, King of Prussia, vni 520, 

634 sq.; ix 41; 46, 56, 73, 92; anti-French 
policy of, 249 ; offer of Hanover to, 251 ; 
French affront to, 255; 263, 264; re- 
lations of, with France, 266 ; with Russia, 
ib.; invited to assume title of Emperor, 
272; sends ultimatum to Napoleon, 273; 
retreats on Weimar, 277 ; peace proposed 
to, 278; retreat of, 280; relations of, 
with Russia, 282; at Memel, 285; 291; 
peace offered to, 287; deserted by 
Alexander, 292; 293; and Alexander I, 
308 ; Napoleon's demands upon, 317 ; 
322 ; and Stein, 329 ; influence of, 331 ; 
military reform of, 332 ; 333 ; return of, 
to Berlin, 334; ordered to expel Stein, 
335; 344; attitude of, to the war of 
1809, 352 ; 364 ; accepts Trianon Tariff, 
373; relations of, with Napoleon, 487; 
508 sqq. ; and Allies' Council of War, 
527; at Leipzig, 535; 539, 542; re- 
lations of, with Austria, 650; enters 
Paris, 555; 556; at Vienna, 580 sq.; 
and the Federal Act, 650 ; leaves 
Vienna, 651 ; and Holy Alliance, 665 ; 
position of, after 1815, x 8; signs Holy 
Alliance, 9; at Aix-la-Chapelle, 14; 20; 
27; 342; 348; influence of Russia and 
Austria upon, 349; 350; Metternich and, 
352; and Francis I of Austria, 355; 
and Wartburg festival, 36i ; 365 ; con- 
ference of, with Metternich at Teplitz, 
366; 372; and Protestant Churches, 
382; and Posen, 463; and France (1830), 
465, 481 ; death of, 382 

IV, King of Prussia, (as 

Crown Prince) at Conference of Trop- 
pau, X 27; 381; at Miinchengratz, 
657; accession of, xi 47; ideas and 
aims of, 48; first measures of, 49; 
religious policy of, 50 sqq. ; constitu- 
tional schemes of, 55 sqq. ; 142 ; and 



Queen Victoria, 143; and the German 
national movement, 63 sq., 144 ; proposes 
conference at Dresden, 144, 153; and 
Anhalt affairs, 150; 154; and the re- 
volutionary movement in Berlin, 166 
sqq. ; and German unity, 160 ; 162 ; 
and "Dahlmann's Constitution," 163; 
165; and Schleswig-Holstein War, 167; 
and Auerswald Ministry, 191 ; and 
Prussian * ' National Assembly, 192 ; and 
Brandenburg- Manteuff el Ministry, 193; 
attitude of, towards Austria, 195 sq. ; 
chosen German Emperor, 197 sq.; de- 
clines Imperial Crown, 199 ; and Frank- 
fort Constitution, 200; and Austria, 
208, 224; and German Confederation, 
218 sqq. ; and Danish succession, 226 ; 
and Hesse-Cassel crisis, 228 sqq. ; and 
Switzerland, 249; and Neuchatel, 253, 
255 sq. ; policy of, 393, 395; and 
Kreuzzeitung party, 396 sq. ; succeeded 
by his brother, 406 ; and the Papacy, 708 
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg 
(the Great Elector). See Brandenburg, 
Electors of 

William, Duke of Brunswick-Gels. 

See Brunswick-Oels, Duke of 

Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, 

vin429, 431, 662; ix 440; meets Queen 
Caroline, 675; and Catholic Emanci- 
pation, 679 ; and the opponents of 
Addington, 681 ; onslaught on, 687 ; 
relations of, with George III, 688 

William Canal, the, v 645 

Fredericksburg, Burnside defeated at (1862), 

VII 483 sq. 
FrM^ricq, Paul, Belgian historian, xii 842 
Frederiksborg, royal festivities at, iv 586; 

Treaty of (1720), v 583, vi 37 

(Slave Coast), Danish station, v 691 

Frederikshald, attacked by Charles X, iv 

589 ; by Charles XII, v 583 ; death of 

Charles XII at, vi 34 
Frederikshamn, fortress of, vi 314 ; Treaty 

of (1809), IX 323, 487; school of Cadets 

at, X 434 
Frederiksodde, iv 584 ; stormed by Wrangel, 

585 
Frederikssten, death of Charles XII at, v 

614 
Freducci, Ludovico, Lord of Fermo, n 14 
Free Bailiwicks, in Switzerland, ii 331 

Churches, theory of, ii 200. See 

also Lutheranism, etc., and for England, 
Nonconformists, etc. 

Freeman, Edward Augustus, historian, xi 
363 ; xii 390 ; 397 ; works of, 839 sq. ; 
845 

Freeman's Journal, Irish newspaper, xi 8 

Freemasons, growth of, after 1814, x 215 
sqq. ; establishment of the comuneros in 
opposition to, 221 ; in France, under 
Third Republic, xn 115 

Freeport (Illinois), Lincoln and Douglas 
at, vu 444 



General Index. 



357 



Fr^geville, Charles-L.-J., Marquis de, vni 

677; 684 
Fregoso, Cesare, French envoy, murdered, 

n 76; m 105, 118 

Federigo, Cardinal, ii 33; 379; 

tracts by Luther attributed to, 380; church 
reform and, 643 

Gian-Galeazzo, Genoese in Tuscan 

service, ni 16 

Frei, Felix, Provost of Chapter at Zurich, 
n 310 

Jacob, and the Beformation at Zurich, 

n331 

Freiberg (in Saxony), besieged by Ban^r, 
IV 387; VI 297; battle at, 299 

Freiburg im Breisgau, Diet transferred to 
(1498), I 307; University of, 325; taken 
by peasants (1525), n 182 ; French 
troops in, rv 383; battles near (1644), 
388, 597; v 45 sq.; ceded by France, 63; 
retaken (1713), 435; restored (1714), 436, 
454; VI 241; 637 

Freiburg (Swiss Canton), Catholicism in, 
in 405 ; and Neuchatel, v 449 ; the patri- 
ciate of, VI 624; 625; Swiss Diet meets 
at (1803), IX 423; restores its old Consti- 
tution (1814), 600; bishopric of, x 149; 
XI 234 ; Government of, 235 ; reaction in, 
238 ; the Jesuits in, 239 ; 240 ; and the 
Aargau monasteries, 247; 251; 257; in- 
dustries of, 259 

Freiligrath, Ferdinand, German poet, xi 
50; 143; 413 sq. 

Freinsheim, Johann, Swedish theologian, 
IV 787 

Freire, Agostinho Jos6, in the Azores, x 
327 

Fr^jus, Prince Eugene at, v 419; landing 
of Napoleon at (1799), vm 663, 674, 
IX 41 

Fremantle, Australian port, xi 791 

Fremont, John Charles, "the Path- finder," 
vn 395, 432 ; major-general of U.S. Army, 
459 sqq. ; 475 ; 477, 491, 493 ; and slavery, 
583 sq., 599 

French Canal Company (Panamd), xn 698 
sqq. 

"French Fury, The," at Antwerp (1583), 
ra 256-7 

French Eevolution. See France, Vol. viii 

Frenchtown, Winchester defeated at (1813), 
vn 339 

Frend, William, Unitarian, vni 764, 766 

Frere, Sir Henry Bartle Edward, xii 35 sq.; 
465; in South Africa, 636; 638 

John Hookham, and The Quarterly 

Review, ix 687; x 700 

Frfere-Orban, Walter, Belgian Minister, xi 

672; XII 251 
Fr^ron, Louis Stanislas, vm 247, 349, 352, 

368 sq.; UOrateur du Peuple, 374; 378 
Freslon, Alexandre, French statesman, xi 

115 
Fresnel, Augustin-Jean, and the theory of 

light, xn 782 



Fresnes, de, French diplomatist, ni 684 
Fresze, Hermann, Lutheran preacher in 

Norway, n 618 
Frew, Prince Charles at, vi 112 
Freycinet, Charles-Louis de Saulces de, 

French statesman, xi 602; 606; 608; 

xn 40; 101; premier, 117; 119; 437 
Freyre de Andrade, Gomes, Portuguese 

general, in Brazil, v 678 

Manoel, Spanish general, at San 

Marcial, ix 480; at Toulouse, 482 

Freytag, Gustav, German writer, xi 414 
sqq. ; Pictures from the Past, xn 849 

Comte F.-X.-J., French general, vm 

431 

Friant, Comte Louis, French general, at 
Austerlitz, ix 260-1; captures Semenov- 
skoie at the battle of Borodino, 495 

Friar Bungay and Friar Bacon, Greene's, 
ra 375 

Frias, Inigo Fernandez de Velasco, 2nd 
Duke of, 3rd Count of Haro, hereditary 
Constable of Castile (1520), i 374 sq. 

Juan F. de Velasco, 5th Duke of, 

ambassador to England (1604), ra 536; 
667 

Fribourg. See Freiburg 

Frig, Josef, Memoirs of, xi 656 

Frid, Valentine (Paceus), i 614 

Fridag, Baron, Imperial ambassador to 

Brandenburg, v 663 
Fridericia, captured by the Prussians, xi 

167; 224, 695 
Friedberg, " Corresponding " Estates at, 

ra 718 
Friedjung, Heinrich, historian, xn 829 
Friedlander, Ludwig, historian, xii 849 
Friedland (Bohemia), Count Schlick seized 

at castle of, iv 71 ; acquired by Wallen- 

stein, 73; Wallenstein Duke of, 93 
(Mecklenburg-Strelitz), Swedish troops 

in, VI 280 

Duke of. See Wallenstein 

Friedland-on-the-Alle, battle of (1807), ix 

290, 297 
Friedlingen, Lewis of Baden at, v 406 
Friedrich, Johann, History of the Vatican 

Council, XII 848 
Friedrichsfelde, King Frederick Augustus I 

of Saxony at, ix 582 
Friedrichsruhe, Bismarck's retirement at, 

XII 167 
Friedrichstadt, capture of, xi 225 
Friedwald, Treaty of (1552), n 271 
"Friends of Light," Prussian Church 

party, xi 61 sq. 
"Friends of the People," English Society 

(1792), VI 477; vm 760 
Fries, Jacob Friedrich, German philosopher, 

x365 
Friesland, Dukes of Burgundy and, i 

421 ; subjection of, 453 ; annexed to the 

Netherlands (1523), n 102; Henry Casi- 

mir and, iv 695, 701; and the Eternal 

Edict, y 155 sq.; 165 ; socialism in, xn 248 



368 



General Index, 



Friesland, John William, Hereditary Stad- 
holder of. See Orange, John William 
Friso, Prince of 

William Frederick, Hereditary Stad- 

holder of. See Nassau-Dietz 

West, known as the North Quarter, 

m 621-2; discontent in, 634 

East. See East Friesland 

Friis, Jorgen. See Viborg, Bishops of 
Fririon, General, ix 30 

Frisch, Austrian diplomatist, vi 346 
Frisia, East. See East Friesland 
Friuli, Venice acquires (1420), i 278 
Froben, John, printer at Basel, ii 308, 

355 
Frobisher, Sir Martin, m 301; 309; 313; 

319 
Frochot, Comte Nicolas-Th^r^se-Benolt, 

Prefect of the Seine, ix 126; 144 
Frobel, Julius, at Vienna, xi 188 sq. 
Froding, Gustav, Swedish writer, xii 280 
Frohschammer, Jakob, philosopher, xi 712 
Frohsdorf, Comte de Paris at, xii 108; 

109 
Froissart, Jean, i 433; xii 830 
Fromentin, Eugene, painter and writer, 

XI 525; 528 
Fronde, The, causes of, iv 603-4; Declara- 
tion of Saint-Germain and, 607 ; 608 sqq.; 

Mazarin and the old, 612 sqq.; 617 sq. ; 

results of, 621 sq. ; v 1; 21; 76; 83; 

VI 130 
Fronsac, Armand de Maill^-Br6z6, Duke 

of, IV 592 
Fronteira, Marquis de, Portuguese general, 

V 426 

Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Comte de, vn 

81, 85; work of, in Canada, 89; death 

of, 90; 97 
Froschauer, printer of Zurich, ii 308, 312 

sq., 316, 333 
Frosinone, success of the French at, ii 54 
Frossard, Charles-Auguste, French general, 

XI 583; 585; at Spicheren, 586 sq.; 590 

sqq.; at Gravelotte, 593 sq. 
Frost, John, Chartist leader, x 683 sq, 
Frott6, Comte Louis de, ix 2; 14 
Froude, James Anthony, xi 363 sq. ; in 

South Africa, xii 636; 839 sq. 

Eichard Hurrell, xi 349 

Froulay, Bailli de, French diplomatist, vi 

343 
Fruin, Robert, Dutch historian, xii 249; 

842 
Frundsberg, Georg von, German condottiere, 

II 50, 54, 55, 190, 197 
Fry, Elizabeth, visit of, to Newgate, ix 

693; visits Denmark, xi 694 
Fu»d Pasha, Mehemed, Turkish Foreign 

Minister, xi 313; 636 sq.; xn 381 
Fuchs, Leonhard, botanist, v 734 

Paul von, Brandenburg statesman, 

V 655; 663; vi 8 

Filhrich, Joseph, German painter, x 161 
Fiilek, acquired by Soljnnan II, m 124 



Funen (Fyen), iv 561 ; 571 ; Charles X and, 
684 ; conquered by the Swedes, 585 ; 589 ; 
Swedes expelled from, v 147; serfdom 
in, VI 736; Spanish troops in, ix 236 

Fuenterrabia, captured by the French (1521), 
n 44, 418; recovered by Spain (1524), 44, 
46, 423; French defeat at (1638), iv 147, 
149; 542, 645; marriage of Louis XIV 
at, 620; Franco- Spanish marriages at, 
630; captured by the French (1719), vi 
34, (1794), viii 440 

Fuentes (de Castilla), Pedro Henriquez de 
Toledo y de Acevedo, Count of, Spanish 
general in Lombardy (1599), in 418 sqq.; 
in Netherlands (1593), 519, 522 ; Governor 
of Milan (1600-10), 398, iv 41 sqq.; 
Venice and, 670 

d'Onoro, Wellington's army on the 

heights of, ix 466, 468 

Fiirst, Baron Karl Joseph Maximilian von, 
Prussian High Chancellor of Justice, vi 
715; 728 

Flirstenberg, Heinrich von. Count, Minister 
of Maximilian I, i 323 

Wilhelm von, Cardinal, and the 

archbishopric of Cologne, v 54 sqq. 

Wilhelm von, Count, ii 78 

FUrstenbund, of 1785, signed by fifteen 

German governments, vi 647; 708; 
formation of, viii 281 sqq., 313, 324, 529 
Fiirth (on the Cham), Wallenstein at, ly 
237 

(Franconia), Gustavus Adolphus and 

Wallenstein at, iv 216 sqq.; Austrian 
allies at, vi 263 

Fiissen, Treaty of, vi 242 
Fugger, Anton, ii 258 

Count Francis, iv 393 

Jacob, II 153 

the brothers, of Augsburg, finan- 
ciers, I 358, 506, 518, 667; ii 40, 63, 
127, 153, 265 

Fukubari, Ghoshiu councillor, xi 851 ; exe- 
cution of, 852; 855 

Fulchi, marshes of, v 604 

Fulda, Jesuit seminary at, in 178; Catholic 
reaction at, 180; bishopric of, granted 
to the Prince of Orange (1802), ix 78, 
90; French occupation of, 408, 414; 
part of, acquired by Prussia (1815), 657; 
Prussian troops in, xi 229 sq. 

Fulgencio, Fray, Spanish monk, xi 557 

Fuller, Nicholas, in 563 sq. 

William, iv 320 

Chief Justice (U.S.), and the Vene- 
zuelan Arbitration Commission, xii 721 

Fulta, fugitives at, vi 552 

Fulton, Robert, American engineer, vn 351 

Fulvio, Andrea, the Antiquitates Urbis 

Romae, i 549 
Funck, Johann, confessor of Duke Albert 

of Prussia, in 153 
Furnes, the Barrier Treaties and, v 457, 

459; ceded to France, vi 339 
Furrah, Sir Henry Pottinger at, xn 800 



Gene7'al Lidex, 



359 



Furrer, Jonas, Swiss President, xi 254 
Fusan, Bussia and, xn 507; 556; 581 
Fuseli, Jean-Henri, art critic, viii 765 
Fushimi, Choshiu warriors at, xi 851 
Fusinato, Arnaldo, Italian writer, xi 545 
Fustel de Coulanges, Numa Denis, French 

historian, xi 525 
Fyen. See Fiinen 
Fyllebro, Swedish success at (1676), v 

669 
Fyzabad, British troops at, vi 579 

Gabbard, The, Anglo-Dutch naval action off, 
IV 436, 475, 478, 480 sq. 

Gabel, Christopher, Danish statesman, v 
561 

Gabelle, French royal impost, from time 
of Philip of Valois, i 405 sq.; iv 153; 
conditions for non-payment of, 621 ; viii 
70, 91, 692 sq., 696 

Gabet, Joseph, in Tibet, xii 797 sq. 

Gaboldino, Antonio, Modenese Reformer, 
n 386 sq. 

Gabriel, Don, Infant of Spain, vi 381 sq. 

Gachard, Louis Prosper, Belgian historian, 
XII 842 

Gacko, Montenegro and, xii 392 

Gadd, Hemming. See Linkoeping, Bishops 
of 

Gadebusch, Swedish victory at (1712), v 
682, 608 

Gadsden, James, American Minister to 
Mexico, VII 426 

Gahler, Peter Elias, Danish general, vi 745 

Gaertner, Privy-Councillor von, at the 
Congress of Vienna, ix 688 

Gdrtnerbriider, Protestant sect of Strass- 
burg, n 223 

Gaeta, captured by Charles VIII (1495), 
I 114; recaptured (1496), 118; recovered 
under Louis XII (1502), 125; finally lost 
by France (1503), 127 ; vi 153 ; surrenders 
to Ney, VIII 652; siege of (1806), ix 267, 
404 ; surrenders, 270 ; Pius IX and Leo- 
pold II at, XI 91 sqq., 121; conference at, 
121, 379 ; fall of, 390 

Gagarin, Prince, Governor of Siberia, v 535 

Paul, Prince, xi 614 

Gage, Thomas, Governor of Massachusetts, 

VII 159 sq., 163, 165 sq., 168 

Gagern, Friedrich Balduin, Baron von, x 
376 

Hans Christoph Ernst, Baron von, 

VIII 774 ; and Congress of Vienna, ix 
580 sqq.; 610, 646 sq., 652 

Heinrich von, xi 60 ; 62 ; Hesse- 
Darmstadt Minister, 144 sq. ; 160 ; 162 ; 
President of Nationalversammlung , 164 ; 
169; 195; succeeds Schmerling, 196; 
198; 221 

Maximilian von, xi 144 ; 160 ; 162 ; 

165 

Gages, Jean Bonaventure Dumont, Count, 
Spanish general, VI 160; 165; 362; 696; 
608 



Gainsborough, Manchester at, rv 315 ; flight 

of Nonconformists from, vii 12 
Gaismayr, Michael, leader in Peasants' 

War, II 190 sq. 
Galabat, stormed by King John, xn 444 
Galaghan, Colonel, Russian officer, v 601 
Galata, surrendered to Turks (1453), i 68 
Galatea, Antonio, i 624 
Galateo, Girolamo, Venetian Reformer, ii 

381; the Confession, 382 
Galatz, massacres at, x 178 
Galdos, Benito Perez, Spanish writer, xn 

268 
Galen, B. von. See Miinster, Bishop of 

Claudius (ancient physician), v 723 

sqq.; 737 

Galeotti, Leopold©, Italian writer, xi 65 

Galgengrund, Russians at the, vi 284 sq. 

Galiani, Fernando, Abbe, Italian political 
economist, viii 25 

Galiano, Alcala, x 210; and the Spanish 
revolution, 214 sqq.; and La Fontana de 
Oro, 218; negotiates with King Ferdi- 
nand, 222; 228; 231 

Galicia (Austria), Joseph II visits, vi 626; 
648; 669; 703; Frederick the Great 
and, 707 ; proposed cession of, to Poland 
(1790), vm 293, 330 sq. ; 312 ; ceded to 
Austria (1775), 623; boundaries of, en- 
larged (1795), 549; Russian troops in, 
646 sq. ; extent of, ix 283 ; Austrian army 
concentrated in, 354 ; Russian designs on, 
691 ; Austria retains eastern, 655 ; the 
Germanic Confederation and, x 343 ; 
under Austrian rule, 461 sq.; revolt in, 
XI 46 sq. ; 152 ; the revolutionary move- 
ment in, 156 ; national aspirations in, 
171 sq. ; rising in, 174 ; 175 ; 178 ; and 
Hungary, 202; 204; 216; bishopric in, 
266 ; 898 ; 402 ; massacre in, 658 ; xn 
186; Minister for, 189; 195; Count 
Badeni's administration in, 200 ; 201 ; 
autonomy of, 337 ; 338 sq. 

(Spain), Spanish army of, ix 435, 

438; delivered from the French (1809), 
453 ; Del Parque's army falls back on, 
455; revolt in (1820), x 216; MoriUo 
capitulates in (1823), 228 ; Portuguese 
retreat into (1828), 322 ; rising in, xi 654 

Galigai, Leonora. See Concini 
Galilei, Galileo, n 707; m 394; iv 677 
scientific discoveries of, 777 ; condemna 
tionof, 779; 781; 793; vll8; 708; 712 
the astronomical work of, 713 sq.; 715 
718 ; 723 ; at Padua, 726 ; vi 792 ; monu- 
ment erected to, at Pisa, x 129 ; xn 768 
Galitzin {or Galitsin) family, persecution 
of, VI 802 

Prince Alexander, Russian general 

under Catharine II, vi 682; 697 

Prince Alexander Nicolaievich (d. 

1844), Russian Minister of Education 
(1816), X 424; dismissed, 425; 431; 
437 ; and the succession to the throne, 
440 



360 



General Index, 



Galitzin, Prince Alexis, Bussian ambassador 
to England, vi 323; 328 

Dmitri Michailovich (d. 1738), 

Prince, v 553 sq.; 556 

Prince Dmitri Alexeivich, Russian 

ambassador (d. 1803), vi 697 

Dmitri Vladimirovich, Prince (d. 

1844), Governor-General of Moscow, xi 
270 sq. 

Michael, Prince, Russian general, y 

654 

Prince Sergius, commands a Russian 

army against Austria, ix 354 

Vasili Vasilevich, Prince, v 518 ; 521 

Prince, Russian secret agent at 

Madrid (1817), man of letters, x 212 sq. 

Gallars, Nicholas de, at the Colloquy of 
Poissy, II 302, 592 

Gallas, Count Johann Wenzel von, Im- 
perial envoy in London, v 432 sq. 

Count Matthias, Austrian general, 

Mantua taken by, iv 115 ; with Wallen- 
stein, 219, 223; succeeds Hoik, 231; 
234; at Leitmeritz, 237; 239 sqq.; at 
Nordlingen, 244 sq. ; 248 ; 250 ; 367 sq. ; 
371 sqq.; driven into Silesia and Bohemia, 
378 ; in Saxony, 387 ; resigns command, 
388 ; 389 ; death of, 392 ; 571 

Gallatin, Albert, American statesman, vii 
690 

Galle, Johann Gottfried, German astro- 
nomer, XII 768 

Peter, Swedish divine, n 624 sq. 

Galletti, Giuseppe, Italian politician, xi 81 
Gallicanism, and Pragmatic Sanction of 

Bourges (1438), i 385 sqq.; and Concordat 
of 1516, 388 sq.; 662 sq.; old and new, 
II 95 ; and Concordat of Francis I, iii 
659; v 74 sqq., 85 sq. ; see Vol. vi, 
Chap. XVI passim, 586 sqq.; Hontheim 
and, X 157 sq. ; reaction against, 159 sqq. ; 
and Jules Ferry, xii 116. See also Con- 
cordats, Pragmatic Sanction 
Gallieni, Joseph-Simon, in Senegal, xii 129 
Gallipoli, Turkish arsenal destroyed at, i 

80 ; scarcity of food at, xii 238 
Gallo, Marzio Mastrilli, Marchese di, Aus- 
trian envoy, viii 582 ; Minister at Naples, 
650 

Niccol6, Italian Reformer, ii 393 

Galloway, Joseph, American loyalist, vii 

162; legal arguments of. Chap, vi passirn 

Galmoy, Pierce Butler, 3rd Viscount, v 309 

Gait, Sir Alexander Tilloch, Canadian 

Finance Minister, xi 763; 770; 775 
Galton, Sir Francis, and heredity, xii 778 
Galuzzi, Riguccio, Tuscan historian, vi 150 
Galvez, Don Bernardo, Governor of 

Louisiana, vi 377 ; 453 
Galway, plantations and, iv 520; capitulates 
to Coote, 535; v 316 sqq.; Articles of, 321, 
323; Queen's College, xii 71 

Henri de Massue de Ruvigny, Earl 

of (Marquis de Ruvigny), v 23 sq.; 321; 
323; in Spain, 416, 419, 426 



Gama, Vasco da, i 12 ; discovery of Cape 
route by, 24-6; 29, 30, 34, 285; ix 304 

Gambetta, L6on, French statesman, xi 485 ; 
defends Delescluze, 488; 489; 491; op- 
poses declaration of war, 495 ; and Franco- 
German War, 497 sqq., 600, 602 sqq.; xn 
14; 40; 101; 103; and National Assembly, 
105; Thiers and, 106; 109; 111; and 
clericalism, 113 ; 114 sq. ; 121 ; 239 ; and 
Egyptian affairs, 436; death of, 112 

Gambia, Great Britain and, xn 658 

river, discovery of, i 15; settle- 
ments on, V 691 sq. ; vi 464; trade of, 
xii 660 ; exploration on, 805 sq. 

Gambier, James, 1st Baron, English ad- 
miral, character of, ix 217; attacks 
Denmark, 236; attacks Brest, 238 

Gamble, H. R., Governor of Missouri, vii 
458 

Gambron (Bender Abbas), Dutch trading 
post at, IV 712 

Gaminde, General, commander in Cata- 
lonia, XII 260 

Gamonal, combat of (1808), ix 443 

Gandamak, Treaty of, xn 470 sq. 

Gandia, Giovanni Borgia, Duke of, i 179, 
233 sq., 620 

Gando, Sultan of, xn 659 

Gangadhar Shastri, xi 725 

Ganges river, the Dutch on, vi 556; 
drowning of children in, xi 730 

canal, completion of, xi 744 

Ganneron, Auguste-Hippolyte, French 

financier, x 495 

Gansfort. See Wessel, John 

Ganteaume, Count Honor^-J.-A. , vice- 
admiral, VIII 615 sq. ; ix 53 ; in command 
of Toulon squadron, 212-3 ; advice of, to 
Napoleon, 214; in command of Brest 
squadron, 216; ordered to West Indies, 
222 ; blockaded in Brest, 223 ; ordered to 
leave Brest, 228; sent to Corfu, 237; 
replaced by Allemand, 239 

Gap6n, George, Russian priest, xii 331 ; 
349 sq. 

Garat, Dominique, French politician, viii 
746 

Dominique Joseph (brother of above), 

French Minister of Justice, viii 250; 
Minister of Interior, 263, 273 sq., 348, 
679; IX 132 

Garay, Don Martin de, Spanish statesman, 
X 142 ; appointed Secretary of Treasury, 
209; 212; 219 

Garcia, Carrasco Francisco, Governor of 
Santiago, x 287 

Juan, Spanish Reformer, ii 408 

Fray de, Regius Professor of Divinity, 

Oxford, n 541 
Garci-Arias, Prior of San Isidro, Spanish 

Reformer, n 406 
Garda, Lake, Marshal Catinat at, v 402; 

Chasteler advances to, ix 355 
Gardanne, Antoine, French general, viii 

686; IX 14 



General Index, 



361 



Gardes frangaises, viii 162 sqq., 166, 
403 
nationales, organised by Lafayette, 

VIII 166 sqq.; 183 sqq., 191; in 1791, 
207; Lafayette resigns command of, 220; 
223; reorganised, 232 sq., 236, 243; 
numbers of in France, 403; condition 
of (1799), 665; under First Empire, ix 
115 

suisses, vin 162, 235 sq. ; massacre 

of, 237, 437 

Gardiner, Christopher, adventurer, vn 16 

James, colonel of dragoons, vi 112 ; 

114 

Luke, and Protection in Ireland, vi 

502 sq. 

Samuel Eawson, historian, xn 840 

Stephen, Bishop of Winchester, and 

pronunciation of Greek, i 581; n 430, 
475 ; resists visitation of 1547, 481 ; 
attacks Cranmer's Homilies, ib.; 485; 
imprisonment of, 486; Northumberland 
and, 497; 501, 517; made Chancellor 
by Mary, 520 ; policy and work of, 521- 
35; death of, 542; iii 750 

William, the Portuguese Index and 

the works of, ii 414 

Gardner, Alan, 1st Baron, admiral, viii 
477; in command of blockade of Brest, 

IX 224 

naval captain, in Ceylon, ix 733 

Garfield, James Abram, President of the 

United States, vit 649, 652 sq. 

Gargantua, Babelais', ii 287 

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, in Kome, xi 94 ; 125 ; 
expedition of, to Sicily and Naples, 332; 
in London, 351 ; and the unity of Italy, 
375; 382; in Sicily, 388; 389; and 
Cavour, 390, 392; meets King Victor 
Emmanuel, 390 ; 391 ; 462 ; 469 ; invades 
States of the Church, 485 ; Eicasoli and, 
531; 532; relations of, with Eattazzi, 
533 ; wounded at Aspromonte, 534 ; 535 ; 
and King Victor Emmanuel, 537 sq. ; 539 ; 
and War with Austria, 540 sq. ; marches 
against Kome, 542; at Mentana, 543; 
645; in France (1870), 604, 606, 608 
sq.; 705; xii 216; 681 

Menotti, xn 240 

Garielevna, Countess Anna, vi 315 
Garigliano river, French defeat on (1503), 

I 127, 196; fight at (1860), xi 390 
Garin, Russian senator, xii 376 
Garland, Augustine, rv 443 
Garlike, British Minister at Copenhagen, 

IX 296 ; despatch of, to Canning, 297 
Gamett, Father Henry, Provincial of 

Jesuits in England, and Gunpowder Plot, 

in 555 

Robert Selden, Confederate general, 

vn 457 

Garnier, Francois, French explorer, xn 

131 ; 524 sq. ; ,796 
Garnier-Pag^s, Etienne-J.-L., x485; 491; 

609 



Garnier-Pag^s, Louis-Antoine, xi 26; and 

the Revolution (1848), 100 sqq. ; 108 ; 

118; 477 
Garrard, Thomas, executed, n 451 
Garrick, David, and Whitefield, vi 84 
Garrison, William Lloyd, publisher of The 

Liberator, vn 387, 423 
Garth, Sir Samuel, poet, v 70 
Garz, taken by Swedes, iv 196 
Garzoni, Giovanni, Italian jurisconsult, i 

151 
Gascoigne, George, ni 367 sq., 371 
Gascony, Landes of, rising in, v 9 
Gaselee, Sir Alfred, general, relieves Peking 

legations, xn 520 
Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, novelist, xi 

359 sq. 
Gasparin, Comte Adrien-Etienne-Pierre de, 

French Minister of Interior, x 497 
Thomas-Augustin de, member of 

Comite de Salut Public, vm 343 
Gasparino da Barzizza, Italian Latinist, 

I 544, 556, 562 
Gasquet, Abbot Francis Aidan, xn 848 
Gassendi, Pierre, n 691; iv 779; philo- 
sophy of, 792 sqq. ; 798 sq. 
Gassion, Comte Jean de. Marshal of 

France, at Rocroi, iv 594; killed at 

Lens, 598 
Gastein, Convention of, xi 445 sq., 448, 

450, 479; Bismarck meets Andr&ssy at, 

xn 144 
Gaston, Vendean leader, vin 266 
Gatacre, Sir William Forbes, General, at 

Stormberg, xn 642 
Gatchina, Tsar at, ix 34, 35, 483 
Gates, Horatio, American general, vn 211, 

215, 225 

Sir John, executed, n 520 

Sir Thomas, Governor of Virginia, 

vn 5 sq. 

Gattamelata, Stefano Giovanni, condoU 
tiere, i 280 

Gatterer, Johann Christoph, German his- 
torian, xn 817 

Gattilusio, Nicold, Lord of Lesbos (d. 1462), 
I 76 

Gattinara, Mercurino Arborio de. Minister 
of Charles V, i 371; n 52, 148, 210, 
401 

Gaudin, Martin-Michel-Charles, Due de 
Gaete, Minister of Finance, vm 682, 
706, 708; ix 1-2; 10, 25-6; obtains 
duchy of Gaeta, 111 ; Napoleon writes to 
(Oct. 13, 1807), 368 ; introduces French 
fiscal system into Piedmont, 397; liqui- 
dation of public debt by, 398; Minister 
of Finance, 616 

Gaultier, Abb6, in London, v 480 

Gaunt, John of, m 358 

Gautier, Th^ophile, x 101; xi 509 sqq. 

Gautsch, Baron Paul, Austrian statesman, 
XII 202 sq. ; 206 ; 208 

Gavre, defeat of Ghent by Philip the Good 
at (1453), I 426 sq. 



362 



General Index. 



Gavril Pasha. See Krstyovich, Gavril 

Gawilgarh, capture of (1803), rx 726 

Gawler, George, Governor of South Austra- 
lia, XI 792 

Gay, John, poet, v 70; x 715 

Gayer, Sir John, Governor of Bombay, 
V 700 

Gay-Lussac, Joseph-Louis, scientist, xii 
769 

Gaza, occupied by Ibrahim Pasha, x 649 

Theodorus, Greek professor at Fer- 

rara, i 642, 646 

Gazette de France, La, in Kichelieu's time, 
IV 155; after Oct. 1811, ix 130; at war 
with the Cabinet, x 94; xi 292 
Gebora, battle of the (1811), ix 462 
Gedimin, Lithuanian chief, v 480 
Gee, Joshua, political economist, vi 50 
Geer, Baron Louis de, Swedish statesman, 
XI 689 sq.; xn 277 

Louis de, munition of, iv 569 ; 571 ; 

Swedish trade and, 725 sq. 

Geertruidenburg, siege of (1593), iii 627 

Gefle, Riksdag at, vi 784 

Geibel, Emanuel, German poet, xi 413 sq.; 
420; 701 

Geijer, Eric Gustav, Swedish historian, 
XI 686 sq.; xii 842 

Geiler. See Kaisersberg 

Geishiu, daimid of, xi 846, 866 sq., 861 

Geislingen, Pass of, v 409 

Geissberger, Franz, Abbot of St Gall, ii 
331 

Geistliche Fama, journal of Pietists, v 761 

Geitzkofler, Zacharias, Imperial Controller- 
General, IV 5 

Gelderland. See Gelders 

Gelders, acquired by Charles the Bold 
(1473), I 390; factions in, 423; English 
expedition against (1511), 479; duchy 
of, falls to Duke of Cleves (1538), ii 75, 
236 ; reduced and annexed by Charles V 
(1548), 77, 102, 242, 244; anti-Spanish 
plans for, iii 16 ; position of, 618 ; 
invaded by Maurice, 673 ; invaded by 
French (1672), v 43, 157; 148; and the 
Eternal Edict, 155; Prussian garrison 
in, 435 ; Peace of Utrecht and, 447 sqq. ; 
458 sq.; 658; vi 27; 300; Austria and, 
631; Brunswick invades, viii 287; re- 
bellion in, 322 

Adolf, Duke of, i 424, 441 

Arnold, Duke of, i 424 

• Charles of Egmont, Duke of, 1 131, 

307, 424, 441, 450 sq., 453, 456 sq., 475; 
invades the Netherlands, ii 43; 51, 60, 
72; death of (1538), 75, 102, 236 

Eainald IV, Duke of (d. 1423), i 

424 

William IX, Duke of (1402), i 423 

sq. 

William de la Marck, Duke of. See 

Jiilich-Cleves-Berg, William V 

Gelenius, Sigismund, editor of Philo, i 
613, 616 sq. 



Gellert, Christian Fiirchtegott, v 68 
Gellivare, ore fields of, xn 279 
Gelnhausen, meeting of Electors and other 

Princes at, i 311, 313; Arnim and Oxen- 

stierna at, iv 235 
Gelt, battle of the (1569), in 282 
Gemaurhof, Swedish victory at (1705), v 

694 
Gemblours, battle of (1578), ni 249-50 
Gembloux, French troops at, ix 630 
Genazzano, Frk Mariano da. See Mariano 
Gendebien, Alexandre- J. -C. de, x 480; 532; 

635 sqq. 

Jean-Franpois, x 623 

Genebrard, Albert. See Aix, Archbishop of 
General Assembly, the Scottish, meeting of 

1690, V 293 sq. 

Genest, Edmond Charles, Minister from 
Kepublic of France to United States, 
vn 317, 320 

G^nestet, Petrus Augustus de, Dutch poet, 
XI 676 

Geneva, attack on, by Duke Charles III 
of Savoy (1630), ii 70, 330; political 
constitution of, under Bishop, 358 sq.; 
relations between Bishop of, and Savoy, 
361 sq. ; the Reformation in, 362 sq.; 
connexion of Calvin with, 358, 363, 
368; government of, under Calvin, 366 
sqq. ; 370-5 ; Calvin's College and 
Academy at, 372 sq. ; heresy in, iii 400 
sqq.; Savoy's attempts on, 408, 413, 420 
sq., 437, 482, 683; included in Treaty 
of Vervins, 674 ; Evangelical Church in, 
743 ; and Savoy, iv 673 ; Chouet Professor 
at, 791; Milton at, v 118; the bank of, 
266 sqq.; 270; Labadie at, 756; vi 617; 
party conflicts in, 625; annexation of, 
by France, proposed (1792), viii 437; 
accomplished (1798), 597, 640; revolt 
in (1782), 781; ix 59; excluded from 
Swiss Federation (1803), 104; Huguenot 
seminary at, 204 ; Swiss manufacture of 
clocks and watches in, 425; remains 
intellectual centre of French Switzerland, 
427 ; cessions to canton of, 660 ; xi 234 ; 
236 ; 243 ; radical rising in, 248 ; and 
cession of Savoy, 256 ; proposed episcopal 
see of, 258 ; 259 ; republican congress at, 
485 sq., 668; 630; Alabama arbitration 
at, xn 22, 717, 720 sq.; Eussian re- 
volutionaries at, 303 

Joannes Franciscus of Savoy (the 

Bastard of Savoy), Bishop of, ii 361 

Pierre de la Baume, Bishop of, n 361 

Genga, Annibale della. See Leo XII 
Genghis Khan, conquests of, in Central 

Asia, I 8, VI 508 
Genlis, Jean de Hangest, Seigneur de, in 

17 sq., 232 
Gennadios, George Scholarios, Patriarch of 

Constantinople, i 103 
Genoa, the Ottomans and, i 68 ; factions in, 

129; captured by the French (1607), 130; 

rivalry of, with Venice, 257 ; at war with 



General Index, 



363 



Venio«, 258-9; Peace of (1392), 265; 
arms made at, 496; stormed by Im- 
perialists (1522), II 45; new Bepublio 
established in (1528), 59; Fiesco Con- 
spiracy at, 81 sq. ; claimed by Francis I, 
III 110; trade of, 392; Savoy and, 
400, 407, 411, 413; Spain and, 476; 
Eevolt of, 497; Dutch trade with, 631; 
Habsburg influence over, 689; and the 
Emperor, iv 31 ; French victory off (1638), 
147 ; Spain and, 687 ; Spanish protector- 
ate over, V 50 ; John Law in, vi 169 ; 243 ; 
taken by Austrians, 245; and Corsica, 
350, 609 ; siege of, 362 ; and the Jesuits, 
593 ; 606 ; affairs in, 607 sq. ; Napoleon's 
secret mission to, viii 561 ; French con- 
trol of, 587 sq., 663; government of 
Eepublic of, 778; fighting near (1800), 

IX 58 sqq. ; Eepublic of, 83 ; French an- 
nexation of (1805), 141, 247, 249; incor- 
poration of, in Sardinia (1814), 599; 
retained by Sardinia, 660, 668, 670; 
Piedmontese fugitives at, x 117; fete 
at, XI 75; 78; 243; Garibaldi's expedi- 
tion from, 332; revolt at, 366, 375; 
373; democratic congress at, 532; labour 
troubles at, xii 223; 225; 227 

Genoa, Gulf of, Admiral Mathews in, vi 
239 

Ferdinand, Duke of, xi 91 

Thomas, Duke of, xi 571 

Genoude, Antoine-Eug^ne de, editor of 

Gazette de France, x 486 
Genovesi, Antonio, Neapolitan lawyer, vi 

588; 590; 599; viii 777 
Gensan, Eussia and, xii 507 
Gen8onn6, Armand, Girondist leader, vm 

214, 249, 251; at the King's trial, 258; 

trial of, 357 
Gentil, Emil, African explorer, xn 130; 

812 sq. 
Gentile, Valentino, Italian Eeformer, ii 393 
Gentili, Alberico, De jure belli, xii 707 sqq. 
Gentz, Friedrich von, viii 773 sq.; at 

Congress of Vienna, ix 580 sqq.; and 

the French frontier, 664; influence of, 

671 ; on results of Congress of Vienna, 

X 2; and de Maistre's Du Pape, 7; 13; 
150; 357; 365 

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, ix 133 
Geography, the science of. Vol. i. Chap, i. 

The Age of Discovery, passim, 7-36; 

Chap, n. The New World, passim, 37-66. 

See also Exploration 
George, Lake, French and English at, vn 

125, 127; Montcalm at, 129 sq. 

I, King of Great Britain (Elector of 

Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Liine- 
burg), v 359; 403; commander of Im- 
perial army, 418; 420; 425; 438; 450; 
and Whig leaders, 474; accession of, as 
George I, 476; and Sweden, 550; and 
the "Hanoverian Alliance," 550; and 
Bussia, 543, 551, 555 ; and Great 
Northern War, 580 ; and Frederick IV of 



Sweden, 582 sq. ; and Peter the Great, 
609, 613; forms third anti-Swedish 
league, 610 sq. ; and the Hanoverian 
Succession, Vol. vi. Chap, i ; character 
of, 41 sq.; Walpole and, 42; 43; 57; and 
the Earl of Mar, 97; and Spain, 123; 
and Gibraltar, 126, 147; and Dubois, 
131; 141; 143; and Poland, 193; and 
Prussia, 209; 213; 445 
George II, King of Great Britain (George 
Augustus, Electoral Prince of Hanover), 

V 469 ; created Duke of Cambridge, 474 ; 
655; VI 2 sqq. ; 10; 12 sqq.; 19; 39 sq.; 
character of, 41 sq. ; Walpole and, 42, 
395 ; the Civil List of, 45 ; 55 ; 61 ; and 
Pitt, 73 sq.; 106; at Dettingen, 109; 
143; 147; and Don Carlos, 151; 179; 
and Prussia, 209; and War of the 
Austrian Succession, 232; 235; 237; 
and election of Francis I, 242; 243; and 
France, 249; 251 sq.; 260; and Con- 
vention of Klosterzeven, 266; 272; and 
Hanover, 334, 405; 340; and Prussian 
Alliance, 399; and Pitt's accession to 
office, 403 ; and Irish affairs, 488 sq. ; 
death of, 416 

Ill, King of Great Britain, v 462; 

VI 117; and Pitt, 346, 419 sq,; accession 
of, 416; views of, 417; character of, 423; 
425; and Bute, 427; 428; sends for Pitt, 
430; and Wilkes, 430 sq., 441 sq. ; and 
Eegency Act, 434; 435 sq. ; 443; 445; 
and American Colonies, 449, 462 sq. ; 
and Eockingham Ministry, 457 sqq.; 
463 ; and India Bill, 467, 581 ; dismisses 
Fox and North, 467 ; supports Pitt, 
469; and Prince of Wales, 472; ill- 
ness and recovery of, 473 sqq.; and the 
army and navy, 476; and Ireland, 497, 
500 ; insanity of, 605 ; and Frederick the 
Great, 702; and the Filrstenbund, 708 sq.; 
743; and Queen Matilda, 750 sq. ; 819; 

VII 307, 330; as Elector of Brunswick- 
Liineburg, joins Fiirstenbund, viii 283; 
285, 291, 296 sqq., 305; ix 43; 56, 
102; Napoleon's overtures to, 221; 244, 
245, 262; health of, 264; 266, 297, 309, 
321, 367, 673; and Catholic Emancipa- 
tion, 678 sq.; insanity of, 689; x 382; 
English Catholics and, 625 ; death of, 582 

IV, King of Great Britain (Prince 

of Wales), Prince Eegent, vi 117; and 
India Bill (1783), 467; 471; marriage 
of, 472; and Eegency Bill, 473 sq. ; 
475 ; Irish Parliament and, 505 ; rela- 
tions of, with Count Miinster, ix 587; 
supports royal proclamation, 673; mar- 
riage of, 675; 687; and Eegency, 690; 
Napoleon's letters to, 756 ; 760 ; and 
the Holy Alliance, x 10; 32; and 
Hanover, 374; attack upon (1817), 577; 
the divorce bill of, 583; visits Ireland, 
637; and Catholic emancipation, 645, 
650, 652; death of, 593; and Sweden, 
XI 683 



364 



General Index, 



George I, King of Greece, xi 634; election 
of, 641; 642; xn 420 sqq. 

Prince of Denmark, v 230; 247; 

460; death of, 428, vi 12 

Prince of Georgia, son of Heraclius, 

annexati'on of territories of, ix 48 

Prince, of Greece, xii 420; High 

Commissioner in Crete, 423 

Prince Eegent. See George IV 

Petrovich (Kara George). Bee Kara 

of Trebizond. See Trapezuntius 

George, David Lloyd, Chancellor of the 

Exchequer, xii 62 

Henry, and socialism, xii 759 

Georgia (Europe), Eussia and, v 545, vi 

648, 672, 676 ; Kussia and Turkey in, viii 
316; Sultan acknowledges suzerainty of 
Kussia over, ix 385 ; annexed by Eussia, 

X 413; General Alikhanoff in, xii 363 

■ (America), vi 51; foundation of, 54 

sq.; 66; the Wesleys in, 82; 83; 149; 
settlement of, vii 61 sqq.; 105; 149; 
representation of, in Congress, 160, 164, 
166; invaded (1778), 218 sq.; Constitu- 
tion of, 237; and Constitutional Con- 
vention, 246, 252, 258, 263, 268, 277, 
281, 283; representation of, 306; cessions 
in, 308 ; and the Tariff, 377, 380 ; slavery 
in, 386 sq., 587; secedes from Union 
(1860), 446; joins Confederacy, 452, 603; 
in Civil War, 471, 513, 522 sq.; and 
Sherman's march, 533 sq. ; emancipa- 
tion in, 595 ; opposition to Confederate 
policy in, 608 sq.; blockade-running in, 
620; reconstruction in, 633; becomes 
Democratic (1871), 642 

Georgia^ "commerce-destroyer," vii 565 sq. 

Georgian bay, proposed canal to, xu 608 

Georgians, The (Caucasus), xn 342 

Gerald, Joseph, political reformer, vm 770 

Geialdino, Don. See Fitzgerald, Sir 
Thomas 

G(§rando, Joseph-Marie, Baron de, ix 24; 
132 ; member of Extraordinary Junta for 
Tuscany, 399 

Gerard, Balthasar, alias Frangois Guyon, 
III 258 sq. , 

Gerard, Comte Etienne-Maurice, Marshal 
of France, and Belgian campaign, ix 
625; 627; x 478; 494; 542 

Gerbert. See Sylvester II, Pope 

Gerbet, Olympe-Philippe, Bishop of Per- 
pignan. See Perpignan 

Gerhardt, Paul, hymns of, iv 425; v 648; 
758 

G(5ricault, J.-L.-T.-A., French painter, ix 
135; X 103 

Geringer, Baron Karl Gabriel von. Gover- 
nor of Hungary, xi 216 

Gerlach, Leopold von, Prussian general, 

XI 51; 191; 396 sq. 

Ludwig von, Prussian politician, xi 

61 ; 160 ; 192 sq. ; 220 ; and Kreuzzeitung 
party, 396 ; 397 ; xn 826 

Germ, The, Pre-Eaphaelite organ, xi 357 



Germain, George Sackville. See Sackville, 
Viscount 

Germaine de Foix, 2nd consort of Ferdi- 
nand V (II), King of Spain, i 127 ; dowry 
of, 363 ; 366, 377 

German Order (of Knights), 1 293, 343, 345; 
conversion of territory of, into duchy 
of Prussia, ii 169; 599, 635; collapse 
of, and restoration to Poland of lands of, 
m 73; transfer of rights of, in Livonia, 
by Kettler, v 493 sq. ; 621, 624 sq.; work 
of, in Prussia, 630 sqq.; decline of, 632 
sqq. ; 665 ; Grand Master of, and Im- 
perial Eecess of 1803, ix 94 

Germania, of Valencia (brotherhood of 
trade-guilds), rebellion of, i 376 sq. 

Germanic Confederation, The, ix 659 sq. ; 
667; (1852-62), Vol. xi. Chap, xv (1); 
459 

Germanos, Archbishop of Patras. See 
Patras 

Germantown, Washington attacks, vii 213, 
217 

Germany 

I ix Germany and the Empire, 288- 

328 

XV Economic Change, passim, 493- 
531 

xvi The Classical Kenaissance, especi- 
ally 671-4 
[See also xvii, xviii and xix, passim] 

II ii and iii, Habsburg and Valois, 

passim, 36-103 
iv Luther, passim, 104-41 
V National Opposition to Eome in 

Germany, 142-73 
vi Social Eevolution and Catholic 

Eeaction in Germany, 174-205 
vii Conflict of Creeds and Parties in 

Germany, 206-45 
viii Eeligious War in Germany, 246- 

79 
xix Tendencies of European Thought 

in the Age of the Eeformation, 

passim, 690-718 

III v The Empire under Ferdinand I 

and Maximilian II, passim, 
140-81 
xxi The Empire under Eudolf II, 
passim, 696-735 

IV i The Outbreak of the Thirty Years' 

War, passim, 1-34 
iii The Protestant Collapse (1620-30), 

passim, 64-117 
vi Gustavus Adolphus, passim, 190- 

222 
vii Wallenstein and Bernard of 

Weimar (1632-5), passim, 223- 

55 
xiii The later years of the Thirty 

Years' War (1635-48), 364-94 
xiv The Peace of Westphalia, 395- 

433 
XX The Scandinavian North (1559- 

1660), passim, 560-91 



General Index, 



365 



Germany {contd.) 

V xiv (i) The War of the Spanish 

Succession, (ii) The Peace of 
Utrecht and the Supplementary 
Pacifications, passim, 401-59 
XI The Origin of the Kingdom of 

Prussia, 61&-38 
xxi The Great Elector and the first 

Prussian King, 639-72 
xxiv Latitudinarianism and Pietism, 
passim, 742-63 

VI viii The War of the Austrian Suc- 

cession, passim, 201-50 
ix The Seven Years' War, passim, 
251-300 
xviii Joseph II, passim, 626-56 
xxiv The Eomantic movement in 
European literature, 822-37 
viu XXV [The Aufkldrung in Germany], 

772 sqq. 
IX ix The Third Coalition, I (1805-6), 
passim, 244-64 
X The Third Coalition, II (1806-7), 
passim, 265-93 
xix The Congress of Vienna, I (1814- 

5), passim, 576-602 
xxi The Congress of Vienna, II (1815), 
passim, 647-71 
[See also Chaps, iv, xi, xiv, and 
Prussia] 
z xi The Germanio Federation (1815- 
40), 340-82 
xii Literature in Germany, 383-412 
xxiii Economic Change, passim, 727-62 

XI iii Libei'alism and Nationality in 

Germany and Austria (1840-8), 
43-64 

vi The Revolution and the Reaction 

in Germany and Austria, I 

(1848-9), 142-201 

vii The Revolution and the Reaction in 

Germany and Austria, II 202-33 

XV Austria, Prussia, and the Ger- 
manic Confederation 

(1) Reaction and Reorganisa- 

tion (1852-62), 393-410 

(2) German Literature (1840- 

70), 411-20 
xvi Bismarck and German Unity, 

432-66 
xxi The Franco-German War (1870-1), 

576-612 

XII vi The German Empire (1871-1910), 

134-73 
XX The European Colonies, passim, 
602-71 
xxiii Social movements, passim, 730-65 
[See also the Empire and the 
various German States, especi- 
ally Prussia] 
Germersheim, Mansfeld at, iv 80; 84; 

Charles of Lorraine at, vi 240 
Geroldseck, Diebold von, controversy be- 
tween Zwingii and, n 321; death of, 
at Kappel, 337 



Gerona, taken by French (1694), v 61, 
(1711), 428; fortress of, Duhesme attacks 
(1808), IX 439; besieged by Saint-Cyr 
(1809), 448, 454-5; fall of, ib., 457 
Gerry, Elbridge, Massachusetts deputy at 
Constitutional Convention (1787), vii 
246, 274 sq., 280, 285, 289, 293 sq., 321 
Gerson, Jean, ii 281 
Gerst, Republican rising in, xi 137 
Gerstenberg, Heinrich Wilhelm von, x 386 
Gertruydenberg, peace negotiations at, v 
427, 430, 452; captured by French 
(1793), vm 419, (1795), 436 
Gervinus, Georg Gottfried, expelled from 
Hanover, x 379 sq.; xi 62; 164; xn 
826 
Gesenius, F. H. Wilhelm, German Hebraist, 

x382; xn846 
Gesner, Conrad, bibliographer and natural- 
ist, I 611, 615; 618; and botanical 
studies, v 734, 736, 738 

Jean, Swiss scholar and botanist, vi 

625 
Gessi, Egyptian officer, xn 439; 441 
Gessner, Solomon, Swiss poet and man of 

letters, vm 781 
Gettysburg, battle of (1863), vn 488 sqq., 

616 
Geulincx of Antwerp, at Louvain, rv 789 
Gewitsch, Field-marshal Daun at, vi 277 

sq. 
Gex, Savoy recovers, in 405, 419; ex- 
changed for Saluzzo, 677 
Geyer, Florian, leader of Franconian 

peasants, n 182, 188; death of, 190 
Gezzar, kills Sultan's messengers at Acre, 

IX 385; death of, 387 
Ghadames, explorers in, xii 808 
Ghazipur, opium factory at, xii 485 
Ghazni, xi 731; captured, 732; 733; 735 
Ghent, struggle between Philip the Good 
and, I 427 ; gilds at, 428 ; rivalry between 
Bruges, Ypres and, 428-9; Peace of 
(1492), 450; Charles V and, 458; rebellion 
of 1539 in, ii 74 sq., 98, 236; suppressed, 
238; Charles V at (1540), iii 114 ; Pacifi- 
cation of, 181, 246-7, 250-1; Chapter of 
Golden Fleece assembled at (1559), 187; 
Egmont and Hoorn imprisoned at, 215, 
218; States of Flanders at, 244; Con- 
gress at, 245 sq.; Spaniards expelled 
from, 248, 250 sqq.; taken by Parma, 
618; 630; restored to Spain (1679), v 45; 
captured by French (1678), 164, 219, 
420; captured by Marlborough (1706), 
416 ; 421 sq. ; 457 sq. ; vi 243 ; seized by 
Belgians, 652; Peace of (1814), vn 
347, 349, IX 622; and the fisheries dis- 
pute, vn 362 sqq.; Austrian defeat at 
(1789), vin 329; Louis XVIII at, x 44; 
industries at, 524, 533; 626; plots at, 
539 ; 746 ; and the Liberal cause, xi 67i ; 
socialism at, xn 252; 755 

Maurice de Broglie, Bishop of, x 

625 sq. 

23 



366 



General Index. 



Gheria, pirate stronghold, vi 631 
Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cino, Florentine 

sculptor, I 548 
Ghilzais, The, Afghan tribe, xi 733 
Ghislieri, Michele. See Pius V, Pope 

Marquis, Austrian ambassador, z 

132 
Ghulam Kadir, official at Delhi, ix 719 
Ghyka, Prince Alexander, Hospodar of 
Wallachia, xi 282 
Prince Gregory, Hospodar of Mol- 
davia, XI 284; 643 
Giacinto, Corsican leader, vi 609 
Giacometti, Paolo, Italian playwright, xi 

548 
Giacomini, Antonio, Florentine captain, 

I 191, 197 
Gialong, King of Annam, xn 523 
Giammaria, Count of Verrucchio, n 18 
Gianni, Tuscan minister, vi 602 
Giannone, Pietro, Neapolitan historian, 

VI 588 sq. ; 694 
Gibbon, Edward, historian, vi 837; vin 18; 

XI 363; xn 817; 845 
Gibbs, Josiah Willard, physicist, xn 785 
Giberti, Giammateo. See Verona, Bishops of 
Gibraltar, Bay of, fleet under Santa Cruz 
in, in 500; Spanish fleet attacked at 
(1607), 539, 639; scheme for occupation 
of, IV 484; capture of (1704), v 413; siege 
of (1705), ih., 416; 444; Alberoni and, 
VI 31 ; 35 ; 38 sq. ; 57 sq. ; siege of (1727), 
59, 145, 342a (in Vol. xiii), 376, 379 sq. ; 
452 ; Treaty of Seville and, 60 ; 63 ; 65 ; 
British fleet at, 68 ; George I and, 126 ; 
Spain and, 138 sqq. ; 147 sqq. ; 157; 
Admiral Haddock at, 236; 239; 350; 
365 ; 376 ; secret negotiations concerning, 
377 sq.; 381; 464; Spanish blockade of 
(1781), vn 231; 331; threatened (1779-83), 
vm 92; Danish ships searched at, ix 
45; Ganteaume passes Straits of, 53; 
Saumarez withdraws to, 54 ; strategic im- 
portance of, 210; Villeneuve near, 220; 
Nelson near, 225; ships despatched to, 
229 ; Nelson and, 230 ; a centre of English 
commerce, 381; plot at, x 230; General 
Prim lands at, xi 569 
Gibson, Thomas Milner, and Conspiracy 

Bill, XI 328 
Gide, Charles, French socialist, xn 124 
Gi6, Pierre de Rohan, Marshal de, French 

general at Fornovo, i 117 
Gielgud, Anton, Polish general, x 472 
Gien, Court at, saved by Turenne, iv 616 
Gierke, Otto, German historian, xn 850 
Giers, Nicholas de, Russian Foreign 

Minister, xn 313 
Giesebrecht, Wilhelm von, German his- 
torian, xn 827 
Gieseler, Johann Carl Ludwig, German 

historian, xn 846 
Gifford, Gilbert, priest, ni 291 

William, editor of Quarterly Review ^ 

1x687; x699 



Gil, Juan (Egidio), Spanish reformer, n 

404 sq. 
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, m 300 ; colonisation 

projects of, vn 2, 52 

Ralegh, expedition of, to New 

England, vn 12 

Sir Walter Raleigh, lieutenant- 
general in India, xi 740 sqq. 

William, physician to Queen Eliza- 

beth, V 716 
Gilbert Island, annexation of, xn 667 
Gilds. See Craft-gilds 
Giles, Ernest, Australian explorer, xn 618 
Gilgit, British agency at, xn 487; 802 
Gillot, Jacques, in 70 
Gilmore, James Roberts, American author, 

vn 578 
Gilyan, Russia and, v 544 sq. 
Gindely, Anton, on Ranke, xn 827 
Ginetti, Cardinal, at Cologne, iv 396 
Gingi, fortress of, vi 539 
Ginguen^, Pierre-Louis, ix 132 
Ginkel, Godert de, 1st Earl of Athlone. 

See Athlone 
Gioberti, Vincenzo, n 35 ; x 128 ; writings 

of, 166 sq. ; 168 ; Primato, xi 65 sq. ; 

Prolegomeni al Primato, 67 sq. ; 70 sq. ; 

73; 76; 90; Ministry of, 93, 646 sq.; 

and Pius IX, 705; 712 
Giocondo, Fra, ii 12 
Giori, Valtelline general, at Misox, iv 48 

sqq. 
Gioia, Melchiorre, Italian writer, x 128 
Giolitti, Giovanni, Italian statesman, xn 

218 sq. ; 223 ; Ministry of, 225 sqq. 
Giordani, Pietro, Italian writer, x 128 
Giordano, Italian brigand, xi 531 
Giorgio, Domenico, Italian Lutheran, n 

387 
Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli), i 284 
Giorgis, de, Italian general, in Macedonia, 

xn 426 
Giovenale, Latino, the Oratory of Divine 

Love and, n 379 
Giovio, Paolo (Paulus Jovius), i 545, 560, 

568 ; n 15, 21 ; in 114, 394 ; v 512 
Gipps, Sir George, Governor of New South 

Wales, XI 795 
Giraldi, Giovanbattista (Cinthio), ni 467 sq., 

472 
Girard, Albert, mathematician, v 710 

Gr^goire, Swiss Franciscan friar, xi 

239 

Baron Jean-Baptiste, French general, 

IX 525-6 

Philippe-Henri de, inventor of flax- 
spinning-machine, IX 125, X 755 

Girardin, Emile de, x 492; xi 127; 526; 

xn 110 
Giraud, Charles, French statesman, xi 

135 

P.-F.-F.-J., French writer, vra 380 

Girodet-Trioson, Anne-Louis Girodet de 

Roussy, painter, ix 135 ; xi 528 
Giron, Pietro, leader of Gomururos, i 374 



General Index, 



367 



Gironde. See Girondins 

Girondins, viii 213, 248 sqq.; failure of, 

253 sq., 256 sq.; and the King's trial, 

264 sqq., 259, 262 ; responsibility of, for 

the King's death, 261 ; Danton and, 264, 

267, 269; 270 sq.; fall of, 275, 338 sq.; 

346 ; proscription of, 350 ; trial and end 

of, 357 
Girton College, xn 762 
Gislikon, battle at, xi 251 
Gistera, Carl, Austrian Minister of Interior, 

XII 185 sq. 
Gitschin, acquired by Wallenstein, iv 73; 

Wallenstein and Bubna at, 234; xi 452 ; 

Prussians in, 453 
Giudiee, Cardinal, vi 123 
Giusti, Giuseppe, poet, x 126 ; xi 68 ; 546 
Giustinianl, A., ambassador at Eome (1502), 

i240 
Lorenzo, 1st Patriarch of Venice, 

I 267 
Paolo, reformer of the Camaldolese, 

n647 

Taddeo, i 259 

Papal Nuncio, x 142 

Giza, Pyramids of, xii 433 

Gizzi, Pasquale, Cardinal-Legate at Forli, 
X 156 ; Papal Secretary of State, xi 76 sq. ; 
703 

Gjatsk, Napoleon at, ix 494 

Gjoe, Mogens, High Steward of Denmark, 
n 611, 614 

Gladstone, Herbert John Gladstone, Vis- 
count, Governor- General of South Africa, 
xn648 

William Ewarfc, x 110 ; 655 ; 667 ; 

Under-Secretary to Board of Trade, xi 
2; 4; and Maynooth College grant, 9; 
10; 21; first Budget of, 310 sq.; resigns, 
320 ; opposes Divorce Bill, 326 sq. ; 328 ; 
330; Chancellor of Exchequer (1859), 
331 ; 333 ; financial policy of, 334 sq. ; 
337; introduces Eeform Bill of 1866, 
339; rivalry of, with Disraeli, 342 sq.; 
and Irish Disestablishment, 344 sq. ; 345 ; 
and Neapolitan trials, 379; 577; 764 sq.; 
and Anglo-French Treaty of Commerce, 
470; xii 14; policy of, 23 sq. ; Minis- 
try of (1868-74), 23 sqq.; and Disraeli, 
30; 31; anti- Turkish agitation by, 32; 
34 sq.; Ministry of (1880-5), 36 sqq.; 
42; Home Rule BiU of (1886), 43 sq. ; 
resigns, 45; Ministry oi (1892-4), 49 
sqq.; retires, 61; 61; disestablishes Irish 
Church, 66 sq. ; and Irish land question, 
67, 70; and Irish education, 70 sqq.; 77; 
Irish Land Act of, 79 sq. ; 81 sq. ; resigns 
(1885), 83; and Irish Home Rule, 84, 87; 
and Germany, 161 ; and Montenegro, 402 ; 
and Greece, 403, 408; and Armenian 
question, 416, 418; and the "Bulgarian 
Atrocities," 384; and Egyptian affairs, 
437, 439; and the Sudan, 440; and 
Gordon relief expedition, 442 ; 444 ; 458 ; 
472; and Free Trade, 743 ; 760 



Glamorgan, Edward Somerset (Lord 
Herbert), 6th Earl and 2nd Marquis of 
Worcester, titular Earl of, iv 328 ; Irish 
treaty and, 338; and Ormonde, 628; 
arrest of, 629; 630 

Gland6ves, naval commander at Toulon, 

VIII 448 

Glanfynne, lands of, in 613 

Glanvill, Joseph, divine, v 762 

Glapion, Jean, n 148 

Glareanus. See Loriti 

Glarus, Zwingli at, n 307 sqq.; manufacture 
of cotton goods at, ix 426 ; industrial 
legislation in, xi 260 

Glasgow, Darnley at, m 273; v 286; 
covenanting students at, 287; Union 
riots in, 299 ; vi 99 ; Malt Tax riot in, 
107; 115; and Irish trade, 496; riot 
at (1820), X 682; financial crisis in, 
XI 327; University, xn 71 
Archbishop of. See Cairncross 

Assembly, iv 284; 500 sqq. 

Glatz, VI 229; ceded to Prussia, 235, 244; 

242 ; and Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 249 ; 

279 ; capitulates, 294 ; 297 sq. ; regained 

by Prussia, 300; 326; 339 sq.; 632 
Glauber, Johann Rudolf, chemist, v 731 
Glayon, Seigneur de, Dutch Councillor of 

State, m 194 
Gleichman, Johan George, Dutch Finance 

Minister, xn 244 
Gleim, Johann Wilhelm Ludwig, German 

poet, vni 773 
Glencaim, Alexander Cunningham, 5th 

Earl of, n 558, 673; in 271 

William Cunningham, 4th Earl of, 

n 466 sqq. 

Glencoe, massacre of (1692), v 294 

Glenconkein, forest of, in 609 

Glenelg, Charles Grant, Lord, influence of, 

IX 717; and East India Company, 728 
sqq. ; President of Board of Trade, x 645 

Glenfinnan, Prince Charles in, vi 112 
Glenmalure, battle of (1580), in 598, 602 
Glenshiel, Pass of, Jacobites in, vi 106 
Glisson, Francis, anatomist, v 729 ; 733 
Globe, Le, French journal, x 95; 98; 103 
Globig, H. A. F. von, Saxon plenipoten- 
tiary at Congress of Vienna, ix 587 
Glogau, given to Wallenstein, iv 213 ; taken 
by Swedes, 386; v 693; principality 
of, 654 ; VI 229 sq. ; Kyau's retreat to, 
274; 276; taken by Jerome (1806), ix 
281 ; evacuation of, demanded (1808), 
318; Reynier at, 612; fortress of, 614 
Gloucester, Parliamentary garrison at, iv 
314; siege of, 315, 317, v 746 

Humphrey, Duke of, i 598 

William, Duke of (son of Queen 

Anne), v 276; vi 6; 8 

William Henry, Duke of, marriage 

of, VI 446 ^ 

Glucksburg, Christian, Prince of, xi 226 sq. 

Due de. See Decazes, Louis-C.-:6.-A. 

Glutz, Robert, Swiss historian, xi 261 



2a— 2 



368 



General Index. 



Gmunden, Treaty of (1514), between Maxi- 
milian I and Tsar WasUiei IvanoviS, 
I 343 

Gneisenau, Augustus Neidhardt, Count, 
Prussian Marshal, defender of Kolberg, 
IX 291; 328, 332; favours alliance of 
Austria with Prussia, 344; in Silesia, 
614; character of, 624 ; 542,643; illness 
of, 651 ; advice of, 692 ; 631 ; hesitation 
of, before Waterloo, 637 ; x 349 ; 365 

Gneist, H. Eudolph von, historian, xii 
850 

Gnesen, Canonry of, in 76 ; shrine at, v 
629 

Gnesen, Archbishops of (Primates of Po- 
land) :— 

Jacob Uchanski (1562-81), m 81 ; 

84 ; Interrex of Poland, 90, 96 

Michael Stefan Badziejowski, Cardi- 
nal, V 692 

Nicholas Dziergowski (1546-59), m 

78 

Stanislas Karnkowski (1581-1604) 

(Bishop of Cujavia), in 83, 90 

Goa, capture of, by Alburquerque, i 31 sq.; 
Dutch adventurers at, in 632; Stevens 
at, IV 729; Anglo-Dutch expedition to, 
738; Portuguese and, 744, ix 717; British 
occupy, 731 

Gobelins factory, v 11 

Gobi, desert of, xn 792; 802; 805 

Goch, John of. See Pupper 

Godard, F., French advocate, vin 733 

Thomas, Indian general, vi 576 

Godefroi, Denys and Jacques, m 58 
Godeheu, Director of French East India 

Company, vi 542 sqq. 
Goderich, Viscount. See Eipon, Earl of 
Godfrey, Sir Edmund Berry, murder of, 

V 221 sq., 224, 334 

Godolphin, Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of, 

V 247 ; and James II, 262 ; 271 ; 274 ; 
298; 427; and Marlborough, 428 sq., 
460 sq. ; 440 ; character of, 461 ; and party 
government, 463 sqq. ; and Harley, 465 ; 
466 ; dismissal of, 469 ; 595 ; 701 ; vi 11 

Sir William, English ambassador in 

Spain, V 220 

Godoy, Manuel de, Duke of Alcudia, Prince 
of the Peace and of Bassano, Spanish 
statesman, vin 442, 782 ; ix 301-2 ; pro- 
clamation of (1806), 428; alarm of, 430; 
fall of, 431 sqq.; his rule, 434; and 
Spanish arsenals, 435 ; x 207; in Kome, 
213 
God's World, Eussian journal, xn 313 
Godunoff, Boris, Tsar. See Boris 

Theodore, Tsarevich, v 499 

Godwin, Sir Henry Thomas, commander 

in the Burmese War, xi 742 

William, writer, vm 761; 766; x 

700; 712; 774; PoliticalJustice, yiS^Q, 
vm 767 sqq., x 778 sq. 

Goben, August von, German general, xi 
686 sq.; 610 



Gdding, retreat of Eussians and Austrians 

to (1805), IX 261 
Gohlsdorf, fighting at (1813), ix 530 
Gohrde, French defeated on the (1813), 

IX 530 
Goldli, George, leader of the forces of 

Zurich, n 337 

Heinrich, Zwingli and, n 307 

Gollersdorf, Wallenstein at, it 212 
Goens, Eyklof van, Dutch naval com- 
mander, V 696 

Gorgei, Arthur von, xi 185; career of, 203; 
and Kossuth, 203 sq., 212; Hungarian 
Commander-in-chief, 205; 206; Minister 
of War, 207; defeated at Pered, 210; at 
Arad, 211; surrenders to the Eussians, 
212 sq. ; interned at Klagenfurt, 214 

Gorlitz, VI 264; 268; 274; Austrian army 
in, 282; 289 sqq.; Macdonald at, ix 525; 
Bliicher at, 631 

Gorres, Joseph von, Rothes Blatt, vm 775 ; 

IX 91; editor of Eheinischer Merkur^ 
511, X 352; ix695; x 160; Athanasius, 
165; 341; and Federal Diet, 347; 350; 
353; 362; 365; recalled by Ludwig I, 
371; ecclesiasticism of, 380; 401 sq.; 
XI 49; xn 848 

Gortz, George Henrik, Baron, Swedish 
statesman, v 682; 609; 613 sq. ; vi 26 
sqq.; execution of, 34; 104 

Johann Eustach, Graf von Schlitz, 

Prussian ambassador to the Hague, vm 
286 ; at Eastatt, 641 

Gorz, the Counts of, Venice and, i 263 sq. 
Goes, Damiao de, Portuguese Eeformer, u 

414 sq. 
Goess, Count, Imperial envoy at the Hague, 

V 432 

Goesvort. See Wessel, John 

Gota canal, xi 684 sq. 

Goteborg, Charles IX and, iv 176 sq.; 
208; 661; attacked by Christian IV, 
571; Charles X at, 686, 589; vi 765; 
779 sq. ; port of, vm 280 ; threatened by 
the Danes, 325; General Moore at, ix 
322; industrial college at, xi 684; 685; 
fortifications of, xn 277; University of, 
280 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, v 755; 763; 

VI 824; 826 sqq.; 832 sqq.; vm 773 sq.; 
Napoleon's interview with, ix 319; 335; 

X 383; and Herder, 386; Gotz von 
Berlichingen, ib., 386 sqq.; Die Leiden 
des jungen Werthers, 387 sq. ; 389 ; at 
Court of Saxe- Weimar, 389; in Italy, 
389 sq.; Schiller and, 390 sqq.; 400; 403 
sq.; and Eomantic movement, 407 sqq.; 
death of, 410; 411; xi 347; 365; 411 
sqq.; 415; 418; 420; 424; 430 

Gotter, Baron, Prussian envoy to Vienna, 
VI 229 

Gottingen, Wallenstein near, iv 94 ; 96 sq.; 
evacuation of, vi 426 ; Bemadotte marches 
from, IX 263; University of, 329, 411, 
X 379; students' disturbance at, 364; 



General Index, 



369 



Hainbund at, 387; historical study at, 
xn 817, 823, 827 
Gotz, Christian, Austrian general, xi 206 

Count von, Imperialist general, de- 
vastates Hesse-Cassel, iv 371 ; 375 sq. ; 
superseded, 377; 389 

Goez, Benedict, in the Pamirs, xn 800; 

802 
Goezman, Louis - Valentin, and Beau- 

marchais, vi 358 
Goffe, William, regicide, vn 25 
Gogh, Vincent van, Dutch painter, xn 

249 
Gogol, Nicholas, Eussian writer, xi 262; 

649 sq. 
Gohad, E^jah of, ix 726 sq. 
Gohier, Louis Jerome, Director, vni 669 

sq., 675, 678 sqq. 
Goislard de Monsabert, French politician, 

vm 110 
Goito, French force at (1701), v 402; 

battle of (1848), xi 86 
Gokla, Indian general, xi 726 
Golab Sing, ruler of Kashmir, xi 740 
Golconda, War of, with Aurungzeb, v 697 

sq., VI 622; Shah Jeh4n and, 518; 619 

520; 521 
Gold Coast, discovery of, by Gomes, i 16 

Dutch voyages to, in 631 sq. ; English 

forts on, IV 759; settlement on, v 691 

trade with, vi 187; Great Britain and, 

xn 658; 660 
Goldbach, French position along the (1805), 

IX 260 

secretary to Bestuzheff, vi 317 

Goldberg (Silesia), Poles in, in 78 

(Mecklenburg), Saxons repulsed at, 

IV 366 

Golden Book, of Venice, i 273 

Bull (1222), V 367, (1356), i 291 sq. 

Fleece, Knights of, quarrel with 

Maximihan I, i 446; m 698; vi 140 

Horn, Eussian warship in, v 527 

Goldenberg, assassinates Prince Kropotkin, 

xn 306 
Goldoni, Carlo, Italian dramatist, vi 606 
Goldsborough, Schofield advances on, vn 

528; Sherman at, 530 
Goldsmith, Oliver, vi 828; 833; x 697; 

701; 724 
Goletta, captured by Spaniards, n 69 
Golfe Jouan, French fleet in, vin 458 
Goliad (Texas), massacre at (1836), vn 

392 
Golokhvastoff, and Eussian reform, xn 313 
Golombo, Czarniecki defeated at, iv 582 
Oolos, St Petersburg journal, xi 625 
Golovin, Alexander, Eussian Minister of 

Education, xi 624; xn 295; 299; 315 

Count Theodore, Eussian statesman 

and field-marshal, v 523; 527; 588 

Golovkin, Gabriel Ivanovich, Count, Eus- 
sian Grand Chancellor, v 555; vi 303 

Count Grigorii, ix 36; 38 

Count Jourij, x 427 



Golovkin, Count, Eussian ambassador in 
Sweden (1728), v 555 

Golovnin, Zemstvo president in Moscow, 
xn 327; 329; at the Moscow congress, 
355 sq. 

Goltz, Augustus Frederick Ferdinand, 
Major von der, ix 292; concludes alli- 
ance between Austria and Prussia (1809), 
344; X 346 

Count Bernard Wilhelm von der, 

Prussian envoy, vin 441 

Colmar, Baron von der, German 

general (1870), xi 589 

Eobert Heinrich Ludwig von der. 

Count, XI 396; Prussian ambassador in 
Paris, 483 

Goluchowski, Count Agenor, Austrian 
statesman, xi 404; xn 178; 206; 211 

Golymin, battle at (1806), ix 284 

Gomarus, Franciscus (F. Gomar), in 646 
sq. 

Gomes, Femam, explores Gold Coast, i 
16, 19 

Gomez, Euy. See Eboli, Prince of 

Carlist general, x 238 

Gomez Labrador, Don Pedro, at the Con- 
gress of Vienna, ix 584 ; 589, 602, x 211 ; 
and the slave trade, ix 614; 652 

Gomperz, Theodor, German historian, xn 
845 

Gongalvez, Antam, Portuguese explorer, i 
12 sq. 

Gondar, James Bruce at, xn 805 

Gondi. See Eetz 

Gondokoro, xn 439; explorers at, 809 

Gondomar, Diego Sarmiento d'Acuna.Count 
of, ambassador to England, in 559-61; 
returns (1620), 567 sq., iv 34; James I 
ruled by, in 567 sq., 574 sq., iv 626, 
640 sq. ; and Ealegh, 754 sq. 

Gondrin, Archbishop of Sens. See Sens 

Gonesius, Peter, Polish Eeformer, n 
637 

Gontaut Biron, Anne-Armand-lElie, Vicomte 
de, xn 107 

Gonzaga, Marquises and Dukes of Mantua. 

See Mantua 
Dukes of Nevers. See Nevers 

Ercole di. Cardinal of Mantua, at 

the Council of Trent, n 394, 676 sqq. ; 
death of, 682 

Elizabeth di. Duchess of Urbino. 

See Urbino 

Fernando (Ferrante) di, Count of 

Guastalla, Governor of Sicily, n 70, 
in 114; of Milan, n 81, in 400; and 
Piacenza, ii 83 sqq. ; 88, 268 

Julia (wife of V. Colonna), 

Duchess of Traietto, n 33, 390 sq. ; in 
109; 466 

Mary di. See Maiy di Gonzaga, 

Queen of Poland 

Vincent di, Duke of Guastalla (1702), 

V 403 ^ 

Gonzales, Juan, Spanish Eeformer, n 406 



370 



General Index, 



Gonz&lez Bravo, Luis ("Ibrahim Clarete"), 

journalist, x 241; Spanish Minister, xi 

650 sq.; 658; 566; 668; Ministry of, 569 

Gonzalo de Cordova. See Cordova 

Gooch, Daniel W. , American politician, vii 

469 
Goodman, Christopher, n 685, 691, 696 
Goodrich, Sir John, British ambassador in 
Sweden, vi 770 

Thomas, Bishop of Ely, n 517 

Goodwin, John, works of, burnt at Oxford, 

VI 807 
Thomas, Westminster Assembly and, 

IV 319 ; Independent leader, 359 
Googe, Barnaby, m 367 

Gookin, Daniel, and St Brandan's Isle, iv 

766 
Gora, taken by Poniatovski (1809), ix 354 
Gorani, Count Joseph, Italian publicist, 

VIII 778 
Gorboduc, by Sackville and Norton, in 367 
Gorchak6ff, Alexander, Prince, Kussian 
Chancellor, at Vienna, xi 321 ; 434 ; and 
Prussia, 456, 577; 628; Asiatic policy 
of, 680 sqq. ; and Crete, 634 ; and Poland, 
660; 843; and France, xn 97, 141; 138; 
343; 387; at Congress of Berlin, 394; 
and Russian advance in Asia, 464 ; death 
of, 318 

Prince, removed from Viatka (1908), 

XII 376 

Gordon Castle, Jacobite rising at, vi 98 

riots, V 337; X 622; 625 

Alexander, of Aiichintoul, Jacobite 

general, vi 108 

Alexander Gordon, 2nd Duke of 

(Marquis of Huntly), vi 98; 102 

Charles George (" Chinese Gordon"), 

XI 821; XII 40; in Egypt, 439 sqq.; in 
Khartum, 442 sq.; 444; 812 

George Gordon, 1st Duke of, v 290 sq. 

Lord George, iii 268, 270; vi 455 

Lady Jane, ni 274 

John, Colonel, at Eger, iv 242 

John B., Confederate general, vii 

540 sq. 

Lady Katharine, marriage of Perkin 

Warbeck to, i 469 

Lord Lewis, Jacobite, vi 115 

Patrick, in Eussia, v 523 

Sir Robert, x 21; 32 

Thomas, Jacobite agent in Eussia, 

V 643 

Thomas, colonel, joins the Greek in- 
surgents, X 182 

Admiral, at Danzig, vi 197 

Gordonsville, Confederate army at (1862), 

vn 472 
Goree, taken by Dutch (1617), iv 759; 

v 60; 179; ceded to France (1678), 692; 

retained (1762), vi 347, 428; abandoned 

to British (1779), 452; ceded to France 

(1783), 464 
Goremfkin, Russian Minister of Interior, 

xn 326; 328; Prime Minister, 366 sq.; 368 



Gorgast, Prussian army at, vi 280 
Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, and the settlement 

of Maine, vn 21 sq.; death of, 24 
Ferdinando (grandson of above), vn 

27 
Gorham, George Cornelius, Vicar of Bramp- 

ford Speke, xi 18 

Nathaniel, Massachusetts deputy at 

the Constitutional Convention (1787), vn 
246, 257, 266, 268, 282, 295, 297 

Goria, annexed by Eussia, x 413 
Goring, George, the elder. See Norwich, 
Earl of 

Colonel George, Baron Goring, plot 

of, IV 289 sq. ; 304 ; surrenders Ports- 
mouth, 305; and Puritanism, 306; 319; 
321 ; at Marston Moor, 322 ; 324 ; in the 
West, 330 sqq. ; in France, 334 

Gorka, Andreas, Castellan of Posen, n 636 ; 

iu75 
Gorky, Maxim, xn 13; 330 
Gorst, Sir John Eldon, Under-Secretary 

for India, xii 45 

Sir Eldon, and Egyptian affairs, xn 

450; 456 

Gortcbakoff, Pierre, Prince, at Shevardino, 

IX 494 ; at Bautzen, 519 
Goschen, George Joachim Goschen, 1st 

Viscount, xn 23 ; 29 ; 36 ; mission of, to 

Constantinople, 37; 43; Chancellor of 

Exchequer, 45 sqq. ; First Lord of 

Admiralty, 52; 403; and Egyptian 

Finances, 434 
Goslar, Brunswick-Liineburg Dukes at, iv 

408; acquired by Hanover, ix 658 
Gospels, The Apocryphal, early printed 

editions of, i 613 
Gossembrot, Sigismund, of Augsburg, i 

324 
Gosson, Stephen, in 372 
Gotha, army at, vi 265 ; 266 ; 270 ; " Union " 

meeting at, xi 221 ; socialist congress at, 

XII 153 
Gothenburg. See Goteborg 
Gothofredus (Denys Godefroy), French 

scholar, i 577 
Gothus, Laurentius Petri. See Upsala, 

Archbishops of 
Gotland, iv 561; ceded to Sweden (1646), 

572; West, v 569 
Goto, Japanese Minister of Public Works, 

XI 861; 865 
Gotthelf, Jeremias. See Bitzius, Albert 
Gottorp, ducal line of, iv 563; 672; and 

Denmark, vi 736, 741. See also Holstein- 

Gottorp 
Gottsched, Johann Christoph, German 

critic, V 68; x 384; 396; 406 
Gouda, convention at (1610), in 647; the 

Princess of Orange arrested near, vm 

287 

de, papal envoy, m 267 

Goudanus (Nicholas Floris), m 149 
Goudchaux, Michel, French politician, xi 

26; 99; Minister of Finance, 104; 304 



General Index. 



371 



Gough, Sir Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount, in 
India, xi 738 sqq., 745 

Gouj on, Jean - M. - C. - Alexandre, French 
politician, vm 388 

Goulard, Marc-Thomas-Eug^ne de, French 
Minister of Interior, xn 106 

Goulbum, Hemy, x 685 sqq.; 615; Chief 
Secretary for Ireland, 637; 642; Chan- 
cellor of Exchequer, xi 2; 762; 790 

Gourara, French occupation of, xn 129 

Gourgaud, Gaspard, Baron, French general, 
at St Helena, ix 757; 759; xi 102 

Gourmont, Gilles de, French printer, i 
676 

Gournay, Vincent de, French economist, 
vm 22, 24 

Gouvion, Jean-Baptiste, French politician, 
vm 213 

Saint-Cyr, Laurent, French marshal, 

vm 638, 659; withdraws from Otranto, 

IX 193 ; 254 ; surrender of Eohan to, 258 ; 
takes Eosas, 448; besieges fortress of 
Gerona, 454; replaced by Augereau, 
457; and the Eussian campaign, 488; 
499 ; at Berlin, 512 ; 514 ; guards Dresden, 
623; 526, 529; holds Erzgebirge, 530-2; 

X 20; 54; scheme of, for army reform, 
65; 57; 61; resigns, 62 

Govea, Andr6 de, at Bordeaux, in 69 
Govemolo, occupied by King Charles Albert, 

XI 88 

Govind E4o (of Gujarat), ix 726 

Chandra, Eajah of Kachar, xi 730 

Gower, Earl. See Stafford, Marquis of 

George Granville Leveson-Gower, 

Lord (afterwards Ist Duke of Sutherland), 
vm 292, 296; recalled from Paris (1792), 
297 sq. 

Gowrie, William (Lord Euthven), Earl of, 

m 550 
Goyon, Charles-M.-A. de. See Feltre, Due 

de 
Gozzadini, Giovanni, ii 17 
Graaf, Eegnier de, anatomist, v 731 
Graaff-Eeinet, Boers of, surrender, ix 749 ; 

district of, xi 778 
Grabovski, Stanislaus, Polish statesman, 

X 452 
Gradenigo, Pietro, Doge of Venice, i 261, 

268, 273 

Venetian captain, in 113 

Grado, patriarchate of, created, i 267 
Gradovsky, Eussian politician, xii 311 
Graeff, Cornells de, v 145 

Gratz, Imperial Court withdraws to, iv 
389; seminary at, vi 637; revolutionary 
movement at, xi 155; 187 

Graf, Arturo, Italian writer, xn 231 

Carl Heinrich, German orientalist, 

and Old Testament study, xn 846 

Grafenfehde (Grevefeide) (Count's War), 
n 230, 614 

Grafton, Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd Duke 
of, VI 415; 424; 431; 435 sqq.; and 
East India Company, 488; 439; 442; 



444; resigns, 447; 448 sq. ; Lord Privy 
Seal, 467; 459; 463; 467; vn 152, 154, 
173 
Grafton, Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of, 
Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, vi 485 

Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of, v 247 

Graham, Sir Gerald, in Egypt, xn 441 

Sir James Eobert George, and par- 
liamentary reform, x 603 ; 614 ; 662 sq. ; 
667; 678; Home Secretary, xi 2; and 
Corn Laws, 3 sq., 9 sq. ; and Factory 
Acts, 4 sq.; 7; and Dublin Universitv, 
9; 21; resigns, 320; 765 

John, of Claverhouse, Viscount 

Dundee. See Dundee 

General Thomas. See Lynedoch 

Grahovo, Turkish defeat at, xi 636, xn 

414 
Grain Coast, trade with, vi 187 
Gramido, Convention of (1847), x 339 
Grammont, Gabriel de. See Tarbes, 

Bishop of 

West Indian buccaneer, v 691 

Gramont, A.-A. -Alfred, Due de. Foreign 

Minister, xi 493, 578; 495 

Grampound, disfranchisement of, x 601; 
605 

Gran, captured by Ferdinand, n 207 ; Soly- 
man demands keys of, m 108; sur- 
render demanded by Solyman from 
Ferdinand, 118; taken by Turks, 119; 
captured from the Turks (1683), v 363 

Peter Pazmany, Archbishop of, iv 75 

Granada, conquered by Ferdinand and 

Isabella (1492), i 224, 358 sq., 361 sq.; 
Treaty of (1500), 124; Moors in, m 493- 
4 ; Philip V at, vi 166 ; corps of Sebas- 
tiani at, ix 457 ; kingdom of, 469 ; tablets 
and parchments of, xi 713 

Ferdinand de Mendoza y Talavera, 

Archbishop of, i 360; 651 

Luis de, n 409 

Pedro Guerrero, Archbishop of, at 

the Council of Trent, n 676 sq., 680 

New. See New Granada 

Granby, John Manners, Marquis of, vi 

426; 434; Commander-in-chief, 437; 
439; 442 
Grand Alliance, of 1689, v 35, 57 sqq.; 
England and, 249; campaigns of, from 
the English point of view, 260 sqq.; 
of 1701, formation of, 398 sqq., 403, 
▼I 9 

Gulf, captured (1863), vn 503; 659 

sq. 

Eemonstrance, of 1641, rv 295 sqq. 

Trunk Pacific Eailway, xn 608 sq. ; 

613 

Vezirate, growth of power of, i 101 

Grandmaison, Michel (Moreau de), French 

revolutionary, vm 682 
"Granges," American political societies 

(1872), vn 646, 706 
Granja, La, Queen Isabel at, xi 656 
Granson, victory of Swiss at (1476), i 391 



372 



General Index, 



Grant, Charles. See Glenelg 

James, General, at St Luoia, vi 451 ; 

at Fort Duquesne, vii 136 
James, explores the Nile, xii 809 

General Sir James Hope, in India, 

XI 749 

Ulysses Simpson, captures Paducah, 

vn 463 ; early services of, 494 ; captures 
Forts Henry and Donelson, 495; 499 
sqq. ; and Vicksburg campaign, 601 sqq. ; 
proceeds to Chattanooga, 610 sqq.; at 
Washington (1864), 614 sq.; and cam- 
paign in East (1864), 514 sqq.; 527 sq.; 
and Bichmond campaign, 581, 633 sqq. ; 
in Petersburg, 539; Lee surrenders to, 
541; in Washington, 645; President of 
United States, 631 sqq.; and San 
Domingo, 637, 639; character of, 639; 
proposed election of (1876), 644, 652 sq. ; 

XII 21; 95; 689 
Grantham, Cromwell at, iv 313 

Thomas Robinson, Lord, vi 76; 149; 

Secretary of State, 462 
Grantley, Fletcher Norton, Lord, Speaker 

of the House of Commons, vi 443; 

455 
Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot, Sieur de, 

Cardinal, Bishop of Arras, n 93; ni 34; 

114; 134; influence of, in Netherlands, 

183 sq., 188, 190-8; 218; 221; 227; 

counsels murder of Orange, 253; 265; 

477; 481; 489; death of (1586), 514 
Nicholas Perrenot, Sieur de, Minister 

of Charles V, n 240 sq., 243, 250, 253, 

258, 260, 268 
Granville (of Potheridge), John, Lord (2nd 

son of John Granville, Earl of Bath, 

cr. 1702, d. 1707), vii 37 
John Carteret, Earl (Lord Carteret), 

at Stockholm, vi 36 sq.; 39; 44; 71; 

enters the Cabinet, 73 ; 74 sq. ; succeeds 

Walpole, 235; 238; 394; 396; 405; 417; 

and Pitt, 420; 424; Lord-lieutenant of 

Ireland, 485; death of, 428 

Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl, 

diplomatist, at Memel, ix 298; negotia- 
tions with Ilussia, 305-6 ; and Corn 
Law of 1815, X 771 

Granville George Leveson-Gower, 

2nd Earl, vii 671; xi 331; 677; and 
Afghan frontier, 632; 633; 801; Colonial 
Secretary, xn 23; Foreign Minister, 28, 
36; 31 sq. ; 40; 161; and Egyptian 
affairs, 436, 438, 440 sq., 444 

Graspan, Boers defeated at, xii 642 

Grasse, Comte de. See Grasse -Tilly 

Grassellini, Monsignor, Governor of Rome, 
XI 76 

Grasse-Tilly, Franpois-Joseph-Paul, Mar- 
quis de, French admiral, vi 453 sq.; 462; 
vn 231 

Grassi, Francesco, n 83 

Grassis, Paris de, i 252 

Gratius, Ortuinus (Ortwin de Graes), and 
Letter* of Obscure Men, i 637 ; n 696 



Gratry, Joseph- Alphonse, Oratorian, xi 
721; 723 

Grattan, Henry, vi 458 sq.; 474; 494; 
496; and Irish trade, 497; and Irish 
Independence, 498 sqq. ; 502 ; 504 sq. ; 
vra 771; and Whig Club, ix 693 sqq.; 
retirement of, 700; and Union, 705; 708; 
X 674; and movement for Catholic 
emancipation, 631, 633 sq., 635 sq.; 657 

Graubiinden. See Grisons 

Graudenz, Frederick William HI at, ix 
280, 281; fortress of, demanded by 
Napoleon (1806), 282; investment of 
(1807), 284; blockade raised, 285; sur- 
render demanded, 291 

Gravamina Germanicae Nationis, by Jakob 
Wimpheling, n 29 

Grave, falls into Parma's hands, in 620; 
siege of (1602), 636; French possession, 

V 43 

Pierre-Marie, Marquis de. Minister 

of War to Louis XVI, viii 223, 406 

Gravel, Balthasar, Abbot of Fulda, iii 178 

Robert de. Seigneur de, v 38 

Gravelines, interview between Henry VIII 

and Charles V at (1520), n 42, 417; 
battle of (1558), 93, 661, m 184; 
engagement with Armada off (July 29, 
1588), 313, 315, 507; Anglo-French 
Treaty and, iv 440; taken by French 
(1644), 697; abandoned (1652), 618 sq. ; 
ceded to France, 620 ; the Old Pretender 
lands at, vi 103 

Gravelotte, xi 590; battle of, 593 sqq., 
600 sq. 

Graves, Thomas Graves, Lord, Admiral, 

VI 453 ; vn 230 

Sir Thomas, admiral (nephew of 

above), ix 53 

Gravina, Charles, Due de, Spanish ad- 
miral, joins Villeneuve, ix 223 

Papal Nuncio, x 142, 208 

Gravosa, Osuna attacks Venetians off, iv 

632 
Gray, John, economic theories of, x 781 

Thomas, poet, vi 825; 828; 830; 

X 698 sq.; xi 351; 357 

William, Bishop of Ely, collector of 

books, I 597 
Boston ship-captain, vn 326, 364 

Justice (U.S.), xn 714 

Gray's Mill, Prince Charles at, vi 112 

Graz. See Gratz 

Graziosi, Canon, xi 73 

Grazzini, Anton Francesco (II Lasca), ni 
467 sq., 470 

"Great Awakening, The," American re- 
ligious revival (1740), vn 737 

Great Britain. See England for affairs in 
common 

Great Contract, The, in 557 

Fish River, discovered by Diaz, 1 17; 

passed by Gama, 25; vi 189 

St Bernard, Napoleon crosses the 

(1800), IX 69, 60 



General Index, 



373 



Grebel, Conrad, Anabaptist, opponent of 
Zwingli, n 322 

Jacob, executed, n 322 

Greece, conquest of, by Ottomans, 1 74 ; 79 ; 
Venetian successes in, v 365 sq.; in- 
fluence of French Revolution in, vin 
789; and Congress of Vienna, ix 661; 
Vol. X, Chap. VI pas8im\ and Con- 
gress of Verona, 33 sq., 39; attitude 
of France towards, 91, 506; Palmerston 
and, XI 18 ; under King Otho, 277 sqq. ; 
Tsar and, 312; 313; military revolt in, 
633; Alexander 11 and, 634; and Crete, 
ib.j XII 419 sq., 427 sq. ; rupture of, 
with Turkey, xi 636 ; misgovernment in, 
639 sq. ; succession in, 641 ; new Con- 
stitution of, 642; brigandage in, 643; 
Eoumania and, 646; xn 10 sq.; 37; 
Great Britain and, 43; 304; 381; and 
Eusso-Turkish War, 390 sq. ; 393; and 
Treaty of Berlin, 394, 398 sq. ; frontier 
settlement of, 402 sq.; 406; coast of, 
blockaded, 408; and Bulgaria, 411; and 
Cyprus, 415; at war with Turkey, 420 
sqq. ; and Macedonia, 424, 426 ; and the 
European Concert, 728 ; 762 ; researches 
in the history of, 821, 842, 845 

Greek, controversy as to the pronunciation 
of, I 681; Classics, search for mss of, 
649 sq. ; Aldine editions of, 662 ; early 
French printed editions of, 576 ; Roman 
printed editions of, 666; scholarship, 
revival of, 540-2. See also Renaissance 

Greeley, Horace, editor of New York Tri- 
bune, vn 425, 677, 690; Presidential 
campaign of, 640, 643 sq. ; death of, 653 

Green, John Richard, historian, xii 840 

Thomas Henry, teaching of, xn 765 

Cay island, xn 20 

Ribbon Club, v 218; 228 sq. 

'•Greenback" Party, vii 646, 648, 662 sq. 
Greene, Nathaniel, American general, vn 

223 sqq., 227 sqq. 

Robert, dramatist and novelist, in 

371, 375 

Greenland, fishery disputes in, m 644; 
Christian IV and, iv 567 ; whale fisheries 
of, VI 49, 181 ; Norway and, xi 683 ; ex- 
ploration of, xn 815 

Company, America and, iv 749 

Greensborough, Jefferson Davis at, vn 

542 sq. 
Greenshields, James, and Book of Common 

Prayer, vi 94 
Greenwich, Treaty of (1543), in 261 
Greenwood, John, in 333, 345 
Greg, S., Russian Minister of Finance, 

xn 309 
Gregg, William, clerk to Robert Harley, v 

465 
Gregoire, Ernest, Belgian revolutionary 

leader, x 537 

Henri, Comte, Constitutional Bishop 

of Blois, member of the Convention, vni 
249, 382, 501, 733, 790; ix 182; 186; 



X 60 sq. ; motion to annul election of, 
62; 71; 486; xi 72 
Gregorios, Patriarch of Constantinople, 

execution of, x 183 
Gregorovius, Ferdinand, historian, quoted, 

n 19, 25, 28; City of Rome, xn 849 
Gregory I, Pope, m 752 

VII (Hildebrand), Pope, in 422; 

439; 752 

IX (Ugolino, of Anagni), Pope, i 

260, 666, 668; n 2 

XI (Peter Roger de Beaufort), Pope, 

opposition to taxation of, i 669 
XII (Angelo Correr), Pope, i 268 

XIII (Hugo Buoncompagni), Pope, 

I 325; Carranza and, n 410; John III 
of Sweden and, 631 sq. ; in 18; 20; and 
Catholic League, 38 ; 136 ; and Counter- 
reformation, 178; attacks Elizabeth, 
286 sqq. ; 349 ; 414 ; and Cardinal di 
Montalto, 426 sqq.; new Calendar of, 
424, 707; 497; and Ireland, 696 sq.; 
Concordat of, with Duke William V of 
Bavaria, 709; v 494 

XIV (Nicolas Sfondrato), Pope, and 

the Catholic League, in 50, 659; 442; 710 

XV (Alessandro Ludovisi), Pope, 

rescues Klesl, iv 22 ; fears Spanish 
supremacy in Italy, 53 ; 672 sqq. ; death 
of, 57, 674 

XVI (Mauro Capellari), Pope, the 

pontificate of, x 154 sq.; and Lamennais, 
163 sq.; and the Jesuits, 167; and 
Prussian marriages controversy, 381; 
488; and Guizot, xi 37; 67 sq. ; 71; 
condemns Articles of Baden, 246; 703; 
and Antonelli, 705; 716; death of, 70, 
also X 168 

Saint, printing of the works of, 

in 445 

of Tours (d. 695), i 534 

Sir Augustus Charles, in Austra- 
lasia, XI 798 

James, mathematician, v 721 

Greifswald, iv 196; siege of (1631), 199, 
203 ; a Swedish possession, 404 ; lost by 
the Swedes, v 652; Treaty of, vi 26 
Greig, Sir Samuel, Russian admiral, vi 

673; vra 325 
Greiz, Liberal movement at, xi 149 
Gremonville, Nicolas Bretel, Sieur de, 
French envoy at Vienna, v 38; 349; 
361 sq. 
Grenada, the French in, v 687; vi 185 sq.; 
346; British occupation of, 426; ceded 
to Great Britain (1763), 428; reduced by 
d'Estaing, 452 ; retained by Great Britain 
(1782), 464; insurrection in (1796), vra 
484; negroes in, xn 653; 654; 656 
Grenadines, ceded to Great Britain, vi 428 
Grenelle, powder factory at, vra 433 ; dis- 
affection at (1796), 604 sq. 
Grenfell, George, African explorer, xn 811 

John Pascoe, captain in the Brazilian 

navy, x 316 



374 



General Index. 



Grenier, Cotnte Paul, French general, ix 
67; marches towards Berlin, 511 

Grenoble, capture of, in 416 sq. ; Parlements 
of, 415, V 4, vm 47 ; provincial assembly 
at, 91; disturbances in (1788), 112 sq., 
(1816), X 60; IX 196 

Grenville, George, statesman, vi 424 sqq. ; 
and Prussia, 427; 428; succeeds Bute, 
430; 431; 434; and John Wilkes, 441; 
442; death of, 443; vn 147 sqq., 152 

James, joint Vice-treasurer of Ire- 
land, VI 437 

Sir John. See Bath, Earl of 

Sir Richard, and the Revenge, nr 

319 ; expedition of, to Virginia (1585-6), 
vn3 

Sir Richard, 1st Baronet (grandson 

of above), in Munster, iv 624 

Thomas, mission of, to Paris, vi 461 

William Wyndham, Baron Grenville, 

vni 288, 294; Foreign Secretary, 295 sqq., 
301, 303 sqq., 496, 559 sq., 648 sq., 651; 
ministry of, ix 288; 291, 299; and 
Catholic Emancipation, 678; 680; and 
peace, 681; and Pitt, 682; 683; forms 
Ministry, 686; resignation of, 686; in- 
fluence of, 687; 690; and Ireland, 697 
sqq. ; and Canada, 744 ; x 574 ; 580 ; and 
the Irish Catholics, 631; 666 

(Greenville or Greynvile), Irish 

"Undertaker" (1586), m 600 

Greppo, Jean-Louis, French politician, xi 

124; 136; 139 
Gresham College, v 740 

Thomas, m 211 

Gretser, Jacob, Defensiones, iv 4 
Greuze, Jean-Baptiste, ix 135; xi 528 
Greville, Charles Cavendish Fulke, x 587 
Grevy, Fran^ois-Paul-Jules, xi 116; 132; 

President of the National Assembly, 
600; 600; President of the French 
Republic, xn 92; 107; succeeds Mao- 
Mahon, 112; 116 

Grew, Nehemiah, botanist, v 735 sq. 

Grey, Lady Catharine, ii 574; in 634 

Sir Charles, General, vin 484 

Charles Grey, 2nd Earl, vi 472; 476; 

VIII 759 sq. ; succeeds Fox in Foreign 
Office, IX 271; and reform, 672; 676; 
leader of Whig party, 687 ; 690 ; and the 
Polish revolution, x 474; and Algiers, 
502 ; 574 ; attacks Canning, 691 ; Ministry 
of (1830-4), 694, 655 sq.; and parlia- 
mentary reform, 599, 603, 607 sq., 610, 
612; resigns, 614; recalled to office, 615; 
618 ; resigns, 663 ; and dismissal of 
Melbourne, 666; 668; and O^Connell, 
669 ; 673 sq. ; and Queen Victoria, 678 ; 
XI 755 

Sir George, Governor of Cape Colony, 

XI 784 ; 786 ; in South Austraha, 792, 795 ; 
in New Zealand, 794 sqq., 799 sq. 

Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl (Vis- 
count Howick), X 679 ; xi 10 ; Secretary 
for Colonies and for War, 14, 16 ; colonial 



policy of, 759 sqq., 763 sqq.; and New 

Zealand, 796 sq. 
Grey, Lady Jane, marriage of, to Guilford 
Dudley, n 510; proclaimed Queen, 614; 
arrested, 618, 520 ; executed, 528 ; ra 859 

Sir John, General, in Gwalior, xi 

738 

Lord Leonard (6th son of Thomas, 

1st Marquis of Dorset), executed, n 462 ; 
471 

Sir Thomas, executed, n 528 

Thomas, styled Lord Grey of Groby 

(son of Earl of Stamford), nr 314 

Thomas Philip de. See De Grey 

William de. See Walsingham, Lord 

de Wilton, Arthur, 14th Baron, Lord 

Deputy of Ireland, ni 265, 298, 598, 602 

de Wilton, Sir William, 13th Baron, 

n 505 sq., 617, 577 

Grey Friars Observants, suppression of, by 

Henry VIII, u 441 

Leagues. See Grisons 

Greyerz, and Freiburg, vi 625 

Gribaldi, Matteo, Italian Reformer, n 393 

Gribeauval, Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de, 

French general, vi 349 
Gribovo, Greeks defeated at, xn 422 
Griboyedoff, Alexander, Russian poet, x 

431; XI 614 
Gridley, Jeremiah, American lawyer, yn 

178 sq. 
Grieg, Edvard, Norwegian musician, xn 

281 
Griff enfeld, Count Peter Schumacher von, 

Danish statesman, v 560 sqq. ; 571 ; 678 
Griffin, Thomas, Admiral, vi 538 
Griifith, Maurice, Bishop of Rochester, n 

631 

Rice ap, disaffection of, ii 471 

Grigorovich, Alexander, xi 614 

Grijalva, Hernando di, coast of Mexico 

explored by, i 41 
Grillenzone, Giovanni, founder of Modenese 

Academy, ii 386 
Grillparzer, Franz, Austrian dramatist, x 

407; XI 414 sqq. 
Grimaldi, Luciano, Prince of Monaco, holds 

Monaco against Genoa, i 129 

Napoleone (Genoese admiral, 1380), 

I 259 

Philip II's agent in Genoa, m 497 

Cardinal-Legate at Forli, x 156 

Grimaldo, Marquis de, Spanish Minister of 

Foreign Affairs, vi 136 sq.; 139; 142; 
145; at Paris, 368, 370; 371; retires, 
374; 376 
Grimani, Marco, Cardinal Legate to Scot- 
land, n 458 

Cardinal Domenico, n 15 

Grimm, Baron Friedrich Melchior, and 

Catharine II, vi 678, 698 sq., vm 
784 sq. 

Jacob, X 379 ; expelled from Hanover, 

380; 402; 404; xi 49; 164; xn822sq.; 
849 



1 



General Index, 



375 



Grimm, William, x 379; 402; 404; xi 49; 

xn 822 
Grimmelshausen, Christoph von, iv 425 
Grimnitz, Treaty of (1529), iv 104 
Grindal, Edmund, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, in 340 sq. 
Grinevetsky, assassinates Alexander II, xn 

310 
Gringmuth, Eussian politician, xn 314; 

373 
Gringore, Pierre, Le Jeu du Prince des Sots 

et Mere Sotte, n 281 
Gripenstedt, Johan August, Swedish Minister 

of Finance, xi 688 ; 690 
Grippenberg, General, in the Russo-Japanese 

War, xn 696 sq. 
Griqualand East, Treaty State of, xi 783 

West, annexation of, xn 635 

Grisel, Georges, betrays Babeuf conspiracy, 

vm 504 sq. 
Grisons, The, n 306 ; the Reformation in, 

328 ; ra 466, 684 ; Vol. iv. Chap, n passim, ; 

129; 373; canton of, vi 614; and France 

(1798), vm 640 sq. ; French army in (1800), 

1x64, 68; xi234; 236 
Gritti, Alvise, ni 109 

Andrea, Venetian general, i 87 

Lorenzo, ni 115 

Grobbendonck, Anthony Schets, Lord of, 

siege of Hertogenbosch and, iv 692 sq. 

Gaspar Schets, Lord of, in 195 

Grochov, battle of (1831), x 469 sq. 
Grocyn, William, at Oxford, i 491, 579; 

and L. Valla, 602; orthodoxy of, 643 

Grodno, Diet of, dissipated, v 555; 594; 
Charles XII enters, 597 ; Diet of (1793), 
vm 537 sqq. ; province of, x 420 ; 440 ; 
Russian administration of, 459 sq. ; 
placed under martial law, 469 

Groben, Count Karl von der, Prussian 
general, xi 221 ; 230 sq. 

Groenewegen, Dutch colonial leader, iv 
755 

Groenloo, attempt to capture, in 628; siege 
of (1597), 629 

Groll, siege of (1606), ra 638 ; Dutch cap- 
ture of (1627), IV 691 

Grolmann, Karl Wilhelm Georg von, ix 
332 ; XI 50 

Gronberg, Imperialist commander, iv 393 

Groningen, siege of (1590), ra 626; dis- 
content in, 634 ; Henry Casimir and, rv 
695, 701; Cartesian philosophy and, 789; 
besieged (1672), v 43; and the Eternal 
Edict, 155 sq. ; 160 ; 165 ; University of, 
1x417 

Groot, Hugo de. See Grotius 

Pieter de. Pensionary of Rotterdam, 

V 156 ; mission of, to Paris, 156 sqq. 

Groote, Gerard, founder of fraternity at 

Deventer, i 434 sq., 627 sq. 
Groote Privilegie, granted by Mary of 

Burgundy (1477), i 438 
Gropper, Johann, Catholic divine, n 240, 

243, 667 



Gros, Antoine-Jean, ix 135 

Baron Jean-Baptiste-Louis, xi 812; 

816 ; 818 ; xn 681 

Gross, Russian resident at Berlin, vi 319 
Gross-Beeren, battle of (1813), ix 526, 528, 

530 
Grossenbrode, Danish capitulation at, rv 

102 
Gross-Enzersdorf, French troops advance 

from (1809), ix 352 
Grosseteste, Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, in- 
terest of, in Greek studies, i 537, 585-7, 

657 
Grosseto, fair at, ra 393 
Grossfriedrichsburg (Guinea Coast), v 647 ; 

691 
Gross-Gorschen, battle of (1813), ix 517 
Gross-Hennersdorf, Austrians repulsed at, 

VI 244 
Gross-Jagerndorf, battle of, vi 264, 322 
Gross-Kamin, Prussian troops at, vi 281 sq.; 

285 sq. 
Grossi, Tommaso, x 126 ; xi 545 ; 648 
Grosswardein, Treaty of (1538), n 236, 242 ; 

V 61; surrenders to the Turks (1660), 

345 ; 348 ; Gorgei at, xi 214 

George Martinuzzi, Bishop of, n 242 ; 

murder of, 268 sq., iii 122-3 

Pasha of, and Tokolyi, v 366 

Grosvenor, Lord Robert, xi 339 

Grote, George, historian, x 698 ; 655 sq. ; 
supports the Poor Law Bill, 662 ; 675 sq. ; 
XI 250 ; xn 830 ; 836 ; 844 

Baron Thomas von, Hanoverian 

envoy in London, vi 14 

Grotefend, Georg Friedrich, xn 845 

Groth, Klaus, German poet, xi 414; 420 

Grotius, Hugo (Huig van Groot), De Jure 
Belli et Pads, i 579 ; Mare Liberum 
(1609), in 644 ; moves resolution in 
States of Holland, 648; 650-2, 655, 
740, 763, 767; iv 144; mission of, 
to Paris, 250, 369; 389; and Queen 
Christina, 575 ; works of, 717 sq. ; r 
745; 754; vni 29; and Gentili, xn 
707 sq. ; method of, 709 sqq. 

Grottammare, birthplace of Sixtus V, iii 
425 

Grouchy, Emmanuel, Marquis de, Marshal 
of France, vra 474, 654; advance of, 
on Valence, ix 617 ; commands cavalry 
reserve, 625; 627, 630; despatches of, 
633 sqq. ; responsibility of, 641 sq. ; at 
Paris, 643 

Grudzinska, Joanna (Princess Lovicz), x 
436; 448 

Griin, Anastasius. See Auersperg, Count 
Anton Alexander von 

Griineberg Manuscript, The. See Konigin- 
hof 

Griinne, Count von der, Austrian adjutant- 
general, XI 398 ; 403 

Griisch, Protestant- Venetian party at, rr 
52 ; de Coeuvres at, 68 

Gruet, Joachim am, n 322, 376 



376 



General Index. 



Gruieff, Bulgarian officer, xn 408 

Grumbach, Wilhelm von, n 190, 274; in 
161 sq. ; Grumbacfische Handel^ 161, 172 
sq. 

Grumbkow, General von, Prussian states- 
man, VI 210 sqq. 

Grundtvig, Nikolai Frederik Severin, 
Danish writer, xi 692; 698 

Grynaeus, Simon, Orthodoxographa, i 617 ; 
II 355 

Gryphius, Andreas, German poet, v 68 

Guadagni, Abb6, in 24 

Guadagnoli, Antonio, Italian writer, xi 645 

Guadalajara (Spain), Philip II meets Eliza- 
beth of France at, in 483 ; Ripperda at, 
VI 139 ; Absolutist force marches on 
(1823), X 227 

(Mexico), Court established at, x 248 

Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of (1848), vii 

397, 426 

Guadarrama, canal of, vi 383 ; pass of, Es- 
tremaduran army sent to, ix 444 ; French 
troops cross, 445 

Guadeloupe, French settlement of, iv 758, 
vn 78 sq., 85; failure of English attack 
on, v 60; an English possession (1759- 
63), vii 96; ceded to France, vi 428; 
captured by English (1794), vm 484, ix 
749 ; recaptured, ib. ; restored to France 
(1801), 75; blockaded (1804), vii 327; re- 
duced (1810), IX 240, 752; restored to 
France (1815), 653; xii652; France and, 
656 

Guadet, Marguerite Elie, Girondist leader, 
vm 214, 231, 249, 256, 271; executed, 
357 

Guadiana river, Victor halts in valley of, 

IX 450 

Guaira, Jesuit government in, x 269 sq. 

Gualterio, Cardinal, Jacobite agent at 
Eome, VI 97 

Gualterotti, Francesco, supporter of Savo- 
narola, I 154 

Guancavelica, quicksilver mines at, v 682 

Guanches, The, of the Canary Islands, i 
10 

Guanica (Porto Kico), Miles lands at, vn 
680 

Guarani Indians, in Paraguay, xn 674 

Guararapes hills, Dutch defeat in (1647), 
V 675 

Guaiini, Giovanni Battista, Pastor Fido, 
III 467 

Guarino (da Verona), humanist, i 543, 546, 
550, 558, 562 

Guastalla, French victory at, vi 154 ; 366 ; 
administered by Moreau de St Mery, ix 
398 ; duchy of, assigned to Empress 
Marie-Louise, 602, 660; reversion of, 
secured to Infanta Marie -Louise (1817), 

X 212 

Duke of. See Gonzaga, Fernando 

de 

Vincent di Gonzaga, Duke of. See 

Gonzaga 



Guasto, Count del. See Vasto 
Guatemala, administration of, x 248; in- 
dependence of, 306 ; State of, xii 672 
Guayaquil, Hollanders defeated at, iv 642 ; 

X 273; and Bolivar, 295 sq. 
Guben, Frederick the Great at, vi 288 
Guchen, caravan route to, xn 793 ; 799 ; 

802 
Guchk6ff, Bussian politician, xn 360; 

375 sq. 
Gudmundarsen, David, n 621 
Gu6briant, Jean-Baptiste Budes, Count de, 

Marshal of France, joins Bernard of 

Weimar, iv 375 ; 379 ; 381 sqq. ; 385 sq. ; 

difficulties and death of, 388 sq.; 695 
Gueffier, French envoy, in Grisons, iv 45 

sqq.; Catholics urged on by, 61; 54 
Guelders. See Gelders 
Guelfs and Ghibellines, revived in Savoy, 

m 401, 412; 438 
Gu^n^gaud, Henri, Marquis de Plancy, 

French Secretary of State, v 5 
Glins, defended against Solyman, n 218, 

in 107 
Giinther, Johann Christian, x 385 
Gu6rande, Treaty of (1365), i 393 w. 
Guercino, "King of the Campagna," in 

431 
Guericke, Otto von, and the air-pump, v 

715 
Gu^rin, Gabriel-Christophe, ix 135 

Pierre-Narcisse, Baron, xi 528 

Guerra, Italian brigand, xi 531 
Guerrazzi, Francesco Domenico, L'Assedio 

di Firenze, x 127 ; xi 78 ; and government 

of Tuscany, 90 sq. ; 94 ; trial of, 337 sq. 
Guerrero, Pedro. See Granada, Archbishop 

of 
Guesde, Jules, French socialist, xn 119; 

123 sqq. 
Guest, Lady Charlotte, and Mabinogiorif 

XI 352 

Giistrow, recovered by Mecklenburg Dukes, 

IV 204 

Duke of. See Mecklenburg-Giistrow 

Guetaria, French naval victory near, rv 

147 
Gueugnon, feudal Courts in, vm 49 
Gueux de Mer, ra 203-4, 206; 229-30, 

237, 239-40, 284, 286, 493, 509 
Guevara, Dofia Anna de, and Olivares, iv 

654 

Antonio de, m 548 

Louis Velez de, iv 663 

Guiana, Ralegh's expedition to, m 562, 
IV 754; Dutch trade in, m 633; Dutch 
colonies in, iv 709, 756; Harcourt's 
colony in, 755; the French in, vn 74, 
79, 97, 108, IX 676, 653; Great Britain 
and, X 520, xi 667 

British, xn 653 sq. ; and Venezuela, 

655, 687, 721 ; government of, 656 sq. 

French, and Brazil, xn 655 

Guibert, Jacques- Antoine-Hippolyte, Comte 

de, IX 280 



General Index. 



377 



Guicciardi, The, Valtelline nobles, iv 48 
Guicciardini, Francesco, Florentine histo- 
rian, I 147, 150, 170, 176, 184, 186, 200, 
363, 368; n 1, 9, 21, 23 sq.; in 387 sqq., 
457 

Count Francesco, Italian statesman, 

xn 228 

Piero, 1 169, 176 

Guichen, Count de, French naval officer, 
VI 453 

Guidal, Maximilien-Joseph, French general, 
IX 14; 144 

Guidi, Carlo Alessandro, Italian poet, v 69 

Guidiccioni, Giovanni, Cardinal, and the 
Jesuits, n 663 

Guidocerius, Agaciua, Boman Hebraist, n 
17 

Guienne, revolt in, i 396; and the States 
General, 399; and the Parlement of 
Bordeaux, 401; administration in, 403, 
407 sq.; English invasion of (1512), 479 
sq.; revolts against the Gabelle (1548), 
n 96, 492;, IV 613; and Cond6, 614; re- 
stored to Epernon, 618 

College of, ni 69 

Guieu, Jean-Joseph, French general, vin 

582 
Guildford, battle of (1781), vn 228 sq. 
Guilford, Francis North, 1st Lord, v 232 

Frederick North, 2nd Earl of (Lord 

North), VI 377 sq.; 380; 427; 431; joint 
Paymaster of the Forces, 437 ; Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, 438; 439; 442; and 
the East India Company, 445, 570 sq. ; 
and America, 447; 450; and Ireland, 455 ; 
resigns, 466; 457 sq.; 460 sq.; 463; 
Home Secretary, 464 ; 465 sq. ; dismissed, 
467; 468; and Irish affairs, 495, 498 sq. ; 
601; 681; vn 154; American policy of, 
157 sqq., 161 sqq., 217 

4th and 5th Earls. See North 

Guillemot (Chouan), shot (1805), ix 136 

Guinard, Auguste-Joseph, x 491 

Guinea (Bilad Ghana), i 9, 15, 17; slave 

trade in, 10, 14 sq. ; colonising of, 11, 16 ; 
V 179 ; Brandenburg trade with, 647; 677; 
settlements in, 691 sqq. ; Upper Senegal 
united to, xii 130 

Gulf of, xn 807; 811 

Coast, and the slave trade, vi 187; 

Great Britain and, xn 658 

. Company (French), v 445; (Eng- 
lish), 691; VI 173, 533; x 260 

Guinegaste, defeat of Louis XI at (1479), 
I 391, 413, 443; victory of Henry VIII 
(battle of the Spurs) (1513), 140, 457, 481 

Guines, captured by French, n 93, 546; 
Treaty of (1520), 416; meeting of Henry 
VIII and Francis I at, 417; fall of, ui 
670 

Adrien-Louis de Bonni^res, Due de, 

vin 87 

Guipuzcoa, and Spanish Succession, v 884, 
389 ; fishermen of, vi 344 ; guerrilla war- 
fare in (1794), vin 440 



Guirigay, El, Spanish journal, xi 550 sq. 
Guise, siege of, ii 92 

House of, of Lorraine, Diane de 

Poitiers and, n 98; the Beformation in 
France and, 296-9; in 2, 16, 25, 33; 
characteristics of, 262; power of, 265-6, 
289, 451, 483 sqq., 501 sqq., 550, 657 
sqq. 

Charles of Lorraine, 4th Duke of 

(Prince of Joinville), and Catholic League, 
ni 45-50; 397; 517; 659 sqq.; 681; at 
La Bochelle, iv 183; rebellion of, 150 

Charles de, Cardinal of Lorraine 

{from 1550), Archbishop of Bheims, n 
83, 91, 93, 98, 294, 296 sq., 302, 674; at 
Council of Trent, 680 sqq.; death of 
(1574), ra 25; 263; 268; 406; 489; 
691 

Claude of Lorraine, Count of (after- 
wards 1st Duke of Guise), n 47; 98 

Francis, 2nd Duke of, n 87, pi sqq., 

98, 297; Triumvirate made by, 300; 
invasion of Italy by, 545 sq., 674 ; in 
1 sqq.; takes Calais, 184; murder of 
(1563), n 683, ni 5 

Henry of Lorraine, 3rd Duke of, 

leader of Catholic League, in 8-44; 
murder of (1588), 45, 415, 452, 511; 
170; and English plots, 288, 502 

Henry II of Lorraine, 5th Duke of, 

Naples and, iv 482, 601, 657 
Louis the elder, of Lorraine, Cardinal 

of, Archbishop of Sens (d. 1578), m 1 

Louis the younger, of Lorraine, Car- 
dinal of, murder of (1588), ra 45, 452 

Guitry, Huguenot commander, in 23 sq., 
27, 52 

Guizot, Frangois-Pierre-Guillaume, x 43; 
and Louis XVIII, 44; 48; 50; and elec- 
toral changes, 51 sq.; and Doctrinaires, 52 
sqq. ; 65 ; 64 ; and new electoral scheme, 
66 ; 67 ; dismissed from Council of State, 
68 ; excluded from Sorbonne, 78 ; restored 
to his post, 93; writings of, 102, 613; 
103; 167; and Bevolution of 1830, 476 
sqq.; 480; supports Casimir P4rier, 487 ; 
Minister of Public Education, 489 sq. ; 
493 ; 495 sq. ; recalled to office, 497 sq. ; 
and Algeria, 503 sq.; and Mol6, 507; 
and the coalition against Mol6, 508 sq.; 
511; 516; ambassador in London, 565 sq.; 
and Turko-Egyptian Question, 566 sqq. ; 
Foreign Minister, 570; 672; Vol. xi, 
Chap, u passim ; 16 sq. ; and the Jesuits, 
67; and the Opposition, 96; dismissal 
of, 97 sq.; 118; Education Act of, 130; 
131; and Switzerland, 249, 252; 297; 
305; and Spanish marriages, 554 sq.; 
707; and China, 812; xn 683; writings 
of, XI 524, xn 831 sq., 849 

Gujarat, landing of Turks at, ra 117; 
the Dutch in, v 695; annexed by Em- 
peror Akbar, vi 512; Peshwa's rights 
in, leased, ix 726; xi 742; Afghans at, 
744 



378 



General Index, 



Guldberg, Ove Hoegh, Danish statesman, 
VI 735; 749 sqq.; 764; faU of , 755; 756; 
vra 279; dismissed, 280 

Guler de Weineok, Jean, ly 49; Grisons 
under, 50 sq. 

Gullberg, Christian repulsed from, iv 179 

Gum Coast, trade with, vi 187 

Gumble, Thomas, Li/e of Monck, iv 559 

Gunfleet, English fleet at the, v 181, 186 ; 
183 

Gunning, Peter, Bishop of Ely, v 97 

Gunpowder Plot, in 555 

Gunter, Edmund, mathematician, v 709 

Guntersville, Hood at, vn 524 

Gunthorpe (Gundorp), John, Dean of Wells, 
books collected by, i 597 

Gurkhas, treaty with, ix 718; war with, 
732 

Gurko, General, Governor-general of St 
Petersburg, xn 307; 336; 369; 388 sq.; 
404 

Gumey family, of Earlham, vin 765 

Gurzno, victory of Wrangel near, rv 186 

Gusinje, xii 392; acquired by Montenegro, 
396; 401 sq. 

Gustafsburg, Bernard of Weimar in, rv 
367 

Gustafsson, Gustaf, of Vasaborg, iv 178 

Gustavus I (Vasa), King of Sweden, n 
228 sq., 245, 615 ; early life of, 603 sq., 
621 ; accession of, 622 ; the clergy and, 
624-7; IV 158-61; 166 sq.; 170; 173; 
179; V 578; vi 771; 779 

II Adolphus, King of Sweden, the 

Protestant Union and, rv 12; and Christian 
of Anhalt, 17; 26; 65; 68; 71; inherited 
wars of, 89 sq,; Danish negotiations of, 
92; 99; 100; 103; and Hanse Towns, 105 ; 
and Stralsund, 107 sq.; in Pomerania, 
114; concludes Truce of Altmark, 115; 
117; and Eichelieu, 140 sq.; 159; 171; 
174; 176; becomes King, 177; character of, 
178 sq. ; Eussian War of, 180 sq. ; Polish 
War of, 182 sq.; home government of, 
184; Prussian War of, 185 sq.; economic 
policy of, 187 sq.; 189; from 1630-2, 
see Chap, vi ; 232 sq. ; Bohemian policy 
of, 234; 243; 246; Grotius and, 250; 
Charles I and, 275 ; 277 ; 364 ; victorious 
advance of, 365; officers trained under, 
366, 370, 375, 386; arbiter of war in 
Empire, 395; 401 sqq.; 410; 415; 418; 
427; rivalry between Christian IV and, 
560, 566; 570; 574; 575 sqq.; and Urban 
VIII, 676, 681 sq.; results of death of, 
223 sqq., 568 sq. ; 682, 696 sq. ; Louis 
de Geer and, 725; schemes of, in West 
Indies, 759; v 338; 562 sq.; 577 sq.; 
637; and Elector Frederick William, 
639; VI 622; 761; 768 

Ill, King of Sweden, Vol. vi. Chap. 

xxn; 354; visits France, 358; 676; 
marriage of, 741; 753 sqq.; coup d'Stat 
of (1772), VIII 309, 315, 325, (1789), 326; 
336; 399; murder of (1792), 400; 528; 



and French Bevolution, 788 sq.; and 
Catharine II, vi 678, ix 37; 43-5, 321; 
z 434 
Gustavus IV Adolphus, King of Sweden, 
vin 789 ; relations of, with Tsar Paul, ix 
38, 46, 48, 50; 250; 263; makes war on 
Prussia, 266; 289; renews war against 
France, 295; sues for armistice, 300; 
deposition of, 321; xi 677; 681 

V, King of Sweden, xn 288; 290 

Gutenberg, Johann, Latin Bible printed 

by, I 634, 639; 689 
Guthrie, James, Scottish "protester," v 

282 
Gutierrez, Antonio Garcia, Spanish writer, 

X 241 
Gutschmid, Alfred von, German archaeolo- 
gist, xn 846 
Guttstadt, Ney retreats from, ix 290 
Gutzkow, E^arl Ferdinand, German writer, 

X 410 sq.; xi 411; 414 sqq. 
Guy, John, settler in Newfoundland, vii 

52, 74 
Guyenne. See Guienne 
Guyomard, Pierre, French politician, viii 

682 
Guyon, Jeanne-Marie Bouvier de la Motte, 

v88; 761 

Eichard Debaufre, general in the 

Hungarian army, xi 215 

Guyton-Morveau, Louis-Bernard, French 

chemist, vm 269; ix 133 
Guzman, A. M., member of the Committee 

of Insurrection, vm 265 

Doiia Anna or Louise Francisca 

de, afterwards Queen of Portugal, iv 
651 sq. 

Fernando Nunez de. See Pintianus 

Gaspar de. See Olivares 

Guzman de Alfarache, by Mateo Aleman, 

in 482 
Gvadanyi, Count Joseph, xi 422 
Gwalior, captured (1780), vi 576; State 

of, IX 720; surrender of fortress of, by 

Sindhia, 726-7; xi 726; Ellenborough's 

policy in, 737; 738; 749 
Gwyn, Nell, v 205; 266 
Gyldenlo ve, Ulrik Christian, Danish admiral, 

V 580; 581 

Ulrik Frederik, v 561; 569 sq. 

Gyldenstjerne, Knud. See Odense, Bishops 

of 
Gyllenborg, Carl, Count, Swedish Minister 

in London, v 612; vi 27; 104; 759 
Gyllenhielm, Karl Karlsson, captured by 

Poles, IV 174; 185; Oxenstierna and, 

569 
Gyllenstierna, Christina, defends Stockholm 

against Christian II, n 603 

Johan Goransson, Swedish states- 
man, V 567; 569 sqq.; death of, 571; 
and Charles XI, 572 sq. 

Gyongyosi, Stephen, Hungarian poet, xi 

422 
Gyraldus, Lilius, Historia Poetarum, i 567 



General Index. 



379 



Gyulai, Count Franz, Austrian general, 
XI 403 

Count Ignaz, ix 259 

Paul, Hungarian writer, xi 430 

Haakon VI. See Hakon 

VII, King of Norway (Prince Charles 

of Denmark), xn 289 sq. 

Haan, Jan de, Dutch vice-admiral, v 162 

Johann de, supporter of Oldenbarne- 

veldt, ni 651 

Haarlem, eiege of, in 235; surrender of 
(1573), 236; restored, 248; cloth and 
linen trade at, 631; Bemonstrants in, 
651 ; William II of Orange and, iv 725 ; 
and the Act of Seclusion, v 143 

lake, drainage of, xi 664 sq., 668 

Haas, de, Dutch painter, xn 249 
HabibuUa, Amir of Afghanistan, xn 490 
Habington, William, poetry of, iv 760; 

768 
Habsburg, House of, in 85; 386; 397; 
450 ; 678 ; 684 sqq., 717 sq. ; claim of, on 
Naples, 465; and Bohemian succession, 
IV 15 sq.; 129; 135 sq.; 141; French 
policy and, 144 sq., 157, 369 sq., 372 ; 
maritime designs of, 190 sqq. ; Spanish 
branch of, and Gustavus Adolphus, 208 ; 
364; Pope Urban VIII and policy of, 
365; 400; and Elsass, 405 sqq. ; Hanse 
Towns and, 414; 415; Protestantism 
and, 416; 417; 425; 426; Polish ques- 
tion and, 429, 433; Mazarin and, 430 
sq.; 623 sq. ; 631; 640; 643; 665; 
Paul V and, 672; Eichelieu and, 674; 
hostility of Urban VIII towards, 676 sq., 
679, 682 sq.; Frederick Henry and, 690; 
Spanish branch of, 623-65 ; v 338 sqq. ; 
1x248; 253, 309, 315 sqq., 341; Napoleon 
and, 505; 591,660 
Hacke, Baden Minister, x 344 
Hadamar, and Luxemburg, xi 674 
Hadden Big, success of the Scots at, 

n 455 

Haddick, General, ix 61; 62 

Haddington, seized by the English (1548), 

II 488; recovered (1549), 495; Scottish 

Parliament at, ni 262; Cope at, vi 113 

Haddock, Nicholas, Admiral, vi 66 sq. ; 157 ; 

236 
Hadersleben, Prussians at, xi 167 
Hadik, Count Andreas von Futak, Austrian 

Field-marshal, vi 268 ; 292 sq. 
Hadj, pilgrims from the, xn 452 
Hadjach, Ukrainian fortress, v 600 
Haebelin, leader of the Peasants' Bising, 

n 179 
Haffelin, Baron Easimir von, Bavarian 

Minister in Borne, x 146 
Handel, George Frederick, vi 19; 43 
Hanlein, von, Prussian diplomatist, x 348 
Haring, Wilhelm (Wilibald Alexis), novelist, 

XI 417 ; 420 
Hausser, Ludwig, German historian, xn 827 
Haffs, The, v 629; 652 



Hafiz Behmat Khan, Eohilla chief, vi 
669 sq. 

Pasha, invades Syria, x 561 

Hagelanden, Boreel van, Dutch politician, 

XI 663 

Hagelburg redoubt, vi 197 

Hagelsberg, Girard at, ix 526 

Hagen, Steven van der, m 638 

Hagenau, Compact of (1505), i 127; Con- 
ference at (1540), n 645 ; the Compromise 
of (1604), in 709 ; Mansfeld at, iv 78, 80 ; 
406 ; Allied sovereigns at, x 45 

Hagenbach, Peter von, i 390 

Hagerup, G. F., Norwegian statesman, xn 
286 sq. 

Hague, The, Peace Conferences at (1607), 
in 540, 558, 640 sq. ; Oldenbarneveldt an 
advocate at, 624; Cloister Church at, 
seized for Contra-Bemonstrants, 650; 
Buckingham at, iv 262; Concert, the 
First, 432; Second, t6., 541; missions of 
Korfits Ulfeld to, 573 sq.; 587 sq.; 
Frederick Henry at, 693; Henrietta 
Maria at, 702; 714; Prince William II 
at, 726 sq. ; peace negotiations in (1613, 
1615), 736; Sir William Boswell at, 749; 
Coalition of (1672), v 43; murder of 
the brothers de Witt at, ih., 159; 
"Association" formed at (1683), 49; 
English embassy to, 138; Prince of 
Orange at, 156; Treaty of Partition 
signed at (1698), 384; Grand Alliance 
signed at (1701), 397 sq., 403, 437; peace 
negotiations at (1709), 422 sq., 427, 432; 
Treaty of Guarantee (1681), 577 ; George I 
at, VI 18; 26; 324; conference at (1760), 
343; occupied by the French, vni 436; 
Treaty of (1794), 543 sqq., 550; Prince 
of Orange enters (1813), ix 550; risings 
at, X 517; administration at, 525; 
Supreme Court of Appeal at, 533 ; treaty 
signed at (1842), 544; P6ace Conference 
at (1899), xn 133, 247, 715, 719 sq., 
722 sqq. ; Peace Conference at (1907), 1, 
4, 56, 133, 701, 716, 719 sq., 723 sqq., 
729 ; Permanent Court of Arbitration at, 
12, 289, 617, 695, 723, 725 sqq. 

Haguenau, Coigni's troops in, vi 240 

Haicheng, Japanese army at, xn 589 

Haidar Ali, ruler of Mysore, vi 549 ; 567 ; 
576; death of, 469, 577; ix 723 sq. 

Haidarabad, kingdom of, founded, vi 524, 
632 ; the French at, 540 ; 541 ; Bussy at, 
543; 546; 567; xi 734; 736; Outram's 
defence of, 737; 743 
Nizam of (1766), vi 667 

Nizam of (1818), xi 727 

Nizam Ali of, relations of, with 

Tipu, 1x710; 714; with Cornwallis, 715; 
power of, 717; war with the Marathas, 
720; power of, 721 sqq.; 731 

Haileybury College, closed as Indian Civil 

Service College, xi 751 
Hainault, Philip the Good accepted by, 

I 419 sq. ; Margaret of Valois in, m 34 ; 



380 



General Index. 



and the Treaty of Pyrenees, iv 620; 

Louis XIV and, v 36; 50; 200; Estates 

of, VI 652 ; Walloons in, x 621 ; agitation 

in (1828), 530; agriculture in, 731, 750; 

coal-mining in, 755 sq. 
Hainault, William VI, Count of {and of 

Holland, Zealand and Friesland), 1 418 sq. 
Hainkoi, pass of, xn 388 
Hainspacii, Prince Henry of Prussia at, 

VI 705 
Haiphong, captured by the French, xn 

525 
Haiti. See San Domingo 
Hai-Yang, naval engagement off, xn 611 
Hajji Dimitr, Bulgarian leader, xi 638 

Loja, at Sarajevo, xii 400 

HaMm, Mirza, son of the Emperor Hum&. 

yun, VI 612 
Hakluyt, Kichard, Voyages of, Spanish 

influence upon, ni 648 
Hakodate, Japanese port, xi 829 sq. ; opened 

to foreign trade, 833 ; 841 ; 843 
Hakon VI, King of Norway, married to 

Margaret of Denmark, n 600 
Hal, taken by the French (1691), v 59; 

General Colville at, ix 632 
Halberstadt, see of, iv 91, 111 sqq., 407; 

Wallenstein in, 94 ; 111 sqq. ; 407 ; 

bishopric of, v 642 ; taxation in, vi 221 ; 

Prussian forces near, 265; 266; 267; 

269; 339 
Christian, Bishop of. See Bruns wick- 
Wolf enbiittel, Duke Christian of 
Hald. See Frederikshald 
Haldane, Richard Burdon, Secretary for 

War, and army reform, xu 60 
Haldimand, Sir Frederick, lieutenant- 
general. Governor of Canada, ix 741; 

747; X 687 
Hale, John, Vicar of Isleworth, executed, 

n 442 
John Parker, American statesman, 

vii 399 

Sir Matthew, Lord Chief Justice, v 

96; 201 

Haleby, Ibrahim, Code of Law made by, 

I 98 
Halepa, Pact of, xn 418 sq. 
Hales, Sir Edward, Governor of Dover, 

V 233 

John, Discourse of the Common WeaL 

I 526; u 490 sqq. 

John, Canon of Windsor {the Ever- 
memorable), Laud supported by, iv 280; 

V 332; 744; 747 

Halifax, founding of, vn 115, 121 ; Loudon 
at, 128 sq.; Boscawen at, 133; Howe 
retreats to (1776), 172 

Charles Montagu, Earl of (2nd cr.), 

and the national finances, v 265 sqq.; 
and the currency, 269 ; and the Bank of 
England, 270; 274; impeachment of, 
275; 461 sq.; 466 sq.; Earl of Oxford 
and, 470, 474; 700; vi 12; 45; 56 

Charles Wood, Viscount, xi 14 sq. 



Halifax, George Montagu Dunk, 2nd Earl of 
(3rd cr.), vi 424; 425; First Lord of the 
Admiralty, 427; 428; 430; and John 
Wilkes, 432; and the Eegency Act, 
434; 442; Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
489, 492; death of, 444 

George Savile, 1st Marquis of, v 

136; 208; 210; 213; opposes the Non- 
resisting Test, 216; 222; 224; and 
Shaftesbury, 225; opposes the Exclu- 
sion Bill, 226 ; 227 sq. ; and the muni- 
cipal charters, 229 ; 230 ; and James II, 
231, 262 ; dismissal of, 232, 260 ; Letter 
to a Dissenter of, 235, 239, 335 ; Anatomy 
of an Equivalent of, 336; 337; and 
Dykvelt, 240; and invitation to William 
of Orange, 242; at Council of Peers, 
247; 249; and Revolution settlement, 
249 sq. ; 252 ; 255 sqq. ; Lord Privy Seal, 
968; 277 

Halil Pasha, x 651 

Halim Pasha, proposed as Khedive, xn 444 

Halkett, Sir Colin, General, at Waterloo, 

IX 639 
Hall, Carl Christian, Danish statesman, 

XI 696 

Charles, Effects of Civilisation, x 

780 

Charles, American Arctic explorer, 

xn 815 

Edward, in 374 

Floris Adrian van, Dutch Minister 

of Finance, xi 662; 665 sq.; 668 

Robert, Baptist, vni 764 

Hallam, Arthur Henry, xi 350 

Henry, historian, xn 834; 836 sq. 

Halland, ceded to Sweden (1645), iv 572; 

Treaty of Roeskilde and, 586; v 669 
Halle (on the Saale), Catholic Confedera- 
tion at (1533), n 220, 232; Cartesian 
philosophy at, iv 791; League of (1533), 
v 626; University of, 670, vi 226, ix 
327, 411, X 355; v 760; military drill 
at, VI 216; Austrian troops in, 295; 
Bliicher at, ix 532; meeting of Old 
Liberals in, xi 461 
Halleck, Henry Wager, American general, 
vn 480 sq., 483 sq.; on the Mississippi 
(1861), 492 sq., 495 sq.; transferred to 
Washington, 500 sq., 506, 532; 583 
Haller, Albrecht von, Swiss scholar, vi 
625; 827; xi 260 

Berthold, Zwinglian reformer, n 315, 

327 

Emmanuel de, French commis- 
sioner, viii 637 

• Karl Ludwig von, Swiss writer, vin 

782; political doctrines of, x 160; con- 
version of, to Rome, 380; Restoration of 
Political Science, 370 ; xn 826 

Hallett, Holt S., explores the river Menam, 
xn 797 

Halley, Edmund, astronomer, v 719; 721 
sq. 

Hallier, Comte du. See L'Hospital 



General Index, 



381 



Hallom, John, in Pilgrimage of Grace, n 
447 

Hallue river, battle of, xi 607, 610 

Halma, Nicolas, librarian to the Empress 
Josephine, xii 829 

Hahnstad, Diet at (1678), v 572 

Hals, Frans, Dutch painter, iv 723 

Ham, given up to France (1559), ii 94; 
castle of, in 669 sq., xi 286 

Hamah, Turkish defeat at (1832), x 550 

Hamann, Johann Georg, x 386 

Hambach, revolutionary demonstration at 
(1832), X 375, 377 

Hamburg, English Merchant Adventurers 
at, IV 8; and Christian of Denmark, 
89 ; 91 ; neutral, 99 ; and Spanish trade, 
105; designs of Christian IV on, 194; 
negotiations at, 373, 376 sq., 378, 380, 
383, 396 sqq., 402; blockade of (1643), 
387; trade of, 419 sq., v 646; ix 41; 
Danish forces in, 48 sqq.; seizure of 
British envoy at (1804), 249; ceded to 
Prussia, 264; Mortier captures (1806), 
282; Bernadotte at, 296, 324 ; 364; trade 
of, 374, 377 sq. ; municipal patriotism of, 
409 ; abandoned by Eugene Beauharnais 
(1813), 514; by Walhnoden, 520; isolated, 
530; besieged by Bernadotte (1813), 544; 
a free city, x 341; and the Customs* 
Union, 373; Bank of, 746; cotton 
shipped to, 759; revolutionary move- 
ment in, XI 151; 227; shipping trade 
of, xn 156 

Hamelin, Philibert, French reformer, n 
292 

West Indian buccaneer, v 691 

Hameln, siege of, ix 263 

Hames, Nicholas de, m 201 sq. 
Hami, caravan route to, xn 793 ; 799 ; 802 
Hamilton (Lanarkshire), recusants at, v 
285 

(Ontario), industries of, xn 612 

the House of, in 275, 277 

Alexander, American statesman and 

commander-in-chief, legal arguments of, 
Vol. vn, Chap, tl passim-, 231, 244; and 
the Constitutional Convention, Chap, viii 
passim; 316, 355, 692, 699, 730; x 280 

Andrew, colonial governor, vii 48 

Anthony, and Charles II, v 124 

Emma Lyon, Lady, wife of Sir 

William Hamilton, vni 648 sqq. , 659 ; ix 
229 

Lord George, Earl of Orkney. See 

Orkney 

Henry, Lieutenant-Governor of the 

North- West, vn 222 

James, 3rd Marquis and 1st Duke of, 

at Stettin, iv 203; 209; 347; Scottish 
army and, 349 ; at Preston, 350, 507 sq. 
Boyal Commissioner, 498 sq.; presides 
over General Assembly at Glasgow, 500 
502; 503; "Plotters" and, 505 

James Douglas, 4th Duke of, v 297 

VI 92 sq. 

c. M. H. 



Hamilton, John, Archbishop of St Andrews, 
n 558, 595 

Patrick, Scottish Protestant martyr, 

u 555 sq. 

Eichard, in Ireland, v 307 sqq. 

Sir William, metaphysician, vi 811 

Sir William, British Minister at 

Naples, vin 621, 631 sq., 650 sqq., 
658 sq. 

William Douglas, 3rd Duke of, v 

291 sq. 

Count, general, in Pomerania, yi 

280; 287 

Hamilton's Horse, vi 112; 114 

Hamm, taxation in, vi 221 

Hammer-Purgstall, Baron Joseph von. 
History of the Ottomans, xn 829 

Hammond, Colonel Robert, Charles I and, 
IV 346 

Hampden, Henry B. W. Brand, 1st Vis- 
count, Speaker of the House of Commons, 
xn 38 ; 79 

John, IV 266 sq. ; ship-money 

and, 283; 287; 289; 291; Eoot-and- 
Branch petition and, 292; impeachment 
of, 297; 504 

John, the younger (grandson of the 

above), v 229; 259 

John Hampden Trevor, 3rd Viscount, 

British ambassador at Turin, vm 559 

Renn Dickson, Bishop of Hereford, 

XI 18 

Hampshire, "Bloody Assizes" in, v 232 
Hampton (New Hampshire), founded, vn 21 

Court, Elizabeth at, n 535; Treaty 

(1543) with Charles V, confirmed at, 457 ; 
Treaty of (1562), between Elizabeth and 
Cond6, 584; reception of Tyrone by 
James I at, m 611 

Court Conference (1604), in 553, v 

743, vn 12 

Roads, the Monitor and the Merri- 

mac in, vn 472, 496, 561; 530; peace 
negotiations at (1865), 536, 601 
Hamsa, General of the Sultan Moham- 
med II, I 70 
Hamza Pasha, Turkish envoy, i 82 
Han river, Japanese gunboat in, xn 558 
Hanau, besieged by Imperialists, iv 370 
sq. ; Pragmatic army at, vi 238 ; French 
occupation of, ix 408; incorporated in 
Grand Duchy of Frankfort, 414 ; Liberal 
movement at, xi 146 sq. ; 229 
Hancock, John, Boston merchant, yn 153 

Thomas, n 480 

Winfield Scott, American general, 

vn 652 

Handasyde, lieutenant-general, in Scot- 
land, VI 114 sq. 

Haner, German reformer, suggests Mar- 
burg Conference, n 333 

Hangohow, opened to trade, xn 612 

Hangest, Charles and Jean de. See Noyon, 
Bishops of 

Hanikoff, P., Russian admiral, vnx 481 

24 



382 



General Index, 



Hauka, Vaclav, 6ech writer, xi 654 sq. 

Hankow, captured by rebels, xi 820; 
railway at, xn 605, 797; missionaries 
murdered at, 508 

Hannart, Franz, Chancellor of Charles V, 
n 166 sq., 171 

Hannecken, General, defeated at Wag- 
hausel, xi 221 

Hannen, James Hannen, Lord, and the 
Behring Sea arbitration, xn 721 

Hanoi, xii 131 ; French explorers at, 624 sq.; 
796 

Hanotaux, Gabriel, French statesman, xn 
124; 343; 834 

Hanover, Protestant Union in, iv 12; 
Louis XIV and, v 42, 54; 432; and 
Sweden, 607, 614 sq. ; and the third 
anti-Swedish league, 610 sq. ; 612 ; 666 ; 
Vol. VI, Chap. I passim ; 73 ; and Mecklen- 
burg, 206; 207; 213; and "War of the 
Austrian Succession, 231 sq. ; 235; and 
Convention of Westminster, 251, 254; 
252; 260; and Seven Years' War, 263; 
323; French in, 266; 318; France and, 
334; Austria and, 339 sq.; 355; 405; 
Pitt and, 407 sq. ; George III and, 416 ; 
703; Alliance of, 59, 141, 147, 395; Con- 
vention of, 243; and the Filrsteribundy 
VIII 282 sq. ; Prussifl,n troops occupy, ix 
48 ; withdraw from, 50 ; French occupa- 
tion of, 244, 249; Prussian desire for, 
250; 251, 256, 262, 264; French army in, 
252 ; Allies in, 263 ; annexed by Prussia, 
265; 266, 270; offered to England, 271; 
Mortier invades, 282; seized by Bona- 
parte, 364; part of the French Empire, 
408-9; British expedition to, 439; and 
Congress of Vienna, 587; 592, 697, 609 
sqq.; and Federal Act, 650; 654, 657 sq.; 
and the Papacy, x 148; and Prussia, 
341; connexion of, with England, 343, 
354, 379 ; and the Germanic Confedera- 
tion, 344, XI 220 sqq. ; political system 
of, X 363; and Customs' Union, 373, 
379, XI 53, 394; constitutional reforms 
in, X 374 ; separated from Great Britain, 
ih., 674; revolutionary movements in, xi 
60, 148; 167; and Frankfort Constitu- 
tion, 218 ; 227 ; and Schleswig-Holstein, 
337; 454; and Austro-Prussian War, 
452; 456; anti-Prussian feeling in, xn 
137; 147 

Ernest Augustus of Brunswick- 

Liineburg, Elector of, reversion of see 
of Osnabriick granted to, iv 408 ; becomes 
Elector of Hanover, v 55; 244; 662; vi 
2 sqq. ; 6 ; 19 

George Lewis of Brunswick-Liine- 

burg, Elector of. See George I, King 
of Great Britain 

Sophia, Electress of, v 251 ; and 

Act of Settlement, 275; 298; 474; 662; 
and Leibniz, 670; vi 1 sqq.; character 
of, 5; and English Succession, 6 sqq.; 12; 
death of, 17; 18 sqq. 



Hanoverian Alliance (1725), v 550 sq. ; 
565 

Hanovertown, Grant at (1864), vn 619 

Hanriot, Fran<jois, commander of Gardes 
nationales, vm 273 sq., cashiered, 342; 
361 sq.; arrested and executed, 370 sq. 

Hanseatic League, decline of, in late 16th 
century, i 292-3; quarrel of, with the 
Netherlands, 456 ; settlement of, in 
Bergen, 496; in London, ib.; loss of 
Novgorod trade to, 502; Protestant ten- 
dencies among cities of, ii 160; Eefor- 
mation and social and political ferment 
in, 227 sqq. ; the supremacy of the Baltic 
and, 228 sq., 614; naval rivalry of, with 
Denmark, 599; league of Dutch Eepublic 
with. III 644 ; decay of, in the early 17th 
century, iv 8; 106; concessions to, by 
Treaty of Munster, 414, by Treaty of 
Osnabriick, ib. ; v 623 ; and the German 
Order, 632 sqq. ; 646; coercion of, ix 364; 
Hanseatic departments and the French 
Empire, 408 sq.; and Zollverein, x 379, 
XI 53; X 747; and tariff uniformity, xn 
156 

Hansemann, David Justus Ludwig, Prussian 
statesman, xi 63; 58; at Heppenheim 
meeting, 62 sq. ; 159 sq. ; 191 

Hansen, Mauritz Christopher, Norwegian 
poet, XI 700 

Hanyang, captured by rebels (1853), xi 
820 

Haouran, revolt in the, x 559, 661 

Harbarovsk, founded, xi 273 

Harbin, railway at, xn 344 ; 678 sq. ; 587 

Harbord, Sir William, and the Irish re- 
bellion, V 311 

Harborne, William, in Turkey, iv 729 

Harcourt, Frangois- Eugene-Gabriel, Due 
de, mission of, to Gaeta, xi 121 sq.; 
126 

Henri I, Due de, Marshal of France, 

ambassador in Spain, v 382 sq. ; 384 sq. 

Henri de Lorraine, Comte de, in 

Italy, IV 148; 149; in Catalonia, 699; 
611; in southern France, 616; 
Breisach, 618 

Sir Simon, in Dublin, iv 624 

Simon Harcourt, 1st Viscount, 

Chancellor, vi 16 ; 18 

Simon Harcourt, 1st Earl, Lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, vi 494 sq. 

Sir William G. G. V. V., Home 

Secretary, xn 36; 43; 46; Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, 49, 51 

Hardee, William J., defends Savannah 
against Sherman, vn 527, 629 

Hardenberg, Charles Augustus, Prince of, 
Prussian Minister, vi 728 ; vin 441, 644 ; 
IX 249 sq. ; policy of, 256 ; 263 sqq., 282, 
287 sqq., 296, 328, 329, 331; succeeds 
Stein at Berlin, 336; policy of, 610; 
512 ; signs Treaty of Chaumont, 577 ; at 
Congress of Vienna, 680 sqq. ; 648 sqq. ; 
proposals of, 663; at Conference of 



Lord 



General Index, 



383 



Aix-la-Chapelle, x 14; at Conference of 
Troppau, 27 ; 50 ; in Borne (1821), 148 ; 
and the freedom of the Press, 347; 349; 
political views of, 350 sq. ; 352 sq. ; and 
Wartburg festival, 364; and murder of 
Kotzebue, 365; and Grand Duke Karl 
August of Saxe-Weimar, 366; death of, 
ih. ; XI 57 ; 59 
Hardenberg, Friedrich Ludwig von (Novalis), 

X 160; 398 sqq.; death of, 401; 402 sq.; 
405; 407; xi 49 

Hardinge, Sir Henry Hardinge, Viscount, 
at Albuera, ix 467; x 611; in India, xi 
738 sqq. 

Sir John, Queen's Advocate, xi 387 

Hardouin, Jean, French scholar, xn 817 
Hardwicke, Philip Yorke, Ist Earl of, vi 

75; 404; 407; 424 sqq.; and Prussia, 
427; 428; 435 

Philip Yorke, 3rd Earl of, Viceroy 

of Ireland, ix 706 

Hardy, Sir Charles, the younger, Admiral, 
VI 376; 452; vn 128 

J., French general, vni 476 

Thomas, shoemaker, vin 760 sq, 

Thomas, novelist, xn 13 

Sir Thomas Duffus, medievalist, xu 

835 

Hare, Francis, Bishop of Chichester, v 429 ; 

431 
Hargraves, Edward Hammond, gold miner, 

XI 795 

Hargreaves, James, inventor of the spin- 
ning-jenny, VII 374; X 735 
Hari Bud river, and the Afghan frontier, 

XII 477 sq. 

Harington, Sir John, m 328, 611 
Harkany, defeat of Turks at (1687), v 

367 
Harlan, Justice (U.S.), xn 721 
Harlay, Achille de, ni 59 
Harlay-Chanvallon, Francois de. Archbishop 

of Paris, v 20, 24 
Harley, Bobert, Earl of Oxford. See 

Oxford 

Thomas, missions of, to Hanover, 

VI 13 sqq. 

Harm an. Sir John, English admiral, v 

192 sq. 
Harmignies, William of Orange routed at 

(1572), in 232-3 
Harnack, C. G. Adolf, German theologian, 

xn 847 
Harueca, Dutch banking house of, vi 769 
Haro, Don Gonzalo Lopez de, Spanish 

navigator, vni 290 

Inigo de Velasco, Count of. See 

Frias, 2nd Duke of 

Don Luis de (de la Paz), Duke of 

Carpio, iv 660; at Elvas, 661 

Harper's Ferry, John Brown seizes (1859), 
vn 439 ; burned (1861), 454 ; Confederate 
camp at, 464 sq.; 475, 481, 530 sq. 
Harpsfield, Nicholas, n 501 
Harrach, Baron Charles von, iv 73 



Harrach, Ernest Albert von. See Prague, 
Archbishop of 

Count Joseph, President of Imperial 

War Council, vi 204 

Count, Imperial ambassador at 

Madrid (1700), v 381; 391 sq. 

Harrar, annexed by Egypt, xn 439 
Harrington, James,Co77imonw?mif/io/ Oceana, 
IV 544, VI 796 sq. ; founds Bota Club, iv 
546; 556; and Bevolution settlement, v 
252 sq.; 264; vi801; 813; 820 

William Stanhope, Ist Earl of, at 

Madrid, vi 32, 58; 61; 124; 126; 141 sq.; 
145; 149 

Harriot, Thomas, mathematician, v 709 sq. ; 

714 
Harris, George Harris, 1st Baron, general, 

campaign of, against Tipu, rx 723 

George F. B. Harris, 3rd Baron, 

Governor of Trinidad, xn 653 

Sir James. See Malmesbury, Ist 

Earl of 

Townsend, American Consul-general 

in Japan, xi 831 sqq.; 836; 842; 853 

Harrisburg (Penn.), National Convention 

at (1827), vn 377 
Harrison, Benjamin, President of United 

States, vn 660 sq., 665 sqq. 

Thomas, regicide, iv 437 ; arrest of, 

4i7; VI 799 

William Henry, American general, 

vn 338, 340, 388; President of United 
States, 389 sq. 

Harrison's Landing, Federal retreat to 

(1862), vn 479, 500; Lincoln at, 480 
Harrow School, the New Learning at, i 

682 
Harrowby, Dudley Byder, 1st Earl of, sent 

to Berlin, ix 263; leaves Berlin, 264 
Harsch, Austrian Quartermaster-general, 

VI 289 sq. 
Hart, Sir Bobert, in China, xu 523, 527 
Harte, Francis Bret, vn 747 
Hartenau, Count. See Alexander, Prince 

of Bulgaria 
Hartford, meeting at (1814), vn 348 
♦* Hartford Wits," The, vn 741 
Hartington, William Cavendish, Marquis 

of. See Devonshire, 4th Duke of 

Lord. See Devonshire, 8th Duke of 

Hartley, David, and taxation of the 

Colonies, vn 162 
Hartwell, Louis XVIII at, ix 501 ; de Blacas 

at, 565 
Harvard College, vii 727, 744 sq. 
Harvey, Beauchamp Bagenal, commands 

"Army of the People," ix 701 

Gabriel, in 368 sq. 

Sir John, Lieutenant-Governor of 

Nova Scotia, xi 759 

WiUiam, physiologist, v 725 sqq. ; 

733; VI 792 

Harville, L.-A. Juvenal des Ursins, Comte 

de, French commander, viii 416, 421 
Harwich, dockyard at, v 169 

24—2 



384 



General Index. 



Harwood, Sir Edward, Colonel, iv 696 
Hasan, Uzun, Turcoman prince, i 78, 82 

sq., 88 
Hasanzai tribe, xi 743 
Hase, Karl August, German theologian, xn 

847 
Hasegawa, Japanese general, xn 600 
Haslach, Dupont retreats from, ix 254 
Hasner, Baron Leopold, Austrian Minister 

of Education, xii 185; 187 
Hasper, Peter, ix 355 
Hassan, Muley, ruler of Tunis, n 69 

Governor of Bosnia, slaughtered at 

Sissek, m 700 

Abyssinian prince, xn 440 

Hasselt, the Allies at, vi 246 
Hassenfratz, Jean-Henri, French chemist, 

vin 606 
Hassenhausen, Davout at, ix 276 
Hassenpflug, Hans Daniel, Hesse-Cassel 

Minister, xi 228 sq. ; 232 sq. 
Hastenbeck, battle of, vi 263, 341 
Hastings, Francis Eawdon, 1st Marquis of, 

in America, vii 229 sq.; in India, xi 724 

sqq.; resignation of, 727; 730; 743; 

750; 753 

Frank Abney, Captain, destroys a 

Turkish squadron, x 196 

Henry. See Huntingdon 

Warren, Governor-General of India, 

VI 445; 465 sq.; 471; 559 sq.; 564; In- 
dian career of, 566 sqq. ; impeachment 
of, IX 715 sqq. ; and Free Trade, 733 ; 
XI 731; XII 5; and Tibet, 490; 798 

Hastwell, Sir Edmund, English ambassador 

in Venice, ii 383 
Hatch, Edwin, ecclesiastical historian, xn 

847 
"Hats and Caps," The, in Sweden, Vol. 

VI, Chap. XXII 
Hatsiise, Japanese battleship, sunk by 

mines, xn 587 
Hattem, Pontiaan van, and Spinoza, v 

754 
Hatteras Inlet, captured by Federals (1861), 

VII 552 

Hatton, Sir Christopher, ni 332 sq. ; 600 
Hattorf, Philip von, Hanoverian Minister, 

VI 20 
Hatzfeldt, Prince Franz Ludwig von. 

Governor of Berlin, ix 281; x 370 

Melchior, Imperialist general, at 

Wittstock, ly 372; 389; sent to Poland, 
429 

Hauer, Baron, Governor of Galicia, x 462 

Haufif, Wilhelm, German writer, x 406; 
XI 417 

Haugwitz, Count C. A. H. Kurt von, Prus- 
sian Minister, vni 534, 536, 543 sq., 635; 
IX 74 ; 249 ; policy of, 255 ; 259, 262 sqq. ; 
arrives at Paris, 265-6 ; agitation against, 
272; advice of, 282; 329 

Count Friedrich Wilhelm, Chancellor 

of Bohemia and Austria, vi 639 

Hauksbee, Francis, man of science, v 722 



Haupt, Moritz, German philologist, xn 

823 
Hausrath, Adolf, German historian, xn 

847 
Hausruck, The, ceded to Austria (1815), 

IX 658 

Haussen, battle at (1809), ix 349 
Haussmann, Baron Georges-Eugene, Pre- 
fect of the Seine, xi 303 

Nicolas, French politician, vm 415, 

422 

Hautefort, Marie de, and Eichelieu, iv 
150 

Hauteval, French political agent, vn 321 

Hautpoul, Alphonse-Henri Beaufort, Mar- 
quis de, French general, xi 129 

Havana, Spanish ships built in, in 520; 
VI 64; 142; 346; capture of, 369, 426; 
restored to Spain, 370; 428 sq.; 453; 
the U.S.S. Mai7ie at, vn 676, xn 696; 
Willaumez at, ix 234 ; naval fortress of, 

X 248, 256 ; buccaneers at, 272 ; the trade 
of, 275; General Prim in, xi 566; xn 18 

Havelberg, fight near (1627), iv 100; taken 

by Gustavus, 203 ; by Baner, 366 ; see of, 

407, V 618; Peter the Great at, 612; 

Treaty of, vi 206 
Havelland, drainage of, vi 225 
Havelock, Sir Henry, major-general, at 

Cawnpore, xi 747 sq. 
Haverman, Hendrik J., Dutch painter, xn 

249 
Haveron, Jean, Eector of University of 

Paris, I 636 
Havet, Louis, and the Dreyfus affair, xn 120 
Haviland, William, general, vn 143 
Havlicek, Karel, 6ech journalist, xi 656 
Havre, Le, English expedition to (1562), 

n 584, m 3, 6 ; Cond6 and, iv 612 ; 613 ; 

development of, v 14 ; French troops at, 

IX 208 ; trade in, 242 ; xi 15 ; threatened 

by the Germans, 607 ; harbour works at, 

xn 102 
Havre, Charles Philip de Croy, Marquis of 

(brother of Aerschot), m 245 sq. 
Hawaii, U.S. treaty with (1884), vn 649; 

xn 666; and United States, 667 sq. 
Hawaiian Islands, the United States and, 

vn 667 sq., 673 
Hawick, Jacobite force at, vi 101 
Hawke, Edward Hawke, Lord, vi 248; 250; 

and the naval operations of the Seven 

Years' War, 342a sqq. (in Vol. xiii) ; and 

the battle of Quiberon Bay, 342c (ib.); 

First Lord of Admiralty, 437 ; 444 
Hawkes, Thomas, Protestant martyr under 

Mary, n 338 
Hawke's Bay, Province of, xi 799 
Hawkesbury, Lord. See Liverpool, Bobert 

Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of 
Hawkins, Sir John, relief of Huguenot 

settlers in Florida by, i 55; m 295-7; 

300; 313 sqq., 492 sq. ; vn 2; x 253 

Sir Kichard (son of Sir John), ni 

301; VI 516; x 254; 278 



General Index. 



385 



Hawkins, William, Mayor of Plymouth 
(brother of Sir John), in 297; 493 

William, in India, iv 741 

Hawkshaw, Sir John, and Suez Canal, 

XI 638 
Hawkwood, Sir John, English condottierey 

I 265 
Hawley, Henry, lieutenant-general, in 

Scotland, vi 115 
Haworth, fortified, in 282 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, vn 745 sq. 
Haxthausen-Abbenburg, Baron August 

F. L. M. von, XI 266; 274 
Hay, John, Marquis of Tweeddale. See 

Tweeddale 
John, Lincoln's private secretary, vn 

577 
Hayd, Khevenhiiller's force at, vi 235 
Haydon, Benjamin Robert, painter, x 721 ; 

the autobiography of, xi 362 
Hayes. See Des Hayes 

Rutherford Birchard, President of 

the United States, vn 645 sq. ; xii 686 

Haymerle, Baron Heinrich Carl von, 
Austrian statesman, xii 192; 394 

Haynau, Baron Julius Jacob von, Austrian 
general, xi 95; 188; in Hungary, 209 
sqq.; recalled, 215 sq. 

Hayne, Robert Young, American politician, 
vn 376, 381, 412, 414, 418 

Hayti, attempted occupation of, ix 749; 
abandoned (1798), 750; Bolivar in, x 
293; Republic of, xn 7 

Hay ward, George, geographer, xn 802 

Hazara, Sikh possessions in, annexed, xi 
740 

Hazrat, Russian advance on, xi 630 

Head, Sir Edmund Walker, Governor- 
General of Canada, xi 768 

Sir Francis Bond, Governor of Upper 

Canada, x 692; xi 755 

♦♦Heads of the Proposals," iv 343 sqq.; 

353 
Hearne, Samuel, at the Coppermine river, 

xn 814 

Thomas, antiquary, xn 816 

Heath, Nicholas, Bishop of Worcester and 

Archbishop of York, n 467; the first 
Prayer Book attacked by, 484; 501, 521 ; 
made Chancellor, 543; 564 sq., 568, 
571 

Sir Robert, case of Darnel and, iv 

268; vn 34 

Heathfield, George Augustus Eliott, Lord, 

VI 379 sq. ; 452 ; vn 232 
Hebbel, Friedrich, German poet, x 405; 

407 ; XI 414 sqq. ; 420 
Hubert, Jacques-Ren6, vm 234; Procureur 

Substitut, 252, 262; arrested, 272 sq.; 

838, 348, 356; executed, 362; Le Pere 

Duchesne, 373 

Michel-Pierre, French Minister of 

Justice, XI 42 

Hebrew learning, in England, in the Middle 
Ages, I 590 



Hecker, Friedrich Franz Karl, Baden 

radical, xi 61 sq.; 145; 163 
Heckerens, faction in Gelderland, i 423 
Heckscher, Johann Gustav Moritz, German 

politician, xi 166 ; 168 sq. 
Hedenstrom, discovers New Siberia Islands, 

xn 795 
Hedges, Sir Charles, Secretary of State, v 

465 
Hedin, Sven, xn 280 ; travels of, 798, 804 
Hedio, Caspar, of Strassburg, Zwinglian, 

n 207, 328, 333 
Hedjaz, pilgrims in the, xn 453 
H^douville, Comte Gabriel- Marie- Theodore 

de, commander of the ' Army of England,* 

attempts to pacify France, ix 3 ; 13 sq. 

Nicolas -Jean -Charles, Comte de, 

French diplomatist at Frankfort, ix 414 

Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, 

Queen of Sweden, consort of Charles X, 

IV 578; 690; v 562; 564 
Heeckeren, Baron Georges d'Anthds de, 

XI 472 
Heemskerk, Jacob van, navigator, m 632, 

639 

Dr J., Dutch statesman, xi 667; 

xn 243 sqq. 

Heemstra, Baron van, Dutch statesman, 

XI 666 

Heer, Oswald, German botanist, xi 260 
Heeren, Arnold H. L., German historian, 

XII 817; 823 

Hefele, Karl Joseph von (Bishop of Rot- 
tenburg), xi 719; 722; History of the 
Councils, xn 848 

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, n 714; 
VI 827; 836; vm 773; x 361; 374; in- 
fluence of, on German literature, 410; 
XI 365; xn 135; 155; 847 

Karl, German historian, xn 850 

Hegius, Alexander, head of Deventer School, 

I 435 sq., 461, 634; opponent of Luther, 

n 168 
Hegner, Ulrich, Swiss novelist, ix 427 
Hegyes, engagement at, xi 211 
Heiberg, Johan Ludvig, Danish dramatist, 

XI 699 

Peter Andreas, vm 788 

Heidanus, Cartesian philosophy and, rv 

789 

Heideek, George von, n 270 

Heidegger, John Conradin, Burgomaster 
of Zurich, vi 615 sq. 

Heidelberg, n 238; League of (1553), 274; 
surrender of (1622), in 575, iv 80 sqq. ; 
Calvinist refugees in, m 703; Univer- 
sity and Library of, 713 ; Erastian Con- 
troversy in, 758; theologians of, iv 5; 
Dohna at, 24; 77; the Catholic League 
at, 113; taken by Werth, 248 sq., 367; 
Cartesian philosophy in, 786; sacked 
(1689), V 56; University of, 628; ceded 
to Baden, ix 94; secret clubs at, x 375; 
school of romantic writers, 401 sqq. ; 
political meetings at, xi 144, 162 



386 



General Index. 



Heidelberg Catechism, The (1564), iii 164, 
163, 646 sq., 653 

Heilbronn, supports the Protest of Speier, 
n 205; meeting of princes at (1594), in 
714 sq., 722; Protestant Union at, iv 11 
sq., 28, 69 ; Mansfeld at, 67 ; Alliance of 
(1633), 142, 225 sqq., 234, 236, 243, 245, 
broken up, 246, 247 sqq., 865, 399, 401; 
Oxenstierna at, 682 

Heiligerlee, battle of (1568), ni 223 

Heilmann, Josu6, xi 301 

Heilsberg, Charles XII at, v 593; Ben- 
nigsen at, ix 290 

Heimburg, Gregor, opposition to Rome and 
submission of, i 624, 633, 680, 689 

Hein, Pieter Pieterzoon, of Delfshaven, 
vice-admiral at Bahia, iv 704 sq.; captures 
Spanish treasure fleet, 706 ; death of, ib. 
sq.; 750 

Heine, Heinrich, x 376; 405; 410 sqq.; 
influence of Byron upon, 726; xi 411; 
ballads of, 413 

Heinse, Johann J. W., novels of, x 388; 
399; 403 

Heinsius, Anton, Grand Pensionary of 
Holland, v 257 sq.; 269; and Spanish 
Succession, 384 sqq., 432; and accession 
of Philip V of Spain, 395 sq. ; and Grand 
Alliance (1701), 398; 403; and French 
overtures for peace, 417, 422 sq., 427; 
and Sweden, 691; vi 31; death of, 32 

Daniel, Dutch scholar, i 579; iv 

717; V 68 

Heintzelman, Samuel Peter, American 
general, vii 476 

Heke, Maori chief, xi 793; 795 

Held, Gustav Friedrich, Saxon Minister, 
XI 149 

Matthias.Vice-Cbancellorof CharlesV, 

II 235 sq., 238 

Helding, Michael. See Mainz, suffragan- 
bishop of 

Helen Glinskaia, consort of Vasili HI, 
Tsar of Muscovy, v 487 

Helena (Arkansas), Confederate repulse at 
(1863), vn 505 

Grand Duchess of Russia, xi 617 

of Servia, driven out by Mahmud 

Pasha (1457), i 70 

Helfenstein, Count Ludwig von, killed in 
Peasants' Rising, n 187 

Helfert, Baron Joseph Alexander von, 
German historian, xn 829 

Helgesen, Povel. See Eliaesen, Paul 

Heligoland, captured by England (1807), 
IX 368 ; and the Continental System, 374, 
381 ; ceded to Great Britain, 654 ; ceded 
to Germany, xii 47, 167 

Heliopolis, Turkish defeat at, vin 617 

Hellenic movement, of early 19th century, 
Vol. X, Chap. VI passim, 169-204. {For 
the earlier literary movement see Renais- 
sance) 

*«Hellaland," discovered by Northmen, i 
50 



Helmfelt, Simon Grundel, Baron of, Swedish 

general, v 669 sq. 
Helmholtz, Hermann von, xn 785 
Helmont, Jean-Baptiste van, chemist, v 

730; 733 sq. 
Helmstedt, Calixtus at, iv 424 ; University 

of, V 744, 
Helsingborg, recovered by Sweden, v 670 ; 

Panes defeated at (1710), 581, 603 
Helsingfors, vi 761; Gustavus IH at, 

778 
Heist, Bartholomaeus van der, art of, rv 

723 
Helvetia, project of kingdom of, ix 425 
Helvetic Confederation, recognised at Osna- 

brUck and Miinster, iv 410 

Confession, the First (1536), n 339 ; 

embraced by Lutomirski, ni 74 

Republic, viii 639, 646 ; creation of, 

IX 96 ; coups d'etat, 97-9 ; dissolution 
of, 104; liquidation of debt of, 426; 
effects of establishment of, xi 235 sq. 
See also Switzerland 

Society, vi 625 

H^lv^tius, Claude- Adrien, French philo- 
sopher, VI 826; viii 9, 24, 26, 29, 32; 
farmer-general, 71; influence of, npon 
Bentham, x 595 

Helvoetsluys, Rupert sails from, iv 463 ; 
Tromp sails from, 473; Herbert sails 
from, V 245 

Hely-Hutchinson, John {afterwards 2nd 
Earl of Donoughmore), general, com- 
mands in Egypt, vm 617 sq. ; diplomacy 
of, IX 288; 693 

Hembyze, revolutionary leader at Ghent, 
m 248, 250, 252 

Hemerken, Thomas. See Kempis, k 

Hemmiugsen, Nils, iv 562 

H^nault, Charles-Jean-Fran^ois, historian, 
XII 817; 829 

Henderson, Alexander, Covenant drawn up 
by, IV 317 ; at Glasgow, 501 

Hendrik of Zutphen, Prior of Dort, i 460 

Hendrikszoon, Admiral Boudewyn, at San 
Salvador, iv 705 

Heneage, Sir Thomas, ni 619 

Henley, Joseph Warner, President of 
Board of Trade, xi 331 
Robert. See Northington, Earl of 

Henneberg, Berthold of, Elector of Mainz. 
See Mainz 

Count William of, accepts the 

peasants' Articles, ii 188 

H6non, Jacques-Louis, French Republican, 
XI 304 

•'Henrican Articles," The, iii 86 sqq. 

Henrico, settlement of, vn 6 

Henrietta Maria, Queen of England, con- 
sort of Charles I, treaty of marriage of, 
in 577; marriage of, iv 129; 131; 258 
263; 266; reconciled with the King, 272 
Prynne's Histriomustix and, 279; 303 
304; 306 sq.; at York, 311 sq.; 319 
323; 328; 331; 334; and France, 336, 



General Index. 



" 387 



338; 340; 488; Hyde and, 620; 642; in 
Holland, 702; 773; v 93; jointure of, 
95; 106; and France, 112 

Henrique, of Portugal (Prince Henry the 
Navigator), i 10; colonising plans of, 
11-5, 17 ; death and will of, 15 sq. 

Henriquez, Don Martin, Viceroy of Mexico^ 
III 296 

Henry IV, King of Castile, i 352, 354, 379 

IV, King of England, i 10 

VI, King of England, i 427, 464, 641 

VII, King of England, the Cabots 

and, I 33 ; siege of Boulogne by, 111 ; 
Italian League joined by, 118 ; Britanny 
and, 393-5; 450-5; Chap, xiv passim; 
n 555; m 580, 749 

VIII, King of England, i 61; Holy 

League joined by, 136, 366 ; at war with 
France, 140 ; 456 ; Chap, xiv, (ii) passim, 
580, 644; u 26; meetings of, with 
Francis I and Charles V (1520), 42, 49; 
52 sq., 56 sq., 67, 71, 75; invades France 
(1544), 77 sq.; 220; allied with Liibeck, 
229 ; the Lutheran Princes and, 238 sq. ; 
death of, 82, 260; reign of, Chap, xin 
passim; will of, ni 266; and Ireland, 
680-7, IV 513 sq. 

II, King of France, i 396 ; marriage 

of, n, 26, 67, 219; royal credit under, 
65; 76; 78; accession of, 82 sqq., 86; 
invades Lorraine, 87; and the German 
Princes, 87, 271; 199, 269; invades Ger- 
many, 271 ; the French Protestants and, 
292 sqq. ; 486 sq., 492 sq.; Scotland and, 
499; 505; Mary Tudor and, 526; 545 
sq.; Elizabeth and, 560; death of, 296, 
674; Council of Trent and, 670 sq.; 
included in peace of 1547, between Em- 
peror and Porte, ra 120; 166, 184, 263 
sq., 286, 399, 477 sq., 482 

Ill, King of France (Duke of Anjou), 

projected marriage of, with Queen Eliza- 
beth, n 525 ; Duke of Anjou, iii 11 sqq. ; 
King of Poland, 85-95 ; King of France, 
24 sq. ; 26 ; and Catholic League, 31 
sqq., 43 sqq.; 62; 170; 177; 238; 242; 
and Emmanuel Philibert, 406 sq.; 414 
sq., 430 ; 451 sqq. ; 501 ; 510 ; murder of 
(1589), 47, 511; 597, 695, 710 sq.; and 
Poland, V 494 

IV (of Navarre), King of France, i 

625; m 3, 11; heir after the Valois to 
the French throne, 15 ; becomes King of 
Navarre, 18; share of, in the religious 
troubles in France before the death of 
Henry III, 19-4^5 passim; Casimir's treaty 
with, 711 ; won over by Emmanuel Phili- 
bert, 406 ; recognised by Henry III as his 
successor, 45 ; contest of, with the League, 
47-52, 68, 70, 385, 397 sq. ; and Charles 
Emmanuel, 415 sqq., 437; and Sixtus V, 
451 sqq., 511 sqq., 540, 558; War of, 
with Spain in alliance with the United 
Provinces, 627 sqq.; and the Twelve Years' 
Truce, 641-2; account of reign, policy 



and character of. Chap, xx, 657-95; re- 
lations with the Protestant Princes of 
Germany, 711 sq., 722 sqq. ; the hero of 
legitimism, 751 sq. ; assassination of, vi 
2; and the Grisons, 41 sqq.; anti- 
Habsburg policy of, 40, 50, 56; 57; 
effects of death of, 118 sqq. ; 125 ; 129 ; 
131 ; 137 ; accomplishment of designs of, 
144; 152; 155; 624 sq.; 667; papal 
succession and, 668 ; Paul V, Venice and, 
670; V 72; 702; 744; vi 612 
Henry I (the Fowler), of Saxony, German 
King v, 617; 639 

Cardinal, King of Portugal, in 499 

sq. 

Prince, of Germany, at Peking, xii 

604 sq. 

Prince Consort of Holland, xn 248 

d'Albret, King of Navarre. See 

Albret 

Prince (of the Netherlands), in 

Luxemburg, xi 674 sq.; xn 244; 433 

Prince of Prussia, in the Seven 

Years' War, vi 262, 267 sq., 277, 279, 
287 sqq., 297 sq.; victory of, at Frei- 
burg, 299; 324; 326; 357; 632; and 
Catharine II, 678; 696; in Saxony, 703; 
705 sq. ; 730; at St Petersburg, 668 sqq., 
731 ; 732 sqq. 

Prince of Wales (son of James I), 

in 558; iv 625 

Casimir, Stadholder of Friesland. 

See Nassau-Dietz 

Frederick, Duke of Cumberland. See 

Cumberland 

Patrick, Virginian patriot, vn 145, 

149; character of, 151; 161, 164; threatens 
violence, 169; 303 

Colonel, and the Dreyfus affair, xn 

121 

of Costessey, Commentary on the 

Psalms, I 587, 591 sq. 

Hentzi, Heinrich, Austrian general, xi 208 
Henzi, Samuel, Swiss revolutionary, vi 625 
Hepburn, James, 4th Earl of Bothwell. 

See Bothwell 
Heppenheim, Nationalist assembly at, xi 

62, 144 
Herat, proposed Franco-Kussian expedition 
by way of, ix 48 ; xi 731 ; siege of, 732 ; 
733; captured by Persia, 745; Sher Ah 
at, xii 459; 465 sq. ; Ayub Khan at, 
475 ; 479 ; caravan route to, 793 ; 800 sq. 
H^rault, Eepublican rising in, xi 137 

de S^chelles, Marie- Jean, member of 

the National Convention, vin 249, 342 
sq.; trial and execution of, 363; 375 

Herbersdorf, Baron Adam von, rv 76 
Herberstein, Siegmund, Baron von. Imperial 

ambassador at Moscow, v 487 ; 612 
Herbert, Arthur, Earl of Torrington. See 

Torrington 

Sir Edward, iv 297 

George, IV 280, 760; characteristics 

of, 766 sqq. 



388 



General Index, 



Herbert, Henry, Lord (son of Earl of Pem- 
broke), marriage of, to Lady Catharine 
Grey, n 610 

Thomas, Earl of Pembroke. See 

Pembroke 

WiUiam, Earl of Pembroke. See 

Pembroke, 1st Earl of 

Sir William, in 600 sq. 

Lord (1645). See Glamorgan, Earl 

of 

of Cherbury, Edward Herbert, Lord, 

VI 791 

of Lea, Lord (Sidney Herbert), 

Secretary of the Admiralty (1841-5), x 
667; Secretary at War (1845-6, 1852-4), 
Secretary of State for War (1859-61), xi 
2 ; 10 ; 21 ; 320 ; and the panic of 1869, 
333 

Herbom, University of, iv 789, 791 
Herbst, Eduard, Austrian Minister of 

Justice, xn 185; 201 
Herbsthausen, battle of (1645), iv 390, 597 
Herculaneum, discovery of, vi 596; 600 
Herculano de Carvalho, Alexandre, History 

of Portugal^ xn 843 
Herder, Johann Gottfried, vi 827; 830; 

832 ; vm 773 sq. ; x 383 ; importance of, 

in German literature, 385 sq. ; 387 ; 391 ; 

396 ; 400 sq. ; 404 ; xi 414 ; xn 817 sq. ; 

849 sq. 
H^r^dia, Jos6 Maria de, French poet, xi 515 
Hereford, surrenders its charter, v 229 
Hereros, The, rebellion of, xii 664 
Heresbach, Conrad, n 236 
Herford, abbey of, Elizabeth Princess 

Palatine and, iv 786; Labadie at, v 756 
Hergenhahn, August, Nassau politician, 

XI 147; 198 
Hergenrother, Joseph von, Cardinal, Anti- 
Janus, XI 719; xn 848 
Hericourt, success of Swiss at (1474), i 

390 
Herigonus, Petrus, mathematician, v 710 
Herjedalen, acquired by Sweden, iv 572 
Herman, Jakob. See Arminius 
Hermandad, in Castile and Aragon, i 352 

sq. 
Hermann, Gottfried, philologer, xn 821 

sq. 
M,-J.-A., President of the Revolu- 

tiouaxy Tribunal, vm 356 sq. 

Eussian general, vm 662 

of Hesse. See Cologne 

of Eyswyk, Dutch heretic, i 460 

Hermannstadt, xi 173; occupied by Rus- 
sians, 206 

Hermes, Georg, x 380 sq. 

Hermogenes, Patriarch of Moscow, v 501 

sq. ; 506 
Hermonymus, George, Greek scholar, i 597 
Hernad river, Gorgei at, xi 211 
Hernandez, Julian, Spanish Reformer, n 

406 sq. 
Herrasti, Governor of Ciudad Rodrigo, ix 

458 



Herrenhausen, Treaty of (1725), ▼ 650, 

VI 69 
Herrezuelo, Spanish Reformer, n 407 
Henries, John Charles, x 610 
Lord (Sir John Maxwell), 4th Baron, 

m 278 
Herrnhut, Moravian community in, v 762; 

John Wesley at, vi 82 
Herschell, Farrer Herschell, Lord, xn 46; 

86; 484; 721 
Hersfeld, Tilly at, rv 86; Leopold William 

secures, 112 ; ceded to Hesse-Cassel, 408 ; 

Prussian troops at, xi 230 
Hertford, Edward Seymour, Earl of. See 

Somerset, Duke of 

Francis Charles Seymour-Conway, 

3rd Marquis of, ix 270 sq. 

Wilham Seymour, 1st Marquis of 

{later 2nd Duke of Somerset), Charles I 
and, IV 305 ; in South Wales, 308 ; 313 

Hertogenbosch, captured by Frederick 
Henry, iv 115, 691 sqq. ; 698 sq. ; 
captured by Pichegru, vin 436 

Hertz, Heinrich, and wireless telegraphy, 
xn 787 

Henrik, Danish poet, xi 699; 701 

Hertzberg, Count Ewald Friedrich von, 

Prussian Foreign Minister, vi 346; 648; 

707; 709; 734; vm 293, 322 sqq.; policy 

of, 329 sq. ; 333 ; and Poland, 525, 529 
Hervet, Gentien, French scholar, i 619 
Hervey, Frederick Augustus. See Bristol, 

4th Earl of 
Hervilly, Comte Louis- Charles de, vm 

391 
Herwarth von Bittenfeld, Karl Eberhard, 

Prussian general, xi 452 
Herwegh, Georg, German poet, xi 50; 

413 
Herz, Henriette, vm 773 
Herzegovina, i 71; acquired by Turks, 73; 

XI 533; insurrection in, 636; xn 3; 9; 

rising in, 32 ; 172 ; annexed by Austria, 

175 sq., 192, 211 sq.. 378, 400, 427 sq.; 

198 ; insurrection in, 382 sq. ; 385 sqq. ; 

Austria and, 389, 394; 390; Treaty of 

San Stefano and, 392; Treaty of Berlin 

and, 396 sq., 399 sq. 
Herzen, Alexander, Russian journahst, and 

Memoirs of Catharine II, vi 658; and 

Kolokol, XI 625 sq.; xn 294; 296; 298; 

302 
Herzog, Hans, Swiss general, xi 257 
Hesdin, surrenders to France, n 72 ; 

captured by Charles V, 89; retained by 

Spain (1559), 94; siege of, 420 
Heselrige, Sir Arthur, impeachment of, rr 

297 ; 449 ; Richard Cromwell and, 451 sq.; 

army and, 645, 547 ; Parliament and, 548, 

550; 557; v 94 
Hesse, Brandenburg and landgravate of, v 

627 ; and the German Empire, xi 465 

Agnes of. See Saxony 

Landgraves of, refuse Formula Con- 

cordiae, in 704, 715 



I 



General Indeoo, 



389 



Hesse, Philip, Landgrave of, n 156, 169, 
187; Peasants' Rising and, 189, 191 ; Pro- 
testant League formed by, 195 sq.; breach 
with Zwingli averted by, 204; Protest 
signed by, 205 sqq., 211, 213; at 
Schmalkalden, 215, 220 sq. ; invasion of 
Wiirtemberg by, 224; 234, 236, 239; 
scandal of second marriage of, 194, 240 
sq., 241 sqq.; won over by Charles V, 
244, 252-9; surrenders to Charles V, 
261; imprisoned, 268, 275; 329; Zwingli 
and, 333 sqq., 338; leader of Protestant 
Princes, iii 157, 163; 193; and William 
of Orange, 210, 222 

William, Landgrave of, n 270 sq. 

Hesse-Cassel, iv 66, 85 sq. ; represented at 

Brunswick, 96; v 414; 435; vi 240; 242 ; 
Convention of Westminster and, 254; 
447 ; included in kingdom of Westphalia, 
EC 336; rising in (1809), 356-7; 411; 
military life in, 412; subsidy treaty 
with, 672; x 343; and Germanic Con- 
federation, 344, XI 221 sqq.; x 346; 
reaction in, 363; and Customs' Union, 
372 sq., 378; constitutional changes in, 
374; the revolutionary movement in, xi 
146 sq.; crisis in, 228 sqq.; 233; reaction 
in, 397; 450; 454 sq. 

Amalia Elizabeth, of Hanau, Land- 
gravine of, IV 370 ; concludes truce with 
the Emperor, 371, 379; consents to 
neutrality, 383; 390; 392; and Peace 
of Westphalia, 408; death of, ih. 

Prince Charles of, vi 743; 756; 

779 sq. 

Prince Frederick of, xi 226 

Hesse-Cassel, Electors of: — 

Frederick William I, xi 60 ; 146 sq. ; 

228 sq.; 231; 233 

William I, receives Mainz territory, 

IX 94; 273; deposition of, 278; at Con- 
gress of Vienna, 582; 610; x 13; 19; 
and the Diet, 346; 374; xi 209 

William II, xi 60; 146 

Hesse-Cassel, Landgraves of:— 

Charles, v 55; 244; 403; vi 28; 59 

Frederick I. See Frederick, King of 

Sweden 

Frederick II, vi 425 

Maurice, in 713; and Henry IV, 

722; and Protestant Union, 725; and 
Gustavus Adolphus, rv 12; 25; at Heil- 
bronD,28; 66; 67; 69; and Christian of 
Halberstadt, 79; 82; 96 

William IV, m 173 sq. ; 241 ; 711 ; 

death of (1592), 713 

William V, Gustavus Adolphus and, 

IV 195; at the Leipzig convention, 200; 
204 ; 208 ; friendly towards Sweden, 225 ; 
247; 249 sq. ; Peace of Prague and, 
255; 365; 368; and France, 370; loses 
his landgravate, 371 ; and dies (1637), 401 

William VI, joins Rheinbund^ ly 

431 sq. ; v 743 

William VIII, vi 266 



Hesse-Darmstadt, and Protestant Union, 
ni 725; and Turkish grant, iv 10; joins 
France, ix 253; accedes to Defensive 
Triple Alliance, 697; x 343; and Ger- 
manic Confederation, 344, xi 221 sqq.; 

X 362; and Customs' Union, 372 sq. ; 
and Hanover, 380 ; xi 60 ; revolutionary 
movement in, 144 sq. ; 163 ; reaction in, 
397; 450; 454; and Austro-Prussian War, 
457 

Prince George of, at Congress of 

Vienna, ix 682 
Hesse-Darmstadt, Landgraves of: — 

Ernest Lewis, v 403 

George II, iv 114 ; and Saxony, 211, 

252 ; administrator of Hesse-Cassel, 371 ; 
and Treaty of Ulm, 391 

Lewis V, III 731 ; iv 33 ; and Union, 

69; 80; 84 
Hesse-Darmstadt, Lewis I, Grand Duke of, 
cessions to, ix 658 

Lewis II, Grand Duke of, xi 60 ; 145 

Lewis III, Grand Duke of, xi 145 

Hesse-Homburg, and Germanic Confedera- 
tion, X 343 

Landgrave Frederick VI of, and 

Federal Act, ix 651 

Prince Lewis of, ix 638 

Hesse-Philipsthal, Louis, Landgrave of, 

defends Gaeta, ix 404 
Hessels, member of "Council of Blood," 

in 216 sq., 251 
Hessus, Helius Eobanus. See Eoban of 

Hesse 
Hetairia Philike, Greek secret society, x 

176; 178 sq. 
Hetherington, Henry, x 682 sq. 
Hetzendorf, Castle of. Queen of Naples 

dies at (1814), ix 384 ; Windischgratz at, 

XI 188 

Hetzer, Ludwig, German theologian, n 

223 
Heu, Gaspard de, n 297 
Heuglin, Theodor von, African explorer, xn 

811 

Lutheran martyr, n 202 

Heusenstamm, Sebastian von. See Mainz, 

Electors of 
Heusken, American interpreter, xi 831; 

murder of, at Yedo, 841 sq. 
Hewett, Dr John, execution of, iv 447 

Sir William, Admiral, xn 441; 444 

Hexham, General Wade at, vi 114 
Heyden, Count, Russian admiral, x 199 

Count, and Russian reform, xn 328 ; 

365; 360; and the first Duma, 365; 
Stolypin and, 369 

Heydt, August von der, Prussian statesman, 

XI 193; 230 
Heylin, Peter, ecclesiastical writer, vi 

798 sq. 
Heynlin, John, Rector of University of 

Paris, I 637 
Heyse, Paul, novelist and poet, xi 414 sq. ; 

417; 419 sq. 



390 



General Index. 



Heytesbury, William A'Court, 1st Baron, 

at Madrid, x 226; at Lisbon, 317, 321; 

at St Petersburg, 474; xi 731 
Haywood, Thomas, A Woman killed with 

kindness, m 380 
H^ze, Willem van Hoorn, Baron de, in 245, 

251 
Hicks, Thomas H., Governor of Maryland, 

vn 453 

William, general (Hicks Pasha), xn 

440; 443 

Hicks-Beach, Sir Michael Edward, later 
Viscount St Aldwyn, Chief Secretary for 
Ireland, xii 45; 46; Chancellor of Ex- 
chequer, 52 ; 74 sq. 

Hidalgo, Baltasar, Spanish general, xn 
259 

Manuel, x 303 sq. 

Hideyoshi, and Japanese invasion of Korea, 
xn 556, 564 

Hierapetra, Italian occupation of, xn 423 

Hierta, Swedish journalist, xi 685 

Higgins, Dr, physician to Philip V of 
Spain, VI 145 

High Commission, Court of, under Whitgift, 
m 342 sqq. ; and Laud, iv 278 sqq. ; 
abolished, 291; v 234; revived in Scot- 
land (1664), 283. See also Ecclesiastical 
Commission 

•'Highland Host," in Ayrshire, v 285 

Highlands, iv 491 ; royalist rising in, 
511 

Higo, daimid of, xi 832; 852 

Hikon6 clan, xi 851; 864 

Hildesheim, see of, ceded to Elector of 
Cologne, IV 408; 412; Alliance (1652), 
425, 431; designs of Frederick II of 
Prussia upon, vi 254 ; bishopric of, ceded 
to Prussia, ix 78; acquired by Hanover, 
658 

Adam Adami, Bishop Suffragan of, 

historian of Miinster Congress, iv 401 

Hildreth, Kichard, American historian, xn 
841 

Hill, Benjamin H., Confederate senator, vn 
605 

General Sir Eowland, Visoount, 

ordered to watch Soult, ix 468 ; in Estre- 
madura, 471 ; and the bridge of Almaraz, 
472; at Madrid, 473-4; ordered to Sala- 
manca, 475 ; guards passes of Bonces- 
valles and Maya, 479; victory of, at 
Saint Pierre, 481 

Sir Eowland, and the Post-office, x 

679 

Hiller, Johann, Baron von, at Eckmiihl, ix 

350 
Hillsborough, Viscount. See Downshire, 

Marquis of 
Hilmi Pasha, Turkish Inspector- General, 

xn 426 
Hilprecht, Hermann von, discoveries of, at 

Nippur, XII 846 
Himalaya mountains, xii 793 ; exploration 

in. 798 



Himbercourt, Sire de. Count of Meghem, 
I 440 sq. 

Himeji, Japanese noble, xi 832 

Hinckeldey, Karl Ludwig Friedrich von, 
Berlin president of police, xi 395 

Hincks, Edward, Assyriologist, xn 845 

Hindmarsh, Sir John, Admiral, Governor 
of South Australia, xi 792 

Hindu Kush mountains, xn 793 

Hindustan, growth of trade in, iv 712; 
power of Sindhia in, ix 719 ; British in, 
726; 727 

Hinojosa, Juan de Mendoza, Marquis de La, 
IV 626 

Hinschius, Paul, and study of Canon Law, 
xn 847 

Hinterpommern. /S^«e Pomerania, Prussian 

Hiogo, port of, XI 833; 841; 853 sq.; 855; 
opening of, 856; 859; xii 546 

Hipler, Wendel, leader in Peasants' Rising, 
n 184, 187 sq. 

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von, German 
writer, viii 790 

Hippolithus a Lapide, psetid. See Chemnitz 

Hiroshima, xi 852; trial of Choshiu at, 
854; Japanese army at, xn 610 

Hirschberg, linen industry at, vi 721 

Hirschfeld, Karl Friedrich von, Prussian 
general, ix 526 

Karl U. F. W. M. von (son of above), 

Prussian general, xi 221 

Hirzel, Bernhard, Swiss pastor, xi 246 

Hislop, Sir Thomas, General, xi 726 

Hispaniola, French in, v 687, 688, 690 

Histoire litt^raire de la France, xn 829 

Historische Zeitschrift, xn 827 

Historisch-politische Zeitschrift, Ranke's, x 
376 

History, the study and writing of. Intro- 
ductory Note, I 1-6 ; modern, sphere and 
scope of, lb.; Machiavelli and. Chap, vi 
passim, especially 199-218 ; Maximilian I 
and, 326 ; in Spain, in the late 15th and 
early 16th centuries, 381 ; Lorenzo Valla 
and historical criticism, 546, 602; ec- 
clesiastical, the Magdeburg Centuriators, 
Baronius, etc., 608 sqq. ; indirect effects 
of the St Bartholomew massacre on, in 
62 sqq. ; Cosimo de' Medici and, 394 ; 
influence of the Renaissance on, 473 sq. ; 
Gibbon and, vi 837 : American writers, 
Irving, VII 741 ; Hickling, Prescott, Mot- 
ley, etc., 744 sq. : French, of the Restor- 
ation, X 102 sq. ; from 1830-40, 513 sq. ; 
in the 19th century, xi 523 sqq. : in 
Hungary, 431; Italian, in the middle 
19th century, 548 ; in Switzerland, in the 
19th century, 261; see Vol. xn. Chap. 
XXVI, Growth of Historical Science, 816- 
50 

Hitotsubashi, Japanese noble. Vol. xi, Chap. 
XXVIII (2) passim 

Hizen, daimid (Japanese feudal lord) of, 
XI 825 ; 832 ; clan of, 863, xn 662 

HIawsa, John, Hungarian Reformer, i 340 



General Index, 



391 



Hoadly, Benjamin (Bishop of Bangor and 
of Winchester), in 746 

John, Archbishop of Armagh, vi 

488 

Hoang-ho river, exploration on, xii 798 sq. ; 

803 
Hobart, settlement founded at (1803), ix 

740 

Eobert, Baron {afterwards 4th Earl 

of Buckinghamshire), Governor of Madras, 
1X721 

Pasha, XI 636 

Hobbes, Thomas, ii 691; iii 742; the Le- 
viathan, 747 sqq., 762 sqq.; v 254; 331; 
661; 751; 753; and Spinoza, 754; Vol. 
VI, Chap, xxni passim\ vni 6; xii 711 

Hobhouse, Arthur Hobhouse, Lord, and 

Sher Ali, xn 467 
John Cam. See Broughton, Lord 

Hobkirk HiU, battle of (1781), vn 229 
sq. 

Hobson, William, Captain, Governor of 
New Zealand, xi 793 

Hoby, Sir Philip, ii 495 

Hochberg, Countess von. See Baden 

Hoche, Lazare, vra 351, 380, 391; and 
the Quiberon expedition, 392 ; commands 
the Army of the Moselle, 427 sq., 432 ; 
and the invasions of England (1796-7), 
472 sqq., 497 sq., 508, 772; death of 
(1797), 482, 497, 508 ; at Neuwied, 498 sq. 

Hochelaga, settlement of, vn 71 

Hochfeld, fight at (1638), iv 378 

Hochkirch, vi 271 ; battle of, 289 sqq. 

Hochstadt, Styrum defeated at (1703), v 
408; 410; French victory gauaed at 
(1800), IX 64 

Hocquart, Gilles, Intendant of New France, 
vn 103 

Hocquincourt, Charles de Monchy de, Mar- 
shal of France, defeated by Turenne, iv 
613; by Cond^ at Bl^neau, 616; 619 

Hodges, Sir G. Lloyd, Colonel, commander 
of Portuguese force, x 326 sq.; 329 

Hodgkin, John, suffragan of Bedford, assists 
in Parker's consecration, n 572 

Thomas, historian, xii 841 

Hodgskin, Thomas, economic theories of, 

X 781; xn 758 

Hodgson, Bryan Houghton, xn 845 
Hodson, William Stephen Eaikes, at Delhi, 

XI 747 

Hoe von Hohenegg, Matthias, Court- 
preacher at the Saxon Court, iv 5 sq. ; 
at the Leipzig convention, 200; 204 

Hochst, battle of (1622), iv 81; Gustavus 
at, 208 

Hochstetters, German trading company ol 
Augsburg, I 523 

Hog, Justus, at Munster, iv 402 

Hoeks, supporters of Jacqueline of Hain- 
ault, I 420, 423, 445, 449 

Holderlin, Johann Christian Friedrich, vm 
773; poetry of, X 396; 400; 403 

Hoen, Cornelius von, n 332 sq. 



Hopken, Count Anders Johan von, Swedish 
Chancellor, vi 762 

Baron Daniel Niklas von, Swedish 

statesman, vi 759 

HSrschelmann, Governor- General of Mos- 
cow, xn 376 
Hoeschel, David, editor of Philo, i 613 
Hofer, Andreas, commands Tyrolese army 

(1809), IX 355; death of, 356; x 355 
Hoffmann, Conrad, u 314, 320 
Ernst Theodor Wilhelm (Amadeus), 

X 405 

Gotthelf, author of the Kutschkelied, 

XI 413 

John Godfrey, and Congress of 

Vienna, ix 585 

Weimar official, sent to Bernard of 

Weimar, iv 376 

Imperial Minister, resident in Eng- 
land (1687), V 241; 243; 247 sq. 

von Fallersleben, August Heinrich, 

German poet and politician, xi 412 

Hoffraeus, Paul, in 161 
Hofmann, Alois, editor of the Wiener 
Zeitung, vin 776 sq. 

Melchior, Protestant revolutionary, 

n 224 sq., 229, 611 

Hofmeister, Zwinglian, preaches at Schaff- 

hausen, n 327 
Hofwyl, institute of Fellenberg at, ix 427 
Hogendorp, Dirk van, reforms suggested 

by, IX 754 
Hogland, Isle of, battle off, vi 778 
Hohenelbe, Austrian army at, vi 706 
Hoheuems. See Altemps 
Hohenfriedberg, Austrians repulsed at, vi 

242 
Hohenkrahen, capture of, by Swabian 

League (1512), i 321 
Hohenlinden, battle of (1800), ix 67-8, 

181; Napoleon's account of, 761 
Hohenlo, Count, Dutch general (1586), in 

622, 625 
Hohenlohe, Adolf, Prince von, Prussian 

statesman, xi 410 
Prince Conrad, Austrian statesman, 

xn 203; 208 

Georg Frederick von, with Thum, 

IV 31; 65; ban pronounced upon, 68; 
71 

Gustav, Cardinal, xn 148 

Hohenlohe -Ingelfingen, Frederick Louis, 

Prince of, ix 274; commands Prussian 

army, 275 ; at Jena, 276-7 ; at Buppin, 

279 
Hohenlohe- Kirchberg, Friedrich Wilhelm, 

Prince von, Austrian commander, vm 

408, 412, 419 sq., 423 
Hohenlohe - SchillingBfiirst, Prince Chlod- 

wig, Bavarian Foreign Minister, xi 719; 

Chancellor of the German Empire, xn 

166 sq.; 171 
Hohenstaufen dynasty, in Naples, m 464 

sq. See also Frederick II, Emperor 
Hohentwiel, taken by Bernard, iv 375 



392 



General Index. 



Hohenwart, Count E. de, Austrian states- 
man, xn 187 sqq.; 192 

Hohenzollem principalities, annexed by 
Prussia, xi 227 

House of, V 622; and Prussia, 616, 

643; IX 330; 334 

Anton, Prince von, Prussian states- 
man, XI 406 

Eitelfritz, Count of, x 323 

Frederick of, Burgrave of Niimberg. 

See Brandenburg 
Hohenzollern-Hechingen, x 343; and the 
customs treaty, 373; revolutionary move- 
ment in, XI 150 
HobenzoUern-Sigmaringen, x 343; and the 
customs treaty, 373 

Charles, Prince of. See Charles, 

Prince of Eoumania 

Leopold, Prince of, xi 462 sq. ; 495 ; 

571; 578; 646 
Hokianga, French mission at, xi 793 
Hokutai, captured by the Russians, xu 

696 
Holbach, Paul Henri Thyry, Baron de, 

VI 826; vin 26 
Holberg, Ludwig, Baron von, Danish 

writer, vi 739 ; xi 697 sq. ; 700 
Holburne, Francis, Admiral, 3426 (in Vol. 

xin), vn 128 
Hoick, Count Conrad, and Christian VH, 

VI 744; 746 
Holcot, Robert, scholastic theologian, n 

251 
Holcroft, Thomas, trial of (1794), vm 

761 
EolJen, William W., vn 605; head of 

the peace party (1863), 609 
Holdernesse, Robert D'Arcy, 4th Earl of, 

VI 406; 409; 417; 425; and Indian 

affairs, 542 
Holdich, Sir Thomas, xn 722 
Holgate, Robert, Bishop of Llandaff, later 

Archbishop of York, n 448, 452, 471, 

521 
Holinshed, Raphael, in 374 
Hoik, Count Henry, Imperial Field- Marshal, 

at Stralsund, iv 107; near Dresden, 

219; 223; 231; 234; raids Voigtland, 

235; 237 
Holkar, Jaswant Rao, ix 725; war with, 

727 sqq. 

Malhar R4o, Maharaja of Indore 

(1811-33), XI 726 

Tukaji, and Indian politics, ix 717-9 ; 

720 

Hollabrunn, Austrian army at, v 361; 
fight at (1805), IX 257 

Holland (Province and State, hut see also 
Netherlands), Philip the Good and, i 
419 ; prosperity of, 420 sq. ; power of 
gilds in, 428 ; m 16 ; countship of, 
accepted by Orange (1584), 617; im- 
portance of, 618, 620, 625; commercial 
prosperity of, 630-1 ; 641 ; relations of, 
with England, 644; and the exiled " King 



of Bohemia," rv 70 ; represented at Miin- 
ster, 401 ; admiralty of, 469, 473 ; 691 sq. ; 
Frederick Henry and, 694; 697; 700; 
Henrietta Maria in, 702; 705; King of 
Portugal and, 714 ; and Treaty of Miin- 
Bter, 715 sq.; 718; (State of) , philosophy 
and art in, 722 sq.; opposed to William 
n, 724 sqq. ; hegemony of, 727 ; Descartes 
in, 779, 785, 787 sq.; (State of), shipping 
and trade of, v 11 sq. ; relations of, with 
the States General, 137; States of, and 
peace negotiations with England, 140; 
and Act of Seclusion, 142 sqq. ; financial 
reforms in, 145; 146; and restoration 
of Charles II, 148 ; and the young Prince 
of Orange, 148, 151 ; the "Eternal Edict" 
passed by, 152; 157; William elected 
Stadholder of, 157; French Protestant 
refugees in, 166; (and Netherlands in 
general), and Spanish Succession, 275, 
377 sq.; and Scottish exports, 288; 296; 
378 ; and Peace of Utrecht, 439 ; (Nether- 
lands), rise of Latitudinarianism and 
Pietism in, 742, 744, 753 sqq., 757; trade 
of, with England, vi 50; and Hanover 
Alliance, 59; 60; 124; and the West 
Indies, 186; 187; (Netherlands), and the 
Powers of Europe, 202; 217; 246; 248; 
308; 318; and Brazil, 389; 407; and 
American trade, 448; and India, 546; 555 
sq.; King Theodore of Corsica in, 609; 640; 
703; Prussian intervention in, 709; 724; 
773; Goldsmith and, 828 ; Anglo-Russian 
expedition in, ix 41; Allied forces in, 56; 
relations of, with France, 88-91, 252, 391 ; 
annexation of, 141; naval losses of, 243; 
Napoleon and, 364, 369 sqq., 416 sq.; the 
French abandon, 550; and Congress of 
Vienna, 605 ; Belgium incorporated with, 
655, 668; 670; Vol. x, Chap, xvijoassim; 
agriculture in, 730 ; roads and canals in, 
745 ; common lands in, 749 ; emigration 
from, 762 
Holland, modern Kingdom of, oflScially 
Kingdom of the Netherlands, Vol. xi. 
Chap. XVI (1), Holland (1839-70), 661-8; 
Chap. XXVII (3), The English and Dutch 
in S. Africa (1815-70), 778-89; Vol. xn, 
Chap. IX, The Low Countries (1870-1905), 
243-50; and Siam, 534; historical re- 
search in, 816. See also Netherlands 
and the Batavian Republic 

Henry Fox, Lord, vi 75 ; 403 sqq. ; 

423; 424; 428; created Lord Holland, 
429; 435 

Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd 

Baron, vi 472; letters of Fox to, ix 
676; X 512; 581 sq.; 600; and the Re- 
form Bill, 610; 679 

Sir Henry Rich, 1st Earl of, in 

Paris, IV 263; and Hull, 294; 349 

Holies, Denzil, 1st Baron Holies of Ifield, 
IV 281; impeachment of, 297; 343; am- 
bassador at Paris, v 109; 112 

Hollis, Thomas, vm 755 



General Index. 



893 



HoUond, John, naval writer, iv 462 

John, Governor of Madras, ix 710; 

715 

Holm, Adolf, German historian, xn 845 
Holman, James, traveller, xii 794 
Holmby House, Charles I at, iv 340, 

342 
Holmers, Jan Frederik, Datch writer, xi 

676 
Holmes, Charles, Eear-Admiral, vn 139 

Oliver Wendell, vn 746 

Sir Bobert, English admiral, v 108; 

African expedition of, 149, 179; 206 

Theophilus H., Confederate general, 

vn 505 

Holowczyn, battle of (1708), v 598 

Holstein, duchy of, at war with Denmark, 

n 599; Christian IV and, iv 86, 97, 109; 

invaded by Wallenstein, 101 sq.; Swedes 

in, 387, 571 sq., 684; Danish army in, 

V 587; 609; vi 736; 744; Bernadotte 
in, IX 296-7, 303, 324; and Federal 
Act, 650; and Germanic Confederation, 
659, X 344, XI 223 ; 224 ; German troops 
in, 439; ceded by Denmark, 442; Aus- 
tria and, 449; Prussian troops in, 450. 
See also Schleswig-Holstein 

House of, refuses Formula Con- 

cordiae, ni 704 

Adolphus, Duke of, ni 151 

Frederick I, Duke of. See Fre- 
derick I, King of Denmark and Norway 

Frederick H, Duke of, administers 

the see of Hildesheim, in 157 

Holstein-Gottorp, v 403; Charles XII and, 
688; 611; Denmark and, 560 sq.; 579 
sqq. 

House of, and Sweden, v 562; vi 

741 sqq., 761 sq. 

Holstein-Gottorp, Dukes of: — 

Adolphus, at Magdeburg, iv 202; 

death of, 205 

Adolphus Frederick. See Adolphus 

Frederick, King of Sweden 

Charles Frederick, v 550 sqq. ; 614 ; 

VI 28; 37; 39; 741 

Christian Albert, v 568 

Frederick IH, iv 98; and the 

Emperor, 99; and Torstensson, 387, 
671 ; 578 ; King Frederick III and, 584 ; 
Treaty of Eoeskilde and, 686 sq.; v 513; 
658 

Frederick IV, v 579 sqq.; marriage 

of, 581, 587; death of, 581, 592 

Holstein-Gottorp, Anne (Petrovna), Duchess 
of, V 547; 550; 552 sq.; vi 311, 658 

Prince Carl August of, vi 657 sqq. 

Hedwig Sophia, Duchess of, v 580 ; 

687 

Princess Johanna Elizabeth of. See 

Anhalt-Zerbst, Princess Elizabeth of 

John Frederick of. See Bremen, 

Archbishop of 

Holstein- Sonderburg-Plon, John Adolphus, 
Duke of, v569; 579 



Holt, Joseph, American Postmaster- General 
and Secretary of War, vn 447 sq. 

William, ni 287 

Irish leader in Wexford, ix 701 

Holum, Jon Aresen, Bishop of, leader of 

Icelandic revolt, n 621 
Holwell, John Zephaniah, Governor of 

Bengal, vi 652; 559 
Holy Alliance, The, of 1815, ix 664 sqq. ; 

X 9 sq. ; 16 sqq. ; 22 ; 39 ; principle of, 

repudiated by France (1830), 120; 

Cardinal Consalvi and, 136; 188; 195; 

and Spain, 211, 226; President Monroe 

and, 309; 371; 479 sq.; 725 

Brotherhood. See Hermandad 

"Holy Discipline," controversy concerning, 

m757 
Holy League, The (1511), i 198, 319, 366, 

479, 486; of Cognac (1526), n 24 
Holyoake, George Jacob, and cooperation, 

xn 740 
Holyrood, Mary Stewart at, m 273-4; 

Chapel Koyal of, v 290 sq. ; Catholic 

press at, ib.; James VIII proclaimed 

at, VI 113 
Holzapfel. See Melander 
Holzhausen, fighting at (1813), ix 539 
Homburg, and Germanic Confederation, xi 

223 
Home, Duncan, at Delhi, xi 746 
Home Government Association, in Ireland, 

XII 73 

Kule. See Ireland 

Eule League, in Ireland, xn 73 

Homestead (Penn,), strike at, vii 707 
Homonnay, Drugeth de, enters Upper 

Hungary with Polish Cossacks, rv 31 
Hompesch, Baron Ferdinand de, ix 40 
Homs, Turkish defeat at (1832), x 650 
Honau, battle at, xi 251 
Hondschoote, battle of, vm 431 
Honduras, vi 64; disputes in, 66; founda- 
tion of, 183; 365; 367; British rights in, 
370 ; 377 ; 380 ; 429 ; logwood cutting in, 
464, 471 ; xn 672 ; Great Britain and, 686 

British, government of, xn 656 sq. 

Hone, William, trial of, x 579 sq. 
Hongkong, xi 805 sq. ; 808 ; ceded to Great 

Britain, 809; 816; 819 

and Shanghai Banking Corporation, 

xn513 

Honoratus, St, and the Insulani, i 534 
Honorius III (Ceneio Savelli), Pope, v 629 
Hontheim, Johann Nikolaus von (Justinus 
Febronius), vi 636; x 6; 145; 148; 
doctrines of, 157 sq. ; death of, 158 ; 159 
Hood, John Bell, Confederate general, vn 
521 sqq.; at Spring Hill, 624; at Nash- 
ville, 625 

Sir Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount, 

Admiral, vi 453 sq. ; occupies Toulon, 
vm 348, 457 sq. ; 454 

Thomas, poems of, xi 353 

Hooft, Pieter Corneliszoon, Muiden Circle 

and, IT 719 sqq. ; writings of, 721 



894 



General Index. 



Hooft, Dutch politician, v 164 
Hoogendorp, Gisbert Charles van, x 517 

Bq. ; 622 
Hoogerbeets, sent by Holland to support 

Utrecht, in 651 sq., 655 
Hooghley, factory at, v 698; sack of, vi 

532; taken by the English, 552; 556 
Hooglide, Austrian defeat at, vin 435 
Hoogstraten, Antony van Lalaing, Count 

of, ra 194; 204; 210 sqq.; 217 sqq.; died 

(1568), 224 

Jacob van, Dominican, i 460 

Hoogvorst, Emanuel van den Linden, 

Baron de, x 535 sqq. 

Joseph van den Linden, Baron de, 

X 535 sq. 

Hook of Holland, vsraterway through, xi 666 
Hooke, Nathaniel, French agentin Scotland, 

VI 91 sq. 

Nathaniel, historian, xn 817 

Robert, physicist, v 722; 728; 735; 

739 
Hooker, Joseph, commands the Army of 
the Potomac, vn 484 sqq.; at Chatta- 
nooga, 510 sqq. 

Sir Joseph Dalton, xn 773 

Richard, m 329, 347 sq.; 742; 757; 

762; 768; vi 795; 801; xn 707 sqq. 
Hooper, John, Bishop of Gloucester, n 497 

sq. ; promoted to see of Gloucester, 502 ; 

539 ; trial and death of, 563 
Hoorn, shipbuilding at, m 631 
Philippe de Montmorency, Count of, 

proposes league against Granvelle, m 

192; 194; 195; 197; 200 sqq., 215 sqq.; 

arrest of, 215 ; trial of, 219 ; execution of, 

220, 222 sqq. 

Dowager Countess of, m 218, 227-8 

Hop, Jacob, Dutch envoy at Vienna, v 

389 sq. 

van der, Dutch commander, vin 287 

Hope, Sir James, Admiral, xi 843 

Sir James Archibald, General, ix 358 

Hopes, Amsterdam financial house of the, 

x743 
Hopf, Karl, German historian, xn 845 
Hopkins, Stephen, legal arguments of, as 

to British and American relations, Vol. 

vn. Chap, vi passim 
Hopkinson, Francis, American politician, 

VII 724 

Hopton, Ptalph, Ist Baron, iv 304 ; in Corn- 
wall, 308; 311 sqq.; 315; 318; defeated 
at Cheriton, 322; at Exeter, 334; v 746 

Horatian Ode of Marvell, iv 775 

Hori, Japanese Commissioner for Foreign 
Affairs, xi 844 

Horki, Charles XH at, v 599 

Hormuz, commercial importance of, i 28; 
Portuguese factory at, 32 

Horn, Cape, route discovered, iv 713 

Arvid, Count, Swedish statesman, 

V 542 ; 555 ; 593 ; Chancellor, vi 759 sq. 

Bengt, Swedish general, v 570 

Evert, killed at Pskoff, iv 181 



Horn , Gustaf Karlsson, Count of B j orneborg, 
Swedish general, besieges Dorpat, iv 185 ; 
takes Kolberg, 196; 199; in Franconia, 
208 ; captures Bamberg, 213 ; 223 ; career 
of, 227 sqq. ; in southern Swabia, 238 ; at 
Augsburg, 244; at Nordlingen, 245; 387 
sq.; 571 

Klas Kristersson, death of, iv 163 

Home, John. See Tooke, John Home 

Robert, Bishop of Winchester, n 568, 

686, 593 sq. 

Hornemann, Friedrich, African traveller, 

xii 806 sq. 
Horner, Francis, and Edinburgh Review, 

IX 687; and the currency, 689 
Horrocks, Jeremiah, astronomer, v 714 
Horsens, proposed conference at, nr 567 
Horsley, Samuel, Bishop of St Asaph, vin 

763 sq. 
Horsman, Edward, pohtician, xi 339 
Horton, Anne {n6e Luttrell), marries the 

Duke of Cumberland, vi 445 
- — Thomas, at St Fagan's, iv 349 
Horvath, Michael, Bishop of Csanad, xi 

209; 214; 431; Hungarian Minister of 

Justice, xn 189 

de P416c, Adam, Hungarian poet, 

XI 422 

Hosemann, Andreas. See Osiander 
Hosier, Francis, Admiral, vi 60 ; 142 ; 147 
Hosius (Oslo) Stanislaus, Cardinal, Bishop 

of Kulm and Ermeland (Warmia), n 631, 

636 sq.; at Council of Trent, 676, 682; 

m 79, 81-4 
Hosiwu, engagement at, xn 520 
Hostalrich, captured by Augereau (1810), 

IX 457 
Hoste, Sir William, 1st Baronet, naval 

captain, ix 289 
Hotel de Rambouillet, iv 777 
Hotel des Invalides, established, v 19; 

rioters at (1789), vin 164 
Hotham, Sir Charles, British envoy at 

Berlin, vi 210 sqq. 

Sir Henry, vice-admiral, vin 459 sq. ; 

1x226 

Sir John, secures Hull, rv 299; 301; 

arrest of, 313 

William Hotham, Lord, admiral, vi 

451 

Hotman, Charles, m 42, 58 sq. 

Francois, Letter sent to the Tiger of 

France, n 297, in 70; Franco- Gallia, 62, 
760 

Hotta, Japanese Councillor of State, xi 
831 sqq.; 836; dismissal of, 837 

Hottentots, in Cape Colony, xi 780; re- 
bellion of, xn 664 

Hottinger, Nicholas, n 319 

Hottinguer, French political agent, vn 321 

Hotze, David van, Austrian general, vm 
661 

Houchard, Jean-Nicolas, commands the 
Army of the North, vm 346; executed 
(1793), 357; captures Frankfort (1792), 



General Index, 



395 



414; 424; succeeds Kilmaiue (1793), 

430 sq. 
Houdon, Jean-Antoine, ix 134 
Hough, John, President of Magdalen 

College, Oxford, v 288 
Houghton, Daniel, African traveller, xii 

806 

John, Prior of the Charter House, 

n 442 

Hougoumont, and the field of "Waterloo, 
IX 632 sqq. 

Houssaye, Henry, French historian, xn 
834 

Houten, Samuel van, Dutch statesman, 
xn 246 sq. 

Houtman, Cornelis, in 632; Eastern ex- 
pedition of, IV 729 

Hoverbeck, Freiherr von, German politician, 
xn 146 

Howard, family of, in 559-60, 566. See 
also Arundel, Carlisle, Norfolk, North- 
ampton, Nottingham, Suffolk and Surrey, 
Earls or Dukes of 

Catharine, Queen of England. See 

Catharine (Howard), Queen of England 

Charles, Earl of Carlisle. See 

Carlisle 

Lord Edward, i 479 ; killed in attack 

on French fleet (1513), 480 sq. 

. Philip Thomas, Cardinal, v 235 

Lord Thomas, afterwards Earl of 

Surrey. See Norfolk, 2nd Duke of 

Lord Thomas (son of 2nd Duke of 

Norfolk), attainder and death of, n 445 

Lord Thomas, Ist Earl of Suffolk, 

1st Baron Howard de Walden. See 
Suffolk 

William, Viscount Stafford. See 

Stafford 

of Effingham, Charles, 2nd Lord, 

Ist Earl of Nottingham. See Nottingham, 
Earl of 

of Effingham, Francis, Baron, Go- 
vernor of Virginia, vn 9 sq. 

of Effingham, William, 1st Baron, 

Lord Admiral, n 613 ;